中学生でも検証できる「日本語の起源」

【第二部】 Nature 論文 2021/11/10 「言語学:トランスユーラシア語族のルーツは農業にあった」の検証

【副題】印日祖語の検証

Nature 論文 提示の 379 語彙 (in SI 23 DB) の古代インド語再検証
  |--- • DB : 21_SI 23_agropastoral.xlsx の シート「Japonic の写し  379 個の語彙 data base --- 別 file-3
  |--- • Supplementary Information 5 の写し  補足資料 5  --- ★古代インド語情報付き version★

本 web ページは、Microsoft の freeware エディター VSCode VSCode (Visual Studio Code /ブスコード/) で書きました。


This file = Grimm's_Law_in_J_20_B_2.html  (これは、ビルマ file_2 です。)  親 file = Grimm's_Law_in_J_20_B.html (ビルマ file =【第一部】)
Link. インド弁と東北弁 , 沖縄弁 , インド語・カンガルー(航空母艦)


【はじめに】
 日本語の起源に関する言語学研究は、1990年代の大野晋氏の俗にいう「日本語タミル語起源説」以来進展が無く、チンタラ状態が続いている。そんな中、world wide 的論文として、
Nature 論文「日本語の起源は朝鮮半島にあり?方言の共通祖先を発見、東大」2011/05 by 長谷川 and リー
Bayesian phylogenetic analysis supports an agricultural origin of Japonic languages  The Royal Society
Sean Lee and Toshikazu Hasegawa   Published:04 May 2011 
に続き、2021/11に Nature 論文「Triangulation supports agricultural spread of the Transeurasian languages」by マックスプランク人類歴史科学研究所が筆頭
と言うのが発表された。遼河(りょうが)地域の稗・粟(ひえ・あわ)農耕民族がルーツとの見解。
学者の論文の data を「日本語方言は 100% インド弁色」の観点から再検証してみたい。
 (提示の 379 個の日本語語彙の方言 variant を全件 check した。---- ほぼ全てインド弁辞書に存在した。当然チンの結果であった。

2022/03/02 ひなまつりの前日、全単語のレビューを終えた。4ケ月掛かったことになる。
本日現在、未だ2年間のコロナ禍真っ最中、おまけに、ロシア・ウクライナ侵攻真っ最中。
本検証で、印日祖語(いんにちそご)の存在が完全に示されたと思う。後は、例の三角法(Triangulation)で、遺伝学、考古学からの究明を進めて下さい。言語学が先行した形になってしまったと思う。

マスコミへの反論  ---  添付された資料を見る限り、日本語と言う言語と「遼河」の関係性は、何もないと言える内容だった。なので、「日本語のルーツは遼河」との論旨は、オカシイ。日本の古代人と遼河は言語以外の観点からは近いと言えるかもしれないが、言語に関しては何も言えない(添付された言語語彙 DB を全チェックしたが、逆に「無関係、不連続」を示している。)。論文も、日本の新石器・縄文人のルーツは遼河地域だが、言語に関しては遼河の言語と青銅時代の言語とは不連続であると明言している。(そもそも、新石器・縄文時代の言語資料は世の中にナイ。)なので、マスコミの「日本のルーツは遼河」的なタイトルは間違っている。

2021/11/18 追加
■Nature 論文 2021/11/10
nature [article Published: 10 November 2021]

「Triangulation supports agricultural spread of the Transeurasian languages」

「三角法は、トランスユーラシア語族の農業拡散をサポートします。/言語学:トランスユーラシア語族のルーツは農業にあった」
の論文 (by Martine Robbeets マーティンロベーツ [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany マックスプランク人類歴史科学研究所、イエナ、ドイツ], Remco Bouckaert レムコ・ブカート [Centre of Computational Evolution, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand ニュージーランド、オークランド、オークランド大学計算進化センター], []Chao Ning チャオニン [School of Archaeology and Museology, Peking University, Beijing, China 中国、北京、北京大学考古学・博物館学部])を検証してみる。
■トランスユーラシア語族 = ユーラシア大陸横断 語族    --- 新語?
   (世界語。クルガン古墳時代の前。菜食主義のライオンは居ないのか?)
-- 各社報道記事 --
cf. 言語学:トランスユーラシア語族のルーツは農業にあった 2021/11/11 Nature Japan/ nature asia   ☜ 出発点論文
  英語の原文 nature  ☜ 全ての関係資料は、ここから入れば得られる。

cf. 日本語の原郷は「中国東北部の農耕民」 国際研究チームが発表 2021/11/13 毎日新聞
c. ~研究チームの一人、同研究所のマーク・ハドソン博士(考古学)によると、日本列島では、新たに入ってきた言語が先住者である縄文人の言語に置き換わり、古い言語はアイヌ語となって孤立して残ったという。~
---- アイヌ人は、そもそも縄文人では無いので、この文章の内容はオカシイ。アイヌ人が日本に住み始めたのは鎌倉時代以降であり、先住者ではない。

cf. 韓国語と日本語の起源、遊牧民ではなく遼河の農夫たちの言語 2021/11/13 ハンギョレ新聞
cf. 宮古島先史の人々「北側の沖縄諸島から」 「南から」説を覆す 人骨DNA分析で100%縄文人 2021/11/12 沖縄タイムス
cf. 「日本語の起源は中国東北部のキビ・アワ農家」 壮大な新説に注目  2021.11.24 07:00  NEWSポストセブン

c. My コメント
・縄文人、日本語のルーツは紀元前 6000 年の新石器時代 (Neolithic) の、中国の遼河文明(りょうが ぶんめい)(遼河 Liao River)
・黍(キビ)、稗(ひえ)、粟(あわ)の農耕民の地域拡散により、トランスユーラシア語族が伝搬した。
・遺伝学、考古学、言語学による「三角測量」を実施。
結果として、「遺伝学、考古学で補足すると、言語資料は無いが、縄文人語は遼河農民言葉、といえる」と言っている。
添付資料からは「トランスユーラシア語族の構成言語である日琉語、韓国語、ツングース語、モンゴル語、チュルク語の 5 つに関し、日琉語と発音が似ている語彙は、韓国語に少しあるのみで、他とは全く異なる。更に、韓国語の似ている単語の比率は極微である。」と言える。
現日本語は、3300 年前の遼東・山東からの米・麦文化の人・物の朝鮮半島への移動と多分、関係する。 一方、古代インド語の単語資料は紀元前の単語を維持し、しかも現日本語単語と同形発音の単語が必ずある、と言う特徴を有す。
従って、遼河文明と古代インド文明の交流の流れが明確に出来ない限り、「日本語のルーツは遼河文明」なんて、ちゃんちゃらオカシイ。早計であろう。


三角測量は、トランスユーラシア語族は農業拡散由来を指示します。

cf. Triangulation supports agricultural spread of the Transeurasian languages 2021/11/10 Nature
cf. 言語学:トランスユーラシア語族のルーツは農業にあった 2021/11/11 nature asia
cf. 日本語の原郷は「中国東北部の農耕民」 国際研究チームが発表 2021/11/13 毎日新聞
c. ~研究チームの一人、同研究所のマーク・ハドソン博士(考古学)によると、日本列島では、新たに入ってきた言語が先住者である縄文人の言語に置き換わり、古い言語はアイヌ語となって孤立して残ったという。~
---- アイヌ人は、そもそも縄文人では無いので、この文章の内容はオカシイ。アイヌ人が日本に住み始めたのは鎌倉時代以降であり、先住者ではない。

cf. 韓国語と日本語の起源、遊牧民ではなく遼河の農夫たちの言語 2021/11/13 ハンギョレ新聞
cf. 宮古島先史の人々「北側の沖縄諸島から」 「南から」説を覆す 人骨DNA分析で100%縄文人 2021/11/12 沖縄タイムス
---
cf. 日本語の起源はたった2200年程度の歴史では無い! 2019-11-22 by 山本 和幸
「日本語の起源は朝鮮半島にあり?方言の共通祖先を発見、東大」
Bayesian phylogenetic analysis supports an agricultural origin of Japonic languages  The Royal Society
Sean Lee and Toshikazu Hasegawa   Published:04 May 2011 
unzip\2021-02-02920E-s3
   |-- 16_Eurasia3angle_synthesis_SI 1_BV 254_REV2021.09.22.xlsx   Swadesh 200 list [exel form]
   |-- 17_Eurasia3angle_synthesis_SI 2_basic etymologies.pdf   Swadesh 200 list
   |-- 19_Eurasia3angle_synthesis_SI 4_homelands_REV01.10.pdf
   |-- 20_Eurasia3angle_synthesis_SI 5_agropastoral_REV21.09.docx   農牧語彙 [wordpad, MS Word]
unzip\2021-02-02920E-s7
   |-- 21_SI 23_agropastoral.xlsx   農牧語彙 [exel form]
c. agropastoral アグロパストラル、農牧
c. SI 3 の下記 file は、
18_Eurasia3angle_synthesis_SI 3_phylogeography.kml --- map file. "This attachment was removed because it contains data that could pose a security risk." の内容で Google map で import 失敗。 *** user に失礼である **

Discussion から抜粋

The Late Bronze Age saw extensive cultural exchange across the Eurasian steppe, which resulted in the admixture of populations from the West Liao region and the Eastern steppe with western Eurasian genetic lineages. Linguistically, this interaction is mirrored in the borrowing of agropastoral vocabulary by Proto-Mongolic and Proto-Turkic speakers, especially relating to wheat and barley cultivation, herding, dairying and horse exploitation.

Around 3300 BP 3300 年前, farmers from the Liaodong–Shandong area 遼東、リヤオトン◆中国・遼寧省。  山東、山東省、シャントン、さんとう◆中国。東は黄海、北は渤海湾。黄河の一番下流。太行山の東なので山東と呼ばれる migrated to the Korean peninsula, adding rice, barley and wheat to millet agriculture. This migration aligns with the genetic component modelled as Upper Xiajiadian in our Bronze Age sample from Korea and is reflected in early borrowings between Japonic and Koreanic languages. Archaeologically it can be associated with agriculture in the larger Liaodong–Shandong area without being specifically restricted to Upper Xiadiajian material culture.

In the third millennium BP, this agricultural package was transmitted to Kyushu, triggering a transition to full-scale farming, a genetic turn-over from Jomon to Yayoi ancestry and a linguistic shift to Japonic. By adding unique samples from Nagabaka in the southern Ryukyus, we traced the farming/language dispersal to the edge of the Transeurasian world. Demonstrating that Jomon ancestry stretched as far south as Miyako Island, our results contradict previous assumptions of a northward expansion by Austronesian populations from Taiwan. Together with the Jomon profile discovered at Yokchido in Korea, our results show that Jomon genomes and material culture did not always overlap.

Fig. 2: Spatiotemporal distribution and clustering of sites included in the archaeological database.
figure2

クレーム from me. 無作為。

1. 農牧単語のみを調べて、トランスユーラシアの5民族間で似ている、と言われても、それがどうした、と言いたい。生死に関わる基盤単語が似ていないのは致命的である。例えば、 water 水を「みず」と呼んでいるのは、ほぼ日本だけである。Tungusic が少し似ている (?)。インド弁辞書には「みず」はある。
Japonic
⬢water *mentu miʔ mizu mizu mizu mizu midzu midzu min midzu miȝi mɨdzɨ mïzï water Osada & Suyama 1977: 907 mɨzɨɨ water Uwano 2017a: 145 mizi water Kiku & Takahashi 2005: 553 mizii water Nakasone 1983: 539 midʑi mizi water Okinawago Jiten 1966; 383 midzɨ midzɨ midʑi midzï midzï midzï mikï midzï *mezi midzï midzi midzï mintsu midȝi *mezi miŋ *medu *medu mi1du
■Korianic --- water が書いてない  --- やる気がないみたい。
■Tungusic
189 muke ‘water, river, stream’ Norman 2013: 273; Gorelova 2002: 96 mo ‘water’ Starostin DB , mu ‘water, liquid’ Schmidt (1928), Avrorin and Lebedeva (1978), Girfanova (2001), Starostin DB mu-de ‘inundation, flood’ Starostin DB muə ~ mukə ‘water'’ Onenko 1980: 274 muu (N), mɵɵ (S) water Starostin DB, Ikegami 1997 ‘water’ Starostin DB mө̄ ‘water’ Tsintsius 1975-1977 (I): 548 ‘water’ Starostin DB ‘water’ Boldyrev 2000 I: 358; Starostin DB ‘water’ Starostin DB Udihe: the root seems to be mu, cf. other derivations which could be from this root: mu-le-kči ‘ice hole’, mu-le-xi ‘bucket’. Nanai: Upper Amur dialects. All Tungusic languages mentioned in Starostin DB: Tsintsius 1975-1977 (I): 548-549.
■Mongolic
347 *usun ‘water’ usun ‘water’ Haenisch 1939: 167; Nugteren 2011: 535-536; Starostin DB usun ‘water’ Nugteren 2011:536 usu(n) ‘water, body of water’ Lessing 1960: 887 ус ʊs ‘water’ Bawden 1997 uha(n) ‘water’ Cheremisov 1951: 492 usn, usṇ ‘water’ Nugteren 2011: 535-536; Starostin DB; Muniev 1977: 538 os, oso ‘water’ Todaeva 1986: 12; Kałużyński 1970: 128 qusun, gusun ‘water’ Starostin DB sɵ, sə ‘water’ Chen 1986; Ma 2016
■Turkic --- water が書いてない  --- やる気がないみたい。
2. ass/ donky ロバ、 sheep 羊(ひつじ)についても、日本以外の4民族にロバ、ひつじ系の発音はナイ(書いてない)。インド辞書にはある。
【賛】rAsabha (= m. (1. %{rAs}) , the brayer "' , an ★ass , jackass , ★donkey RV. ; (%{I}) f. a she-ass MBh.) ロバ (s 無音)
【賛】pRthuzRGga (= m. a brnbroad-horned species of ★sheep Bhpr.) 羊(ひつじ)

3. 遼河文明と言うと、青森県の三内丸山遺跡との関係が有名であるが、そのことに全く触れていないのは良くないと思う。

〒nature    ↑ 先頭

Nature 論文 提示語彙の古代インド語再検証

■21_SI 23_agropastoral.xlsx の資料検証
農牧語彙 21_SI 23_agropastoral.xlsx のシート Japonic の全単語の【賛】【民】【趣】【】の状況を確認する。基本、英単語の abc 順。
-- 【補足】--
• 正規表現: 行頭「^」、行末「$」。なので「行頭に⬟付加は、検索文字=^,置換文字=⬟ 」「⬟単独行の⬟削除は、検索文字=⬟$,置換文字=空」。
• 下記 index 対応の単語に「黒五角形」のマークを頭に付けたので、この頭の数を数えたら、379個だった。 ザーと見た感じ、既に調べたものばかりの感じだが(つまり、ほぼ 100% 古代インド語色は、見え見え)、とりあえず Nature さんの為に再チェックする。
c. Nature の web を見に行くと、毎回、「あなたのプライバシー」cookie 承諾の邪魔が出てくる、「設定の管理」を押し、「Reject Non Essential Cookies 必須ではない Cookie を拒否する」を押し、作成を拒否すること。イイ迷惑。
元 DB の写し (#DB)
  |--- この DB 写しは、⬟左の番号をクリックすると、専用別タブ (link: <a target = "db" href="~">)で閲覧・確認可能とした。このタブを drag して引っ張り出し、独立 window とし、同時閲覧すると良い。サイズも小さく調節して見ることを勧める。
• 下記 379 個の nnn 番目のエントリのアンカー名は、 i.nnn である (i= indo のつもり)。また、対応 DB のアンカー名は、 d.nnn である (d= DB のつもり)。
--

〒i.0 index  (379 words)
[A] acidic age animal ant apparition arrow ash astringent awaken, vi 10 axe (hatchet) axe [B] bag bamboo bamboo fence banana fish barley barnyard millet basket, bamboo, deep basket 20 basket, produce bat battle beach bean bear, vi bee bite, chew, vt bitter blade 30 boar board boat boil food, vt boil water, vt bone born, be, v bow, n bowl box 40 break, snap brew, vt bridge broom broom-corn millet bucket, large bucket, pail, small buckwheat burn, vt butterly butterfly 50 bury, vt [C] calendar carry, convey cat catch, vt caterpillar centipede charcoal conch shell cook, vt 60 cook, boil, vt cord cormorant corpse count, number, vt crab crow cultivate, vt curse, n cut, vt 70 cut, mow, vt [D] defeat, lose defecation die dig, vt dirt, filth ditch dog draw (water), vt drill, make a hole 80 drunk, be dry, vi duck dull dust [E] ear, grain earth east eat, vt. eel 90 egg eggplant enemy extinguish, vt [F] fall, vt (rain) fang fat (oil) female, animal ferment fertilizer, manure 100 field, agricultural field, rice field, wild fire firewood fish fish, vt. fish for, scavenge fishing hook fishing pole 110 fish scales flatfish, flounder flea flour flow, vi fly, n "footpath between rice fields" fruit fulling block [G] game 120 garlic go, v go, advance, v go over, v goat grass grave grind, vt ground grove 130 grow, vi [H] hammer, wood hammer, metal harvest harvest, vt hawk, falcon hear, vt heart, mind hearth, stove heavy 140 hemp hide (skin) hill hoe horn hot water hungry, be, vi hurt, damage, vt. husband husk 150 hut, shed [I] illness insect intestines, guts irrigate, vt island [J] jar journey jug, wide mouth [K] kettle 160 kill kill, murder knead knife knit [L] ladder ladle lick, vt lid lie, falsehood 170 life loom, n lose, miss, vt. lost, get, become louse [M] mackerel male, animal meat, flesh meat, game melon 180 milk millet miso mold moldboard monkey moon mop, vt mortar mosquito 190 mountain mushroom [N] nail, peg needle nest net new north [O] oar, paddle octopus 200 onion outside owl ox [P] pan pasture peak peanut peel off, vt. pestle 210 pig pigeon pine, evergreen plant, vt. plow, n poison pot potato pound, vt pour, vt 220 [R] rain raise, grow, vt rat raw receive, obtain reed (for a loom) rest, v rice (older word) rice rice cake 230 rice, cooked rice plant rice steamer rice wine rice wine, ceremonial ride, vt rip, rend ripen, vi river road 240 root rope rot, vi. row, vt rub, vt ruler, carpenter square run, v [S] saddle salt salty 250 sand sandals, straw sash saw, n scale, measure scissors scrape, shave, vt sea shell sea pig (dugong) season 260 sea urchin see, vt seed, lineage seed seedling, sapling sew sharpen, vt shellfish shoot, vt shout, scream, yell 270 shrimp sickle sieve, strainer skein sky slaughter, vt. slow smell, vt. smoke 280 snake snake, black snake, blue-green snake, grass soot soup, broth sour south sow seed, vt spade sparrow 290 spear spider spin (thread), tv (be) split split open, vt spoon spring, n sprout, bud, vi squid staff 300 steal, rob, st. steam, n steam, vt. stick stink, smell bad stone storehouse straw straw bag straw mat 310 strength string sugar sugar cane summer sun sweat swell, vi swim sword 320 [T] tail taste thief thin (weak) thing thorn thread thresh (rice) throw thunder 330 tide tie, bind together tie down time toilet tomorrow tool tooth trap trip wire, trap 340 tree tub turn about turtle [U] umbrella urinate use [V] vomit village vine 350 vinegar [W] wake up, (get up), vi warm wash washtub water water, vi wear, vt weave, vt. wedge 360 weigh, measure, vt west whale wheat whet, vt. white wide wife wind winnowing basket 370 winter wipe up, vt wood woods, forest wool work, vt worm wound, n wrap, vt 379 [Y] year
1acidic
sappatu, sabbatu, NB also sappatu (= (a pottery vessel) OB(Alal.), M/NA, j/NB for wine, ★vinegar; NB also of bronze ?; < sappu) すっぺダ
【民】tuvai (= 02 1. treading, pounding; 2. flesh, meat; 3. sound, clamour; 4. oil-cake; 5. ★acidulated curry 酸性カレー; 6. thick, liquid curry; 7. drink; 8. basil) すぱい (t-s)
【賛】zaTa (= mfn. sour 酸っぱい, astringent 収斂性の。厳しい、渋い、辛辣な, ★acid L. ; m. N. of a man g. %{gargA7di} ; of a son of Vasu-deva Hariv. (prob. w.r. for %{zaTha}) ; of a country g. %{zaNDikA7di}.)
【出雲弁】すばい   (= 酢の味が強い ex. このなますはちょっこしすばいわ 【= このなますは少し酢が強いわ】 解説    酸味が非常に強いときに使う)
【賛】sauvIra (= ; (%{am}) n. the fruit of the jujube 《植物》ナツメ Sus3r. ; ★sour すっぱい gruel 薄い粥 ib. ; antimony ib.) すばい、すっぱい
【宮古口】すー /sɿɿ/多ぺー乚 /peeɭ/ 多與 友新 鏡 名詞 〈全〉お酢
【賛】cukra (= s. a kind of ★vinegar or the Indian sorrel 植物》ギシギシ、(ヒメ)スイバ[◆タデ科ギシギシ属(Rumex)の多年草の総称だが、ユーラシアに広く分布するヒメスイバ(学名Rumex acetosella)を指すことが多い。酸っぱい味のする葉は、サラダとして食べられる。].) すくら →すー (c-s)   △
【民】puLiccakkATi (= 1. extreme sourness, as of ★vinegar) ぺー乚さっかーち → ぺー乚
【民】carvakATi (= very strong ★vinegar) すっぺーカーチ → すー
2age
cf. 教育漢字 年  ネン、とし、とせ year  f17_1#n.336
slbutu(m), sibutu, Ass. sl/ibuttu(m) [(NAM.) AB.BA; SU.GI-; NB LU.AB.BA.MES] (= 1. "old ★age" of men, i.e. long life; "condition of old ★age", i.e. senility, also of buildings 2. "function as witness" 3. "testimony", e.g. s. naddnum "to give testimony", tuppum sa s. "tablet acting as t."; < slbu) とし (b 無音)
【賛】sthAvira (= n. (fr. %{sthavira}) old ★age (described as commencing at seventy in men and fifty in women , and ending at ninety , after which period a man is called %{varSIyas}) La1t2y. ; mfn. (v.l. for %{sthavira}) old , senile MBh.) 年寄り(としより)
3animal   けもの、いきもの/いきもん、けだもの、どうぶつ、四つ足
【趣】gidim (= [ANIMAL] wr. gidim "an ★animal") けだもの
【趣】gudeanandu (= [ANIMAL] wr. gud-de3-a-na-an-DU "low quality animal") けだもの
【賛】caturdaMSTra (= a ★beast of prey) けだもの
【民】uyir (= 1. life, ★animal or vegetable; 2. soul; 3. living being; 4. ascendant, sign of nativity; 5. vowel; 6. one of the vital airs;) いきる (y-ki)
【賛】khurin (= %{I} m. an ★animal with hoofs VarBr2S.) けもの (r-m)
【賛】avyaJjana (= mf(%{A})n. without the marks of puberty ; without consonants Up. ; m. an ★animal without horns (though of age to have them) 角無しの動物 L.) いきにゃじゃな (v-k) → いきもん
【賛】yajJapazu (= m. an ★animal for sacrifice , victim BhP. ; a horse L. ; %{-mImAMsA} f. N. of wk.) やじゃにゃぱし → よつあし
【賛】devapazu (= m. any ★animal consecrated to a deity 神に奉献された動物 Mn.) どうぶつ
【賛】vAgurAvRtti (= a. who lives by snaring ★animals. 動物を罵倒して生きる人。) いきむし (v-m)
【琉球】チクソー    (名詞)  畜生。人間に対して動物をいう。人をののしり言うのには用いない。
【賛】tiryaggata (= mfn. going horizontally (an ★animal 動物) 水平歩行する, ii ; n. an ★animal , vii ) チクソー
【賛】tiryaktA (= f. ★animal nature 気質 Ra1jat. ) チクソー、ちくしょう
cf. スワデシュ207 animal f20#s.44
4ant
【民】uRavi (= 1. ★ant;) あり、あい、ありんこ (+ん, v-k)
【民】pIlu (= 03 ★ant) アリ (p 無音)
【賛】pipilI (= f. = %{pipIlI} ; an ★pipilIant L.) アリ
【賛】pipIlikA (= f. the common small red ★ant or a female ★ant メスの蟻 ? [male の間違いなのでは?] AV.) ありんこ (+ん)
5apparition   *mansi-mənə
【賛】majjana (= m. N. of a ★demon causing sickness or fever Hariv. ; of one of Siva's attendants L. ; n. sinking (esp. under water) , diving , immersion , bathing , ablution Gr2S3rS. ; (with %{niraye}) , sinking into hell MBh. ; drowning , overwhelming ib. ; = %{majjan} , marrow L.) 魔人(まじん)
【賛】meSAnana (= mfn. ram-faced Sus3r. ; N. of a ★demon noxious to children 子供に有害な悪魔の名前 Cat.) ましゃまな
【賛】apacchAya (= mfn. shadowless , having no shadow (as a deity or celestial being) ; having a bad or unlucky shadow ; (%{A}) f. an unlucky shadow , a phantom , ★apparition.) お化け(おばけ) (y-ki)
【賛】nizATa (= (%{-zA7Ta}) m. `" numeral-rover "' , an owl L. ; a demon , ★ghost W. ; %{-ka} m. bdellium L. (cf. %{kauzika}).) みしゃーた
【賛】jalavyAla (= m. a water-snake L. ; a marine ★monster L.) 妖怪(ようかい) (v-k)
6arrow
cf. 教育漢字  矢 シ、や arrow   f17_1#n.355
7ash
cf. 教育漢字 灰 カイ、はい ash   f17_1#n.264
【民】kAppu (= ; 5. sacred ★ashes 聖なる灰, as an amulet お守り、魔よけ、として;) かーっぷ
8astringent  収斂性の、〔組織の〕収斂補給効果[作用]の[がある・を有する]。厳しい、渋い、辛辣な
【民】tuvar-ttal (= 06 to be ★astringent) 渋い(しぶい)
【賛】tubara (= mfn. ★astringent (also %{tUb-} L.) Sus3r. ; m. n. an ★astringent taste W. ; ) 渋い(しぶい)
【賛】kuvara (= mfn. (= %{tuv-}) ★astringent in flavour L. ; (%{I}) f. a sort of fish Gal.) 辛(から)
9awaken, vi  [自動詞 verb intransitive]醒める、目が覚める、目覚める
【賛】samudbudh (= Caus. %{-bodhayati} , to rouse up thoroughly , ★awaken , animate Ni1lak.) さめた、さます
cf. 教育漢字 覚ます wake 起こす   f17#1.7
10axe (hatchet)
cf. 教育漢字 file    f17_1#al.40
【賛】sasthUNa (= (%{sa4-}) mfn. together with the pillar , S3/br. ; %{-cchinna} mfn. ★hewn down with the stump Ka1m.) 手斧(ておの)
【出雲弁】よき   (= 手斧 ex. おい!よき持って来てごせや。 【= おい!手斧を持って来てくださいよ。】)
【民】vAcci (= 1. ★adze 〔木工用の〕手おの(ちょうな)) よき (c-k)
【民】vaku-tal (= 02 to ★split 割る) よき
c. 【博多弁】ヨキ 【斧】、【魚津弁】ヨキ 【斧、薪割り】、【十津川弁】よき 【斧】
【熊本弁】ちゅうの   (= (木をたたき切る)斧(おの) 手斧(テオノまたはチョウノ)から「チュウノ」に音変化(?))
【民】taNNam (= 01 1. drum with one head, used at funerals; 2. ★battle-axe 戦闘用の斧) ちゅうの
【熊本弁】なたがま   (= なた刃の鎌(かま) る厚くて幅も広い刃を持つ木を切る鎌。草刈り用の鎌は刃が薄く軽いのでカルカマ(軽鎌)と)
【民】vAcci (= 1. ★adze 手斧) なた (v-n)、よき (c-k)
【賛】vAzI (= f. (also written %{vAsI} ; accord. to some connected with %{vrazc}) a sharp or pointed knife or a kind of axe , adze , chisel (esp. as the weapon of Agni or the Maruts , and the instrument of the R2ibhus , while the paras3u or ★axe is that of Tvasht2r2i) 斧、手斧、のみの一種 RV. ; ) なた (v-n)
【民】kumal (= ★sickle 鎌) かま (l 無音)
【十津川弁】ちょんな    (= てうな)
【民】taRiyANi (= small ★chisel のみ、彫刻刀 for cutting iron 鉄をカットするための小さな彫刻刀) ちょんな (R-n)、ちょうな、てうな
【佐久弁】まさきり   (= まさかり   ex. まさきり持って山へ行く)
【民】mazuvALi (= he who is armed with ★battle-axe 戦闘用斧で武装した人 1. Siva; 2. Parasura1ma) まさきり (v-k)
【民】mazu (= 01 1. ★axe 斧; 2. battle-axe; 3. red hot iron, used in ordeals; 4. sea) まさ、なた (z-t)
【琉球】ウーン   (= 斧)
【民】uLi (= 01 1. chisel; 2. ★battle-axe; 3. burin, engraver's tool; 4. barber's instrument for paring nails) ウーン (L-n)
【琉球】コンミカースン    (= (動詞)  おのなどで木に穴をこんと開ける。こンミかースンともいう。)
【民】kaNicci (= 1. battle-axe; 2. kind of pick axe for breaking stone; 3. goad for urging the elephant; 4. chisel; 5. ★axe 斧, hatchet; 6. knife for cutting the stalk of the betel) コンミカース (+ン, c-k, c-s)
【宮古口】ゆキ /jukɿ/ 多與 新鏡 名詞 〈全〉斧
【賛】vAzI (= f. (also written %{vAsI} ; accord. to some connected with %{vrazc}) a sharp or pointed knife or a kind of ★axe , adze , chisel (esp. as the weapon of Agni or the Maruts , and the instrument of the R2ibhus , while the paras3u or axe is that of Tvasht2r2i) RV. AV. MBh. ; sound , voice Naigh. (cf. under 1. %{vAza}).) ゆキ (z-y-ki)
c. サンスクリット語の発音記号 /z/ は、ゼット、ツェ、であるが、時々、s や y の破裂音的、音に化ける。
11axe   --- 上の 五角形axe (hatchet) 参照。
12bag
【民】pakkarai (= 1. stirrup; 2. saddle; 3. ★bag, pocket;)
【賛】bhastrA (= f. a leathern bottle or vessel (used for carrying or holding water) S3Br.; a skin , pouch , leathern ★bag 革製袋 (cf. %{mAtrA-} and %{hema-bh-}) ;) ふぞー
13bamboo
cf. 教育漢字 竹 たけ bamboo    f17_1#n.151
14bamboo fence
【賛】mogha (= ; m. a ★fence , hedge L. ;) まけ
【賛】vRti (= 1 f. enclosure, hedge, ★fence.) ませ (v-m)
【民】vIrti (= hedge, ★fence) ませ (v-m)
【民】vElikkAl (= 1. hedge, ★fence; 2. fenced garden; 3. stake in hedging) かきね (v-k, l-n)
【民】vilagki (= hedge, ★fence) かき (v-k)
【賛】zilATaka (= (%{-lA7T-}) m. = %{aTTa} L. ; = %{tila} L. ; = %{vilepa} L. ; = %{bila} (?) L. ; a ★fence , enclosure W.) ささが (l 無音)
【民】kAppu (= ; 6. ★fence, hedge;) 壁(かべ)
15banana fish   タカサゴ 学名:Pterocaesio digramma 英名:Bananafish 地方名:グルクン、アカメンタイ、チャムロ、アカムロ
不明
16barley
cf. 教育漢字 麦 バク、むぎ barley, wheat,  黍 ショ、きび wheat   f17_1#n.270
17barnyard millet    米、ムギ、アワ(アワ)、ヒエ、キビ、コウリャン
--- 五角形millet を参照。
18basket, bamboo, deep
【賛】pAjaka (= m. ★cooking-basket.) ぱーき、ばーき、わーき
【民】kA (= ; 4. receptacle, ★basket, as for betel or flowers)
19basket
【民】kacagku (= 02 1. wild date-palm; 2. stalk, as of the date-leaf used in making plaited ★baskets) かご
【民】makkiri (= big ★basket (TLS)) めご、まご
【民】cATTukkUTai (= large ★basket) そーけタイ
【民】tARRukkUTai (= a kind of ★basket) そーけタイ
【賛】palava (= m. %{plava} ( %{plu}) , a ★basket of wicker-work for catching ★fish L. ; N. of a man , Prav.) びく (l 無音, v-k)
20basket, produce
【民】telli (= 1. angler's ★basket; 2. a small field) てる
【賛】tara (= ; a ★clothes-basket (also %{-ri}) L. ;) てる
21bat  コウモリ(蝙蝠)
cf. 語源帳 リス (栗鼠)、モモンガ、ムササビ、蝙蝠(こうもり)、吸血鬼(きゅうけつき)、コンモルガサ、きねづみ、ばんどり、もも、ももっこ   f21_1#1100
【民】kAkAviricci (= a kind of ★vampire-bat of black colour and bristling hair 黒い色と剛毛の一種の吸血コウモリ) かーかーもりっし (v-m)、かーかーもいっし、かーかーぶりっし、かーかーぶやっし (r-y)
22battle
【賛】abhisR (= ; to cause to attack , lead to ★battle MBh. ;) 戦(いくさ) (bh-k)
【賛】vAjakRtya (= n. a warlike deed , ★battle , fight RV.) 戦(いくさ)
23beach
【賛】pulina (= m. n. (g. %{ardarcA7di}) a sandbank , a small island or bank in the middle of a river , an islet , a sandy ★beach (ifc. f. %{A}) MBh. ; the bank of a river (= %{tIra}) Ragh.; m. N. of a mythical being conquered by Garud2a MBh. ; of a poet Cat.) 浜(はま) (l 無音)
24bean
cf. 教育漢字 豆 まめ bean, pea, seed   f17_1#n.114
25bear, vi
c. 生す --- な‐す 【成す・為す・生す・済す】 2. 新たに作る。また、既にある状態に働き掛けて別のものに作る。 産む。[生] ex. 「子まで―・した仲を裂く」
【民】nATTu-tal (= 01 1. to set up, fix, plant, place in the ground, as a pole; to erect; to insert; 2. to establish, as laws, customs, rules, fame, reputation; to lay down, as a theory, an opinion; 3. to establish one in life; 4. to ★create; 5. to write, inscribe, as placing a style upon a palm leaf) 生す・成す(なす)
【賛】vinirmA (= (only pf. %{-mame} , with act. and pass. meaning) , to fabricate , ★create , fashion , form , build , construct out of (instr. or abl.) Bhat2t2.) 生む・産む(うむ)
【賛】upapanna (= a. having gone or come to, got at, met with (acc. or ---); endowed with, possessed of (instr. or ---); happened, occurred, ★born, existing; fit, suited, right, proper, natural.) 生む・産む(うむ)
【賛】Urujanman (= m. `" ★born from the thigh 太ももから生まれた"'N. of Aurva (q.v.) Ma1lav.) 産まん
26bee
habubitu (= "★bee 蜂" NB pi. habubeti, liter, "buzzer"; < habdbu ) はぶびつ、はぶべち、はち
【賛】bhRGga (= m. a large black ★bee (f. {A} & {I}).) 蜂 (g-j-ch)
1■おまけ   カメムシの方言
【出雲弁】はっとーじ, ハットウジまたはハトウジ(岡山県~広島県の山間部)
【賛】pataMga (= mfn. flying RV. ; any flying insect 任意の飛ぶ昆虫, a grasshopper バッタ, a ★bee 蜂, a butterfly or moth 蝶または蛾 S3Br. (%{-ta4Mga}) Up. (%{-tA} f. Prasannar.) ;) はっとーじ
c. インド語で、羽がある飛べる昆虫のこと。
27bite, chew, vt [他動詞 verb transitive]
cf. スワデシュ・リスト 207    f20#s.94
c. インドには、かじる系、はあるが、噛む系は無い。噛む、は、トルコおよびゲール系。
28bitter
【賛】mahAtiktaka (= mfn. extremely ★bitter ; (with %{sarpis}) n. a partic. drug Sus3r.) まはーてぃくたか → にがてくったか → にがかったか → にがい
【民】man2akkacappu (= rancour, hatred; ★bitterness of mind) にがしょっぱい
【琉球】ンジャサン(んじゃさん)/ 意味/ 苦い/ 解説/ 苦味がある野菜 にが菜はンジャナバーと言います。/ 他にも沖縄で苦いと言って、すぐ思いつくのはゴーヤー(苦瓜)でしょうか。
【賛】madhUla (= m. a kind of Bassia L. ; astringent , sweet and ★bitter taste L. ;) ヌジャ
【賛】mahAtikta (= mfn. very ★bitter ; with %{sarpis} n. a partic. drug Car. ; m. Melia Sempervirens L. ; (%{A}) f. Clypea Hernandifolia L. ; = %{yavatiktA} L.) まはーじくた、ぬじくた、ンジャ  △
29blade
【賛】phala (= ; a ★blade (of a sword or knife) MBh.; the point of an arrow Kaus3. ;) ふぁら、は (l 無音)
30boar
【賛】saTA (= f. braid of hair, mane, the bristles of a ★boar; multitude, abundance; light, splendour.) しし(宍)
【賛】vanacchAga (= m. a wild goat L. ; a ★boar , hog L.) いのしし、やましし、いのちじ
【民】kAn2mA (= wild ★boar) かまい
【賛】emUSa (= m. (formed fr. the above) N. of the ★boar which raised up the earth S3Br.) うむーざ (e-w)
31board
cf. 教育漢字 板 いた board, plate   f17_1#n.104
32boat
cf. 教育漢字 船 ふね ship, boat  枯野(からの)   f17_1#n.74
33boil food, vt
【民】nil-tal(niRRal) (= ;7. to remain; to be left, as matter in a ★boil;) 煮る(にる)
【京都弁、讃岐弁】たく   (= 煮る)  --- 「炊く(たく)」は、標準語である。
【民】tAgku-tal (= ; 21. to hit against, strike, graze, as a ★boil; ) たく
【賛】niryeS (= %{-yeSati} , to ★boil or bubble forth TS.) にーす
【名古屋弁】うでる (= ゆでる)
【民】aTu-tal (= 02 1. to cook, dress, as food, roast, fry; 2. to ★boil 煮る、茹でる; 3. to melt; 4. to pound, as rice; 5. to coonquer, subdue, as the senses, passions; 6. to trouble, afflict; 7. to destroy, consume; 8. to kill) うで
c. 神奈川弁「うでる (= 茹でる)」と同じ。出雲弁では「いでる」。
【佐久弁】おほと  (= 煮込み味噌うどん   ex. 今夜はおほとだぞ)
【民】aviz (= 03 1. single grain of boiled rice; 2. boiled rice) おほと (z-t)
【民】avi-ttal (= 02 1. to ★boil 煮る in a liquid, cook by boiling or steaming;) おほ
【琉球】ニユン  (= 煮る)
【民】navu-tal (= 1. to become soft; to be soddened by ★boiling; to be weary, as the limbs by labour; 2. to rot, decay, as clothes, books, wood) ニユ
34boil water, vt
【賛】pac, pacati, -te (= cook, bake, ★boil, roast, burn (bricks), digest; ) 蒸かす(ふかす)
【賛】pAkaja (= mfn. produced by cooking or roasting Tarkas. ; n. `" obtaiued by boiling "' , black salt L. ; ) 蒸かじゃ(ふかじゃ)・ふかっち、ふかす (j-s)
【民】pogku-tal (= 01 1. to ★boil up, bubble up by heat; ) 蒸か(ふか)・蒸く(ふく)
【民】vEkkATu (= 1. burning; 2. ★boiling; cocking; 3. inflammation, as of the stomach; 4. burn, scald; 5. heat; 6. envy, jealousy, heart-burning) 沸かす(わかす)、あかす
【賛】vipaktavya (= mfn. to be cooked or ★boiled Car.) 湯蒸くしヤ
【賛】pAka (= 2 m. (2. %{pac} ; ifc. f. %{I}) cooking , baking , roasting , ★boiling (trans "' and intrans.) S3rS. ;) ふか、ばか
【民】takar-ttal (= ; 7. to break open a blister, a ★boil; ) たぎら
35bone
cf. 教育漢字 骨 コツ、ほね bone 舎利   f17_1#n.265
36born, be, v
【民】nARu-tal (= 01 1. to emit a sweet, to give forth perfume; 2. to stink; 3. to appear, arise; 4. to come into being; to be born; 5. to sprout, shoot forth; to smell) まれ
【民】vA-tal(varutal) (= 02 1. to come; 2. to happen; 3. to come into being; 4. to be ★born;) まれたる (v-m)
【賛】anuprajan (= to be ★born after ; (with %{prajAm}) to propagate again and again BhP.: Caus. %{-janayati} , to cause to be ★born subsequently.) うまれじゃん
37bow, n
cf. 教育漢字 アルタイ諸語 excellent shooter (善射者) 弓(ゆみ)  f17_1#al.5
38bowl
【賛】manukapAla (= n. Manu's ★bowl or dish Kapisht2h.) まかり
【民】mallikai (= ; 6. vessel, cup, goblet; 7. mendicant's ★bowl) まかい (l 無音)
【民】maravai (= wooden utensil or ★bowl) まーはい
【民】aiyam (= ; 4. beggar's ★bowl or gourd 瓜) 椀(わん、あん)
39box
cf. 教育漢字 箱 はこ box, case, wagon   f17_1#n.71
c. box と pako は、スペルが似ている。そうだろう、みんな。
40break, snap
【民】Aval (= ★bend (TLS)) 折る(おる)、割る(わる)
【民】poRi-tal (= 01 1. to ★snap ポキッ, spring, as a trap, gunlock, etc.; 2. to throw out sparks; 3. to slip, slide, as the foot; 4. to be sloping or aslant; 5. to be ready to fall on one, as an accusation; 6. to fail) 折る、折れ、ぶる
【民】oTiyeRi-tal (= 1. to cut down a forest thicket while hunting; 2. to ★snap or break, as a short branch that it might hang down within easy reach of the flock; 3. to beat within an inch of a person's life) おしょる
【琉球】ウーユン (= 折る)
【民】Aval (= ★bend (TLS)) ウーユン、折る
【民】iRu-tal (= 01 1. to break; to ★snap ポキン, as a stick 例えば、枝を; to become severed, as a limb; to crackle and split; 2. to perish, die; 3. to end in, terminate in; 4. to moulder, to be corroded, to decay; 5. to grow weak, to be wearied) ウーユ
【宮古口】ぶイ /buɿ/多ぶ乚 /buɭ/ 多與 友新 鏡 動詞 皆ぶイ、ぶり、ぶらん 〈全〉折る  〈皆、鏡〉(サトウキビを)倒す
【民】poRi-tal (= 01 1. to ★snap, spring, as a trap, gunlock, etc.; 2. to throw out sparks; 3. to slip, slide, as the foot; 4. to be sloping or aslant 傾斜または傾斜する; 5. to be ready to fall on one, as an accusation; 6. to fail) ぶイ/ぶ乚
c. snap スナップ、と言う英単語は、意味不明確なバカ英語だと思う。イイ迷惑です。
41brew, vt
【賛】tAla (= m. (Siddhnapun6s. 25 Sch.) the palmyra tree or fan-palm (Borassus flabelliformis , producing a sort of spirituous ★liquor ;) たれ
【賛】tarala (= ; (%{A}) f. spirituous ★liquor L. ;) たれるり
【民】mAri (= 01 1. water; 2. rain, shower; 3. cloud; 4. the 20th naks2atra ; 5. toddy, ★liquor; 6. a bird) まり
【賛】vArivAsa (= m. a distiller 蒸留器、酒造家 of spirit or spirituous ★liquors L.) まらし (v-m)
【賛】surAjIvin (= m. tavern-keeper, ★distiller (lit. living by spirituous ★liquor).) たらゆん、ちりゆん (s-t)
【賛】sUtpara (= (?) n. the ★distilling of spirituous ★liquor (= %{surA-saMdhAna}) L.) たら
42bridge
cf. 教育漢字 橋 はし bridge   f17_1#n.59
43broom --- 箒(ほうき)
【賛】bahukara (= mf(%{I})n. doing much , busy , useful in many ways to (gen.) Bhat2t2.; one who sweeps , a sweeper L. ( %{kRR}?) ; m. a camel L. ; a species of jujube L. ; (%{A} or %{I}) f. a ★broom L. ( %{kRR}?).) %{kRR} → ばふかぁー → ぼうきー → ほうき
c. 箒 broom、彗 broomstick; comet
【十津川弁】なぜ  (= 箒[ほうき])
【賛】mArjana (= ; a ★broom 箒, besom 枝[竹]ぼうき, brush ブラシ Ka1v.; ; n. wiping away , rubbing こする, sweeping 掃く、掃除, cleansing , purifying ) なじゃな
【民】mArccan2i (= 1. ★broom; 2. assam rubber) なぜんい
【十津川弁】なぜる  (= 掃く 庭をなぜる)
【賛】mRj, mArSTi, mRSTe (= {vi} wipe off, rub dry, clean, purify, embellish, adorn ({tanvRm} refl.), stroke, smear, anoint 塗る. {sam} rub off こすり取る, sweep 掃く clean, strain, filter, purify 浄化する, stroke; ) なーぜ る、なぜなぜ
c. 「頭をナゼナゼする」の「なぜ」も親戚、多分。
【琉球】7711. ポーチー    (名詞)  ほうき。ほうきで掃くこと。
【琉球】7712. ポーチカチ    (名詞)  掃除。ポーちーの重言。
【賛】bhuji (= 1 f. (for 2. see col. 3) clasping , enfolding (others `" ★sweeping "') RV.) ポーチー
【民】vIccu (= 1. throw, cast, as of a net; 2. beat, flap, as of wings; 3. blow, stroke; 4. swinging, oscillation; 5. length; 6. quickness, rapidity; 7. ★sweep; glance; 8. a disease; 9. strength; 10. boastful speech, arrogant talk; 11. dry, screech as of an owl; 12. a vowel-sign of vowelconsonants; 13. curve) ポーチー
【賛】vyudUh (= P. %{-Uhati} (Pot. %{-uhyAt}) , to push apart or asunder , move away or out TS. ; to ★sweep out 一掃 or away S3Br.) ポーチー
【賛】vAtadhrAjigati (= mfn. ★sweeping along like wind TA1r.) ポーチカチ
44broom-corn millet
【十津川弁】ほうきび  (= 高梁)
【民】perugkampu (= large bulrush 《植物》ホタルイ属の植物 ★millet 《植物》キビ、アワ, pennisetum) ほうきび
【民】kampu (= 02 1. bulrush ★millet; 2. itali ★millet) きび
cf. モロコシ (wikipedia)  外来語呼称にはコーリャン(中国語: 高, Gāoliang から)。 --- では無い。
英語で、sorghum, known as great millet
c. 遼河(拼音: Liáo Hé)と高, Gāoliang、は、Liáo と liang が少し似ている感じ?。
【民】aruvi (= 02 stubble of italian ★millet) うき (v-k)
【民】iRugku (= 1. great ★millet; 2. black co1l2am) うき (v-k)
【民】karuvai (= 01 ★millet straw) きび、きみ (v-m)
【民】uruppam (= flour 粉 of ★millet (TLS)) うぽム
【民】tuvaraiccivappiRugku (= a kind of maize or great ★millet (TLS)) とうきびラク、とうしみラク
45bucket, large
【趣】aga (= [VESSEL] (5x: Old Babylonian) wr. zabaraga "a type of ★vessel") 桶(おけ)
【賛】saras (= n. ★trough, ★bucket; pool, pond, lake.) たらス (s-t)
【民】pIlikkoTTu (= water ★trough おけのような形の容器。ボウル、木鉢) ばきし
【宮城弁ミヤ90】こえたご (= 肥桶。 「こえ(肥)たご(桶)」というわけで,”肥桶”のこと。)
【賛】udaGka (= m. a ★bucket 桶(オケ)or vessel 器 (for oil &c. but not for water) Pa1n2. ; (%{a4s}) m. N. of a man S3Br. ; m. pl. the descendants of Udan3ka g. %{upakA7di} Pa1n2. ; (%{I}) f. a bucket Ma1nS3r. ) たご (語頭 u 無音) or おけ (d 無音)
c. 関東では、肥桶(こいおけ)と言う。東北は、桶を「たご」と呼ぶんですね。
【出雲弁】はんぎり   (= (家畜の餌などを入れる)背の低い大きな桶 ex. 押し切りで藁をきって、はんぎりに入れてごせ。 【= 押し切り(道具で)で藁を切って、(家畜の餌を入れる)背の低い大きな桶に入れてくれ。】) 【博多弁】ハンギリ   (= tub 【鮨桶】  底の浅いたらい状の桶。ハンは盤。皿状のものの意。盤切桶。半桶ともいう。)
【民】pakkAyam (= ★tub タブ、桶 (TLS)) はんぎやむ (+ん)
【出雲弁】だおけ   (= (馬草など家畜の)餌桶 ex. 夏だけんたんびにだおけを洗って馬草をやれよ。 【= 夏だからたんびに餌桶を洗って馬草をやれよ。】)
【民】tozuku (= cattle-stall, ★manger 飼い葉桶) だおけ (z-w)、たご
【博多弁】コガイ   (= pot, kettle 【手桶】)
【民】kAcaNTi (= a kind of ★pot with a wide mouth 広口ポット) こがい (NTi-i)
【民】kukaiccaTTi (= ★kettle ケトル) こがい (先頭部) c. 手桶 pail には近いものが無かった。pot, vessel も check した。
【魚津弁】オッキヤーサ   (= 桶屋、桶職人)
【民】akalavAycci (= * howel, ★cooper's 桶屋の tool for smoothing work, as in the inside of a cask) おっきやーさ c. 桶もある。
【民】pakkAyam (= ★tub 桶 (TLS)) おけやの
【魚津弁】テジョケ  (= 手桶)
【民】vakku (= 03 1. skin; 2. contused wound; 3. ★water-trough 洗いおけ) おけ
【賛】viveka (= ; a ★water trough (= %{jala-droNI}) ) おけ
【民】toTTi (= 01 1. ★water-trough, tub タブ, cistern, reservoir; 2. manger 飼い葉桶, crib; 3. refuse bin; 4. howdah; 5. toddy; 6. a prepared arsenic) てじょ
【琉球】ウーキ
【民】pakkAyam (= ★tub (TLS)) ウーキの (p 無音)
46bucket, pail, small
同上。
47buckwheat
【賛】sumana (= mfn. (prob. for %{-manas}) very charming , beautiful , handsome L. ; m. ★wheat L. ; the thornapple L. ;) そま
c. buckwheat はインド辞書に未登録。wheat で攻めたが「そば」は不明
48burn, vt
cf. 教育漢字 焼く burn もす、もやす、たく、こがす、やく   f17#1.96
49butterly 誤字 butterfly
cf. 蝶々 〒56 butterfly   f2#56
c. pabiru 系は、インドには無い。フランス語の「パピロン」系に近い。
50bury, vt
cf. 教育漢字 満たす fill いっぱい、埋める   f17#1.4   埋める、埋める系
【石見弁】いける  (= 埋める)
【糸島弁】いける (= 埋める)
【熊本弁】いくる (= 食が進む/(上部を出して)埋める)
【十津川弁】いける  (= 一寸土に埋めておくこと 火を灰の中に埋める)
【諏訪方言】いける:「埋める」の意。
【魚津弁】イケル (= 埋める)
【土佐弁】 いける(埋める)
【民】akazitiruttu-tal (= to ★fill in small pits and level the ground for cultivation (TLS) 耕作の為に小さい穴に埋めて地面を平らにする) いけ...
【賛】vyAkula (= a. thoroughly ★filled with 埋める、充填する or full of (instr. or ---); quite intent upon or occupied with (---); confused, disarranged, perplexed, bewildered. Abstr. {-tA} f., {-tva} n.) いける
【宮古口】うずン /udzɿm/鏡うぞぅン /udzum/ 多與 新鏡 動詞 皆うずン、うずみ、うずまん 〈皆、與、多、新、鏡〉埋める
【賛】az, aznoti, aznute (= 1 attain, reach, come to, arrive at (acc.); [[,]] obtain, get, befall, betide; overcome; offer, bring. --{abhi} reach, obtain, overwhelm. {upa} obtain, get. {vi} reach, attain, get; ★fill, penetrate. {sam} attain, get, receive; fall to one's share.) うずン/うぞぅン
51calendar
【趣】itigan-gan-è (= : ★calendar month 9 at Nippur during Ur III.) がんがんえ → くゆみ
【趣】itikíĝ-dInanna (= : ★calendar month 6 at Nippur during Ur III.) きぐでぃーな → くゆみ
【賛】kAlavidvas (= mfn. (perf. p. P.) `" knowing the seasons "' , a maker of ★calendars VarBr2S.) 頃見せ (v-m) → ころみ → こよみ
【魚津弁】ヒメクル (= 日めくりカレンダー)
【賛】paJcAGga (= ; n. a ★calendar カレンダー、暦 or almanac 年鑑、暦 (treating of 5 things , viy. solar days , lunar days , Nakshatras Yogas. and Karan2as) L. ;) ひにゃかーくが → ひめくる (J-m)
c. コレ、かなり面白い。 サンスクリット語のこの辞書(ケルン大インド辞書)の発音表記の J は「にゃ ñ」。にゃ、が、みゃ、に音通
【琉球】クユミ   (= 暦)
【民】katavAkkiyam (= the va1kkiyam or a line in an astronomical table 天文学の表 taken for the last day of the year, in ★calendars) かたばークユミ
【チベット】khyi zla /khyi da/ (= - 9th month of the lunar calendar, Libra [RY]) くよ だ → くよみ
c. 韓国語の calendar を調べたいと思い、Koreanic の tab の excel を見たが、calendar は未登録だった。やる気有るのか、と言いたい。しょうがないので、Google 翻訳で韓国語の「calendar」を調べたら、「こよみ」似は皆無。--- つまり、「暦」に関する限り現韓国語の語彙は日本語の語彙とは、無縁
dallyeog calendar, almanac, cullender // yeogbeob calendar, style // yolam cradle, calendar, survey, digest // yeonjung haengsapyo calendar // uisailjeong agenda, calendar //
52carry, convey
cf. 教育漢字 運ぶ convey,transport,transfer,carry,deliver  遣す(まだす)、渡す   f17#1.104
【民】vazagku-tal (= ; 3. to cause to move 移動させる; to ★send; to discharge;) 持ってく/持っていく (v-m)
【民】kaTattu-tal (= 01 1. to cause to go; to drive; 2. to transport, ★carry across; 3. to pass, as time; 4. to do carelessly, as work; to dawdle) こしー
【津軽弁131】たなく  (= 担ぐ、運ぶ、持つ)
【賛】dhana (= {dhanaM} w. {bhR} M. ★carry off the prize or booty; {dhanaM ji} win the prize or match.) たなム → たなく
【出雲弁】もそむ、もそぶ、もそんで  (= 運ぶ移す、動かす、持ち運ぶ、運んで ※国引き神話では「河船をもそろもそろに」)
【賛】neS (= cl. 1. A1. %{neSate} , to go , ★move Dha1tup. (%{neSatu} , %{neSTAt} Pa1n2.)) もそ (n-m)
【出雲弁】よっこする  (= (ものを持ち上げて)運ぶ ex. おぇ、すまんがの。この植木鉢ちょっこよっこしてごいた。 【= おい、すまないがね。この植木鉢をちょっと運んでくれよ。】)
【賛】vah, vahati, -te (= C. ★transport 運ぶ、輸送, transpose, let pass i.e. spend (time), escape (a foe etc.). {anu} carry along. {apa} carry or drive away (also C.); take off, remove, give up. {abhi} convey near or towards, bring.) よっこ/よっこす (h-k)
【京都弁】かく  (= 持ち上げて運ぶ)
【土佐弁、伊予弁(松山地方)】 かく(持ち上げて運ぶ)  この荷物は重いき、そっちをかいてや。(この荷物は重いので、そちらを持ち上げて一緒に運んでください。)
gigurdu (a ★carrying basket) jB lex.; < Sum.;) かく
【趣】gi-gur-še-bal (= : basket for carrying grain ('basket' + 'grain' + 'to transport'). ) かく
c. かく、にも見えるが、カゴ basket にも見える。【賛】、【民】には無かった。
c. 奈良弁にも「かく」はあったが「持つ」の意味で、あえて探したのは下記であった。しかし、奈良も、「運ぶ」を「かく」というらしい、ので、シュメール、アッカド語の方が近い。
【賛】kR (= ; to place , put , lay , bring , lead , take ★hold of (acc. or loc. or instr. e.g. %{ardha4M-kR} , ) かく (R 反復)
【名古屋弁】つる  (= 「る」にアクセントで、持ち上げて運ぶこと)
【岐阜弁、長野弁(飯伊地域・上伊那南部地域)】つる     = 運ぶ、持つ、担ぐ、持ち上げて移動させる
【賛】samAruh (= P. %{-rohati} , to ascend or rise to or upon (acc. loc. , or %{upari}) , mount , enter (acc.) Mn.; ; to ascribe , attribute , ★transfer to 運ぶ、運搬する (loc.) BhP.) つる (s-t, m 無音)
c. 吊る(運ぶ) ex. 机を吊ってくれ
【魚津弁】タナイテ  (= 両手使って運ぶ)
【賛】samudyata (= mfn. raised up , ★lifted up 持ち上げる MBh. ; ) たないて (s-t)
【宮古口】くす /kusɿ/ 多與 新鏡 動詞 皆くす、くし、くさん 〈皆、與、多、新、鏡〉運ぶ
【民】kaTattu-tal (= 01 1. to cause to go; to drive; 2. to transport 輸送する, ★carry across; 3. to pass, as time; 4. to do carelessly, as work; to dawdle) くす
【宮古口】うーす  /uusɿ / 多與 新鏡 動詞 多うーす、うーしー、うーしゃん 〈與、多、新、鏡〉負わす、運ぶ
【賛】AdA (= 1.`" to give to one's self "' , take , accept , receive from (loc. instr. or abl.) RV. 「自分に譲る」、(受理、受理、RBLから受け取る)RV。; to seize , take away , ★carry off , rob ib. ; 奪う、奪う、持ち去る、奪う。 ;; ; to take or ★carry away 運び去る、持ち去る、さらって行く、取り除く with one's self 自分で持ち帰ったり持ち去ったりする, ) うーす
【賛】vivadha (= or {vIvadha} m. ★carrying-yoke; burden 荷を背負う, load, provisions, stock of grain, etc.) うーす
53cat
c. 「猫」は下記。インド弁には素直に「ネコ」は無い。疲れる。しかし、アルバニア、タガログ等には有る。 why?。【趣】【赤】にも無い。
【賛】mArjAraka (= m. a ★cat MBh. ; a peacock (cf. %{mArjAra}) L. ; (%{ikA}) f. a ★civet-cat L.) まるじゃーらか、にゃんこ (jA-nya, r-n)、ねこ △
【賛】naktaMcArin (= mfn. = %{-cara} Gr2S. Gaut. Mn. ; m. a ★cat L.) ねこま、ねこたむかーりん
【賛】mRgacaiTaka (= (!) m. a wild ★cat 猫, ★pole-cat W.) ねこ...
【アルバニア】maçok (= tomcat, gib, ★cat) ねこ
【タガロク】musang (= lynx, wildcat, tiger, ★cat) ねこ (s 無音)
【インドネシア】meong (= ★cat) ねんこ、ねこ
【賛】mArjAra (= m. a ★cat (prob. so called from its habit of constantly cleaning itself) Mn. ; a wild ★cat MBh.; a ★civet-cat L. ;) まじゃー
【宮城弁ミヤ145】たこ(たーこ)  (= 猫 猫を呼ぶとき名前がちゃんとあっても,この辺の年よりは「たーこ,たこ」と呼びます。)
【賛】trizaGku (= ; [son of Tri-bandhana] BhP.) ; a ★cat L. ; the ★civetcat Npr. ;) とりたこ、たこ、たーこ
【琉球】マヤー:猫
【民】nAvi (= 01 1. navel; 2. musk deer; 3. musk; 4. ★civet-cat; 5. civet) マヤ、まゆ
54catch, vt
【趣】šu...ĝál (= : to ★hold by the hand ('hand' + 'to place in').) つかる → つかむ
sikkum (or si(q)qu(m)l) (= "hem, fringe" OA, OB of garment, 5. ka" uluml sabdtum "to ★hold/seize hem" in supplication; OB sa s. (a messenger); > sissiktu; sikkanum III) つかむ (s-t)
【賛】saMgRbhAya (= (cf. %{saM-grah}) P. %{-gRbhAyati} , to grasp together , ★seize , snatch RV.) つかぶや → つかむ (b-m)
【賛】sugRhIta (= mfn. held fast or firmly , ★seized , grasped , clung or adhered to S3is3. ; well apprehended or learnt 学んだ ib. ;) つかんだ (+ん)
【民】tirAkam (= throwing up and ★catching (TLS)) つかむ
【民】katuvu-tal (= 1. to ★seize, ★catch grasp, lay hold of; 2. to take more than a proper share of, encroach upon;) かちむ (v-m)
【賛】hartavya (= mfn. to be taken or ★seized or appropriated or acquired Mn. Pan5cat.) はちみー (v-m)
【長野弁】しょずむ/しょまむ  (= :(中信、南信)「手でつかむ」の意。)
【賛】sammRz (= P. A1. %{-mRzati} , %{-te} , to take hold of. ★seize , grasp 掴む、握る, touch , graze , stroke (A1. `" each other "') S3Br. ;) しょずむ、しょまむ
c. 「しょずむ」は似たのはあるが、皆、今一。 why?
【琉球】カチミユン 掴む
c. 掴む(つかむ) catch, grap, seize  ---ex. ワシ掴み、泥棒と捕まえる、とっつかまえる。
【民】katuvu-tal (= 1. to ★seize, catch grasp, lay hold of; 2. to take more than a proper share of, encroach upon; ) カチミユン (+ン)
【琉球】ハチーミン    (動詞)  つかむ。つかまえる。握る。捕える。取り押える。
【賛】pariSavaNa (= n. ★grasping , bunching together ib.) ハチーミン (v-m)
--
【民】taTTikkoL(Lu)-tal (= 1. to ★grasp anything within reach; 2. to steal; ) つかむ (L-m)
【賛】saMgrahaNa (= mf(%{I})n. ★grasping , seizing , taking AV. Gobh. ; (%{I}) f. = %{saMgraha-grahaNI} Bhpr. ; n. the act of grasping or taking (see %{pANi-s-}) ; receiving , obtaining , acquisition R. ; gathering , compiling , accumulating Ka1v. Katha1s. ; ) つかむ (N-m)
【賛】manograhya (= mfn. to be ★grasped by the mind 心で把握する Bha1sha1p. ; = prec. MBh.) にぎるヤ
55caterpillar
【民】paccaippuzu (= palmer worm, hairy ★caterpillar) ほぞむし
【民】kampaLippUcci (= hairy ★caterpillar) かむぱりぷっしー → けむし
【民】caTaippUcci (= a kind of ★caterpillar) しぶた (cc-t)
【賛】vRzcika (= ; a kind of ★caterpillar covered with bristles L. ;) おじゃく
【賛】vRnta (= m. a kind of small crawling animal , ★caterpillar AV. ;) おんじょう → おんじょう虫
【民】eripuzu (= kind of brownish yellow ★caterpillar, the touch of which causes smarting irritation) いら虫 → いら
【民】mucukkaTTaippUcci (= hairy ★caterpillar) むぐじ虫 → むぐじぐら虫、むぎがら虫 (TT-r)
56centipede
【十津川弁】むかじ   (= 百足(むかで))
【十津川弁】じじ   (= (童語)虫 子供にとって嫌悪すべき虫 百足 毛虫の類)
【魚】モカジェ   (= むかで)
【民】maTTaittEL (= 1. a kind of scorpion サソリ; 2. a kind of ★centipede ムカデ) むたってる → むかじ
【賛】kAraskarATikA (= f. (%{aT}) , a ★centipede or worm resembling it それに似た毛虫 L.) げじげじか
【民】cETA (= ★centipede (TLS)) じじ
【琉球】ンーカジ(んーかじ)/ または:ンカジ / / 意味/ ムカデ/ オオムカデ/ 解説/ 節足動物門唇脚網(ムカデ類)の総称/ 毒があり、刺されると、腫れてひどく痛みます。特にオオムカデには要注意。/ 刺された場合の応急処置は非常に強いアルコールで消毒し、薄いアンモニア液で中和するとよいそうです。
【民】maTTaittEL (= 1. a kind of scorpion; 2. a kind of ★centipede) ンーカジ (T-k), むかで (T-k)
【民】viTatAli (= ★centipede) ンーカジ (v-m, T-k)、むかで (v-m, T-k)
c. (t-k) 音通は珍しいのですが、有りえます。沖縄弁も、昔は「ンータジ、ンタジ」だったと言う話有りませんか?。
c. チベット語は、発音メチャクチャな言語でして、 (t-k) 音通なんて当たり前の世界。しかし、 チベット語辞書には、centipede で「むかで」似の単語がそもそも有りませんでした。
57charcoal
cf. 教育漢字 炭 すみ charcoal タン   f17_1#n.51
58conch shell
【民】vaLai (= 03 1. circle, circuit, surrounding region; 2. ★conch;) ぶら、ぼら
【賛】vArija (= mfn. born or produced in or by water L. ; m. a ★conch-shell MBh. R. ; any bivalve shell W. ;) ぶーらげー (j-g)
【賛】susvara (= ; m. a ★conch L. ;) さーぶら
59cook, vt
【民】Akku-tal (= 01 1. to effect, make; 2. to cause to be, create; 3. to arrange, make preparations; 4. to ★cook; 5. to elevate, bring prosperity to; 6. to change, convert) 焼く(やく)
【民】avi-tal (= 01 1. to be boiled, ★cooked by boiling or steaming;) 炙(あぶ)
60cook, boil, vt
【民】nIr-ttal (= 02 1. to become thin or watery, as liquid food in ★cooking; 2. to be wet, moist) 煮る(にる)
cf. 黒五角形 boil food, vt
61cord
【民】nAr (= 1. fibre, as from the bark of a leafstalk; 2. string, ★cord, rope, as made of fibre; 3. bowstring; 4. web about the foot of a coconut or palmyra leaf; 5. love, affection, as a bond; 6. asbestos) 縄(なわ)、なー
【賛】suSma (= n. a rope , ★cord (v.l. for %{zulba}) L.) 綱(つな)
【民】tAmam (= 01 1. rope, ★cord, string;) 綱(つな)
62cormorant
c. 鵜(ウ)= ウ科(Phalacrocorax)の水鳥◆かぎ形の口ばしをして口ばしの下部に袋があり首が長く水かきがついた足を持つ海鳥
【賛】madgu (= m. (accord. to Un2. i , 7 fr. %{majj}) a , diver-bird (a kind of aquatic bird or ★cormorant ; cf. Lat. {mergus}) VS. &c. &c. (also %{-guka} R.) ;) あたう/あたこ (m 強無音)
【民】maTalvAttu (= a water-fowl resembling the black ★cormorant, with a different-coloured bill and plumage like a peacock's) あたふッツ (m 強無音)
【民】nIrkkAkkai (= little ★cormorant, phalacrofocrax javanicus) ぬーりカーカー
63corpse
【賛】nRkalevara (= s. human body, ★corpse.) むくろヴァラ → むくろ
【民】cajncArapirEtam (= lit., walking ★corpse. a good-for-nothing, worthless fellow) しにゃかーぱねタム (r-n)、しにぴとム
【民】cIvappirEtam (= weak person, as living ★corpse 死体) しかばねタム (v-k, r-n)、しにびとム (v-n)、しにんちゅうノ (v-n, r-n)
【民】cAveTi (= fetid smell of a ★corpse) 死人(しびと)
【民】cEmam (= ; 9. binding and shrouding a ★corpse for burning or interment) 死人(しにん)
64count, number, vt
【魚津弁】カゼル・カズエル   (= 数える)
【民】kaccAttu (= stamped receipt book showing the collector's acknowledgment of the instalments of land tax received from the ryot together with an accurate ★account 計算、勘定 of the holding of the ryot, of any rough account of money received; voucher; advice list of goods sent by a tradesman to his customer) かずった → かずえる、かぜる
c. 【出雲弁】かずえる 【数える】
c. 素直に to count, to account, to calculate 等で「かぞえる」は無かった。number 「かず」も今一で、結局無かった。
c. 【糸島弁】かんねる 【数える】、【熊本弁】かずゆる 【数(かぞ)える】、【熊本弁】かんぬる 【数える】、【富山弁】よむ 【数える】、とバラエティに富む。
【富山弁】よむ  (= 数える - 他県の意味 違う意味で使用している都道府県 熟す 新潟 熟していない 新潟)
【琉球】ユムン   (= 数える)
【琉球】ユムン   (= 読む read 不明 → 古代は、count が、先を読む、勘定する、書物を読む、を兼務。 なので、「数える」の「ユムン」と同じで良い)
【宮古口】ゆン /jum/ 與新 鏡 動詞 皆ゆン、ゆみ、ゆまん 〈全〉声に出して言う  〈多、鏡〉数える  〈全〉読む
【民】eNNu-tal (= 1. to think 考える; 2. to consider, deliberate about, take counsel, ponder on; 3. to resolve upon 解く, determine 決定する; 4. to esteem 見積もる, respect, honour; 5. to guess, conjecture, surmise; 6. to meditate upon; 7. to ★count カウントする, reckon, compute; 8. to set a price upon 値踏みする; to value; 9. to enjoy) よむ、ゆン
cf. 教育漢字 読む read, reading   f17#1.42
【民】Un2RippaTi-ttal (= 1. to ★read attentively 意識しながら読む; 2. to ★read with proper intonation or emphasis 適切なイントネーションや強調をしながら読む) 読みはった
【賛】anupaTh (= to say after , ★read through , repeat BhP.) よんだ
65crab
【出雲弁】がんちゃ   (= 川蟹(の総称) ex. そろそろ、秋になー けん、がんちゃ網を漬けとかこい。 【= そろそろ、秋になるから、川蟹の網を漬けておこうよ。】)
【賛】kAccha (= and %{kAcchaka} mfn. (fr. %{kaccha}) being on the bank of a ★river 川の岸の上の生き物 (not applicable to human beings) Pa1n2. ; (%{I}) f. a kind of fragrant earth (cf. %{kAkSI}) L.) がんちゃ (+ん)
c. 「かーら」河原を調べていたら、たまたま見つけた。
【熊本弁】がね   (= かに(蟹) コンガネはウマカネ(この蟹は美味しいね) ガネミソ(カニ味噌)とも)
【民】kiNNi (= 1. cover of the hilt of a sword; 2. any one of the eight small legs of a ★crab 蟹;) がね
【賛】kulIra (= m. a ★crab Sus3r. ; the sign of the zodiac Cancer R.) がね、かに
【民】kuLir (= 07 1. ★crab, lobster ロブスター; 2. cancer, a sign of the zodiac; 3. the month a1t2i) がに (L-n)、かに (L-n)
【宮古口】あまン /amam/ 多與 皆友 新鏡 来 名詞 〈全〉ヤドカリ  〈多〉蟹の総称
【民】alavan2 (= 01 1. ★crab 蟹(カニ)、ヤドカリ; 2. male crab; 3. cancer of the zodiac; 4. cat) あまン (l 無音, v-m)、【宮古島キッズネット】あまん
【宮古口】あらがん /aragan/ 多與 皆友 新鏡 来 名詞 〈皆、多、與、友、新、鏡、来〉蟹の一種
【民】alavan2 (= 01 1. ★crab; 2. male ★crab カニ(蟹); 3. cancer of the zodiac; 4. cat) あらがん (v-g)
【宮古口】かん /kan/ 多與 友新 鏡来 名詞 〈全〉蟹
【賛】kulIra (= m. a ★crab.) かん(l-n, r-n)、かに(l-n, r-n)
【民】kuLir (= 07 1. ★crab, lobster; 2. cancer, a sign of the zodiac; 3. the month a1t2i) かん(l-n, r-n)、かに(l-n, r-n)
66crow
【日】カラス (烏)、ハシブト、ハシボソ   cf. 語源 【カラス (烏)】
【賛】cirAyus (= mfn. long-lived Sus3r. ; m. a deity L. ; a ★crow Gal.) からーゆす、カラス
【賛】calAcala (= 2 mfn. ( %{cal} redupl. ;) ever-moving (the wheel of Sam2sa1ra) ; moving to and fro ,movable , tremulous , unfixed , loose RV. ; unsteady , changeable MBh. ; m. a ★crow L. ; N. of a man , Tantr.) カラス
【賛】gaurATikA (= f. a kind of ★crow L.) がらすか
【チベ】ka ra da /ka ra da/ (= 1) bird of flaming red w drum-like call said to live w asuras; 2) ★crow [IW]) カラス
【賛】vAyasIbhUta (= mfn. become or being a ★crow Katha1s.) ハシブト、ハシボソ
【宮古島キッズネット】カラス    がらさ
【賛】karaTa (= m. an elephant's temple or cheek; ★crow.) がらさ、カラス
67cultivate, vt   ---- *kapes-, uʔ, utsu, 'ke:syuN, khazïruri, hadjuN, *kad-, kadzïl, なんなのコレ等。
cf. 教育漢字 耕す cultivate, till, plow  鋤く(すく)   f17#1.9
c. cultivate, till は難。plough(インド辞書表記) はアタリ。
【賛】vikRS (= ; (%{-kRSati}) , to draw a furrow , ★plough 〔~を〕すきで耕す、耕作する RV.) おこす
【民】viLAvu-tal (= 02 to ★plough round and round; to wave round) うー
【民】uzu-tal (= 01 1. to ★plough; 2. to dig up, root up, as pigs; 3. to scratch, incise, as bees in a flower; 4. to arrange or adjust, as the hair with the fingers) うつ
【賛】karSa (= m. drawing, ★ploughing, agriculture; a cert. weight.) かーしゃ
【賛】karSin (= a. drawing near, dragging, ★ploughing; attractive, inviting; m. ploughman, cultivator.) かーしゅん
【賛】kRS (= ; to draw or make furrows , ★plough RV.; ) かーす
【賛】kRS, karSati, -te (= ({kRSa3ti, -te}), pp. {kRSTa3} (q.v.) drag, draw; [[-,]] pull, tear, bend (a bow); draw furrows, ★plough (only {kR3Sati}); ) かーす、かず
【賛】halahati (= f. striking (the soil) with a ★plough , ★ploughing , furrowing W.) はず
【民】aTiccAl (= first furrow in ★ploughing) あちかール → あちかーゆん
68curse, n
【趣】áš...mú (= : to ★curse ('curse' + 'to blow, speak').) いしむ
【趣】nam-érim; nam-érin (= : solemn oath; ★curse (abstract prefix + 'enemy, destruction').) なむえりむ
【趣】kud, kur5, ku5 (= : to cut off (with -ta-); to breach (a dike); to separate; to levy tax or tribute; to ★curse (regularly followed by rá; cf., gur5, kìr, and gur10) (base with motion away from).) くち
【趣】nam...kud/ku5 (= : to ★curse (often with -ta-); to decide ('destiny' + 'to cut').) ぬーぐち
【賛】azastihan (= mfn. averting ★curses or cursers RV.) いしたま、いたま
【賛】vidUSaNa (= mf(%{A})n. defiling , detracting , corrupting R. ; n. censuring , ★reviling 〔~を〕罵倒する、非難する、罵る、〔~の〕悪口を広める, abuse , satire W.) いしざま、あしざま(悪し様)
【賛】nirvad (= P. A1. %{-vadati} , %{-te} (aor. %{-avAdiSam} , %{-vAdiSTam}) , to order off , warn off , expel or drive away VS. ; to speak out , utter AV. ; to abuse 〔人を〕罵る、〔人に〕暴言を吐く, ★revile MBh. ; to deny MW. 2.) のろった、ののし
【賛】devainasa (= n. the ★curse of the gods AV.) だふなさ → ダフマイ
【賛】devapIyu (= mfn. ★reviling or despising the gods AV.) だふまい (p-m)
【民】noRukkittaLLu-tal (= 1. to beat soundly; 2. to ★abuse roundly;) のるーぐちる
69cut, vt
cf. 教育漢字 切 き(る) 切る cut   f17#2.21
【賛】khur (= (= %{kSur} , %{chur}) cl. 6. P. %{-rati} , to ★cut , ★cut up , break in pieces Dha1tup. ; to scratch ib.) 切る、刈る
【民】kIRu (= 02 1. streak, mark, stroke line, scratch; 2. notch, furrow, indentation, gash, ★cut, slit, incision; 3. slice, piece; 4. scrawl, writing; 5. half of a coconut leaf or an esculent palmyra root) 切る
【民】veTTu-tal (= 01 1. to ★cut, as with a sword or axe; to ★cut off;) ふぁっし
【賛】viccchidya (= ind. having ★cut off &c. ; separately , interruptedly Prab.) ふぁっし
70cut, mow, vt
nakasu(m) (= "to ★cut, fell" [KUD] G (Hi) 1. "fell, ★cut down" trees etc.; "★cut, trim" beams; "knock, ★cut off; Nuzi, NB "partition off field; "★cut off dates from tree;) なぎす
【民】koy-tal (= 01 1. to pluck, cull, as flowers; 2. to ★cut, reap; 3. to shear, crop, as hair; to trim, as plants; to snip off; 4. to choose, select; 5. to plait, gather into folds, as ends of a cloth; 6. to bristle, as manes of a horse) 刈る
【民】kAraRu-ttal (= to ★reap 刈り取る kar paddy) 刈る
【賛】kRpANaka (= m. a ★sword , scimitar シミタール刀、三日月形の刀、三日月刀 L. ; (%{ikA}) f. a dagger Katha1s.) かーぱなか → くさなぎ   草薙剣の草薙(くさなぎ)
c. 草を刈る剣としては、三日月形の剣なので最適である。
71defeat, lose
cf. 教育漢字 破・敗 やぶ(る) 破る、敗る、敗れる break, defeat  負ける   f17#2.64
72defecation   排便
【趣、】stool - guza (= [CHAIR] (1431x: Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian, unknown) wr. ĝešgu-za; gu-za; gu2-za; ĝešguza; ĝešaš-te "chair 椅子, ★stool おまる、排便する, throne 王座" Akk. kussû ) 糞/屎/大便(くそ)
c. シュメールでは、椅子の事を一般に「くそ」「腰(こし)」と呼んでいた。   i.e. kuso ≒ chair
【趣】bìd, bi7 (= : n., anus (open container with motion away from).
   v., to ★defecate 排便する; to urinate 排尿する.) べべ (d-b)、びど、び
c. 糞(くそ)系なんて、クソ程ある。チベットにウンコ系は、無かった (?)。
【賛】viNmUtra (= n. (sg. or du.) ★feces 大便 and urine 尿 Mn.) 便だ
c. 【魚津弁】オンコ 【大便】、【伊予弁】 ポン 【ウンコ】、【博多弁】アポ 【糞・うんこ】
【賛】gUtha (= m. (also n. g. %{ardharcA7di}) `" ★feces 糞、糞便、排せつ物, ordure 糞、くそ"' (in the Pa1ya1si-sutta in Pa1li) see %{karNa-}.) くそ
【賛】varcas (= ; excrement , ordure , ★feces 糞 Ra1jat. Sus3r. ;) うんこ (r-n)、ぽんこ (v-p, r-n)
【賛】viS (= 3 f. (nom. %{viT}) ★feces , ordure , excrement , impure excretion , dirt Mn. ) うんち (+ん)
【賛】uccAra (= mfn. rising TS. ; m. ★feces , excrement ; discharge Sus3r.) うんこ、うんち (+ん, r 無音)、おんこ (+ん)
【チベ】khu shug (= ★excrement [RY]) くそ
【秋田弁300】へんち (死語かも)   (= 大便所のことですが、「雪隠」の変形でしょうか。今は使いませんね。)
【賛】pITha (= n. seat, ★stool お丸・便器, bench ヘンチ, pedestal.) へんち (+ ん)
【津軽弁】ばば        (= 大便            ばばでげ (うんちがしたいなぁ))
【賛】pITha (= n. seat, ★stool 大便/便座, bench, pedestal.) はばで
【八丈島弁ハチ73】◆のっとう   (糞。)
nadû (nadā'u) (= v.; 1. to throw water or fire....3.to excreate, discharge saliva 唾, mucus 粘液, tears 涙, blood 血, feces 糞, semen 精子, vomit げろ, sweat 汗, ... 涙(なみだ)[涙が代表として、動詞が日本で名詞に化けた。 or 目+水(めみず→なみだ)である。 なだそうそう、の、「なだ」]) のっとう、なだ
【賛】muSTivarcas (= n. the ★feces compacted into a ball Sus3r.) のっとうバカス
【チベ】mi gtsang ma (= shit, human ★excrement 大便 [JV]) のっとう の
【博多弁】アポ   (= stool 【糞・うんこ】)
【賛】upaveza (= m. the act of sitting down , sitting , resting TS. Ka1tyS3r. ; the act of applying one's self to or being engaged in MBh. R. ; ★stool (v.)排せつする、排便する, (n.)《医》ふん便、排せつ物, motion L. ; N. of a R2ishi.) あぱヴぁつぁ → あぽ
【富山県の高岡弁】 ばばたれ   (= 糞たれ。人を侮辱した時に使用(ばばたれのくせにこわくさい   子供だと言う表現にも使用。)
【賛】pava (= m. ( %{pU}) purification , winnowing corn Pa1n2. ; air , wind L. ; a marsh L. ; N. of a son of Nahusha VP. ; (%{A4}) f. purification RV. ; n. ★cow-dung 牛糞 L.) ばば
【宮古口】ふそぅ /fusu/多ふしゅ /fuɕu/ 多與 皆友 新鏡 来 名詞 〈全〉糞
【賛】purISa (= n. ( %{pRR}) earth , land RV. ; (esp.) crumbling or loose earth , rubbish (perhaps `" that which fills up "' , as opp. to that which flows off , `" the solid "' opp. to the fluid) , rubble , anything used to fill up interstices in a wall VS. ; ★feces , excrement , ordure S3Br. ;) ふそぅ/ふしゅ
【賛】viSTa (= 2 mfn. (for 1. s) only in %{pari-} and %{saM-v-} q.v. ; (%{A}) f. the ★feces , excrem) ふそぅ/ふしゅ
【賛】pArSI (= (?) f. ★dung L.) ふそぅ/ふしゅ
【民】pucam (= 02 1. dry cake of ★cow-dung; 2. thick part of curd; 3. chaff; 4. fortune) ふそぅノ/ふしゅノ
--
【賛】gUtha (= m. (also n. g. %{ardharcA7di}) `" ★feces , ordure "' (in the Pa1ya1si-sutta in Pa1li) see %{karNa-}.) くそ(糞)
【賛】uccAra (= mfn. rising TS. ; m. ★feces , excrement ; discharge Sus3r. ; pronunciation , utterance.) うんこ/うんち (+ん)
【民】kOviTTu (= ★cow-dung) くそ(糞)
【賛】pAvana (= ; ★cow-dung L. ; ) ふん(糞)、便(べん)
【賛】pI (= 02 1. excrement, ordure, ★faeces; 2. bloody drop ordure tree; 3. toothed-leaved tree of heaven) 便(+ん)
【琉球】クスピー   (= 下痢)
【民】vetuppam (= 1. warmth, moderate heat; 2. frothy ★diarrhoea, due to heat in the system) クスピーの (v-g-k)
【賛】varcobheda (= m. ★diarrhoea Car. ; %{-din} mfn. suffering from it ib.) クスピーだ (b-p)
c. 下痢の英語スペルは、通常 diarrhea 。しかし、インド弁辞書は英国英語なので、スペルは diarrhoea。疲れる。どこかに、英国英語スペル一覧、ないか?。
cf. https://www.lexico.com/definition/diarrhoea  diarrhea と input すると、diarrhoea が output される。
c. 「ビチビチ」もある。
【民】pEti (= 01 1. that which divides, detaches or separates; 2. one who is estranged; 3. mercury, quicksilver; 4. ★diarrhoea, purging; 5. cholera; 6. purgative, cathartic; 7. croton) びち
【民】kArakkaziccal (= a kind of ★diarrhoea) 下痢糞の(げりくその)
【琉球◇首里 DB】ナグイ /nagui/  (名詞) 意味: 大便。[名残]の意。クスkusu(糞)の上品ないいかた。
【賛】varcograha (= m. obstruction 障害 of the ★feces , constipation 便秘 Sus3r.) ナグイ (v-n)
73die
cf. 教育漢字 死ぬ die 逝く(いく)、亡す(うす)、みうす/みうせぬ、まかる、みまかる   f17#1.103
【民】kUTA-tal (= to become lifeless, as body; to ★die) くす
【民】kaiyaRu-tal (= ; 5. to ★die; 6. to become immoral) 消える
【民】kaviz-tal (= ; 5. to ★die, perish; 6. to be submerged, to founder) 消えた
74dig, vt
【趣】ḫur, ur5[ḪAR] (= : n., ★hole 穴; limb, stem, handle (ḫù, ten, + ra, 'to impress into clay', where a round hole was the symbol for 10).
   v., to scratch 引っ掻く, draw, sketch, inscribe 文字を彫る, outline; to grind; to ★dig (many small explosive sounds + ùr, 'to drag'). ) 洞(ほら)、掘る
hurru(m) (= ; NA pi. f. "hole" OAkk, Bab., M/NA [HABRUD(.DA)] in wall, door etc.; "burrow 〔小動物(ウサギやキツネ)の〕巣穴、隠れ穴" " of animal; "ravine"; "cave, mine"; Ji. pi "mouth cavity"; > hurratu; ≫ hardru; hurdatu II; issuru) 洞(ほら)、掘る
【民】poLi-tal (= 01 1. to chisel ノミで彫る, pick; 2. to split, as a stone; 3. to beat so as to break; to ★dig;) ほる(掘る、彫る)
【チベ】'bru ba /druwa/ (= 1) recite/ tell; 2) [p brus],, ★dig [into]; 3) chisel/ carve; 4) cut [IW]) どぅるわ  スペルはメチャクチャ
【十津川弁】ほぜくる  (= ほじくる)
【民】veTTikkoTTu-tal (= 1. to ★dig 掘る and remove どかす、削除, as earth 例えば、地面、土を) ほぜくった
【魚津弁】ホズル  (= ほじくる、掘る、あばく)
【民】puTai-ttal (= ; 3. to come to light; to be ★exposed 暴く(あばく)、暴露する, divulged, talked of; ) ほず
【賛】prarad (= P. %{-radati} , to scratch or cut in , ★dig out 掘る (as a channel) , mark out (as a path) RV.) ほず
【宮古口】ぷイ /puɿ/多ぷ乚 /puɭ/ 多與 新鏡 動詞 皆ぷイ、ぷり、ぷらん 〈全〉掘る
【民】paRi-ttal (= 02 1. to pluck, crop, pick off with a twist; 2. to weed, eradicate; to pull out, as an arrow; 3. to take by force; to usurp, grasp, extort, rob, plunder, confiscate; 4. to ★dig, excavate; 5. to unload; 6. to destroy; 7. to abandon; to dismiss) ぷイ/ぷ乚
【民】poLi-tal (= 01 1. to chisel, pick; 2. to split, as a stone; 3. to beat so as to break; to ★dig; 4. to make holes; to open, puncture, as blister; 1. to be perforated, punctured; 2. to become dented) ぷイ/ぷ乚
【琉球】■ひにく〔皮肉〕 / 関連語彙: / 〔皮肉をいう〕くヂルン
クヂルン /uziruN/ / (動詞) 規1ラa/ / 意味:/ / くじる。ほじくる。/ ミミー くヂルン耳をほじくる。/ ワたー くヂルン腹をほじくる意で、相手の心中を推測して悪くいう。/ ⇒ちッくヂルン突きほじくる。ミーミーくヂー穴をほじくること。ワたーくヂムヌいー他人の小さい欠点をさがし出して悪くいうこと。/ / 参考:/ / 九州方言「クジル」(菊地俗言考)。
【民】kuttiram (= 01 1. deceitguile, craftiness; 2. vileness, baseness; 3. ★sarcasm 〔人を傷つける〕皮肉[辛辣]な言葉, ★irony 皮肉。鉄の[を含む]、鉄製の, cutting speech or alllusion, insinuation; 4. cruelty, inhumanity) くヂルン
c. ついでに、「ほじくる」も確認しておく。
【民】kutaRu-tal (= 1. to ★dig up 掘る and scatter; to tear up; to scratch up and scatter, as fowls; to spill out; 2. to stir up, loosen, grub up, as earth about plants; 1. to deviate from the right course, to go astray, to miss the way; 2. to be blistered, covered with sores; 3. to become loose, rough, deranged, dishevelled, as the hair; to be disturbed, inflamed, as the eyes) くヂル
【民】protkhai (= (%{pra-ud-khai}) P. %{-khAyati} , to ★dig up , ★dig out Bhat2t2. ) ほじく、ほじく
75dirt, filth
822.】tdru (= "to become ★clay"; < tidu) 泥(どろ)
1015】 pasru j/NB, NA [BUR] (= 1. of ground "loose- ned"?; of mud "dissolved"; of grain "de- husked"?; of heart "appeased" 2. Urar. of votive offering "dedicated"; < pasdru) 泥(ひぢり) (s-j)
【民】tarai (= 03 1. the earth; 2. ★soil, land, ground) 泥(どろ)
【民】toLLam (= 1. float, raft; 2. ★mud 泥, mire) どろの
【琉球】どぅるいむ   湿原(50)
【民】toLLam (= 1. float, raft; 2. mud, ★mire ) どぅるいむ
【賛】dhUli (= f. (W. also m. ; %{dhU}?) dust (also the dusty ★soil) , powder , pollen Var. (also %{-lI}. f. L. & in comp. see below) ; a partic. number W.) 泥(どろ)
【琉球】どぅろー   泥を(60)
【賛】drApa (= m. (only L.) ★mud , mire ; ) どぅろー
【賛】dalADhya (= m. ★mud L.) どろや
【琉球】■クンドゥルー /uNduruu/ (名詞) 意味: 泥。  関連標準語:どろ〔泥〕
【民】karaTTuttarai (= 1. rugged, uneven ground; 2. hard, ★clayey soil) クンドゥルー (r-n)
【宮古口】どぅる /duru/ 多與 皆友 新鏡 来 名詞 〈全〉泥
【民】toLLi (= ★mud, soft mire) どぅる
【民】cERu (= 01 1. ★mud, mire, slush, loam; 2. liquid of thick consistency, as sandal paste; 3. kernel, as of a coconut; 4. wood-apple; 5. pus; 6. temple festival) どぅる (c-d)
【賛】dalADhya (= m. ★mud L.) どろだや、どろんこ (y-ki)
--
【賛】mRd (= 2 f. earth , soil , ★clay , loam VS. ; a piece of earth , lump of clay Mn. ; a kind of fragrant earth L. ; aluminous slate L.) 粘土(ねんど)
【賛】maliSTha (= mfn. excessively ★dirty , ★filthy ; (%{A}) f. a woman during menstruation L.) mitsa (mud, clay) みさ
【賛】maladUSita (= mfn. soiled with ★dirt , ★filthy L.) むた
【賛】drApa (= m. (only L.) ★mud , mire ;) どべ
76ditch
nartu(m) (= I "★ditch, canal" OB, M/NA [id- ]; < ndru I) 溝(みぞ) (t-z)
【趣】e-pa5(-r) (= : hydraulic 水力 system (of a particular farmer or of the land as a whole) ('levees' + 'irrigation ★ditches'; asyndetic hendiadys).) お堀(おほり) ◎, 畝(うね) (p 無音, r-n) 〇
【趣】pa4,5,6(-r) (= : irrigation ditch, small canal, dike.) 堀(ほり)
【賛】zmazA (= f. ★ditch, channel.) 溝(うなて、うなで)/池溝(うなで) (z-w)、溝(みぞ) (z 無音)
ex. 紀6 是歳(ことし)、諸国(くにぐに)に令(のりごと)して、多(さは)に池溝(うなで)を開(ほ)らしむ。
【民】tUmpuvAy (= ★drain, gutter) どぶ
【民】uTu (= 02 ★ditch or moat around) いで、 畔(あぜ)
【賛】parikhA (= f. a ★ditch or trench round a town.) 掘カー(ほりカー)
【賛】vapra (=; a ★ditch VarBr2S. ; the gate of a fortified city W. ; the circumference of a sphere or globe Gol. ; ) 掘(ほり)
【賛】pura (= n. (ifc. f. %{A}) a fortress , castle , city , town (a place containing large buildings surrounded by a ★ditch and extending not less than one Kos in length [635,3] ;) 掘(ほり)
いけみずの i-ka miṣra 外掘り(= 周囲の深い溝); 枕詞語源
【シカコ大・アッカド語辞書】
iku (igu, eku) s.; 1. ★dike 堤・溝, 2. plot of land surrounded by a dike ~
i-ka ana šut[ēšuri] (in parallelism 並列処理 with miṣra ana kunni)

用例: sa ... i-ka miṣra ittiqu kudurra unakkaru = who transgresses 〔規則・命令・道徳などを〕破る the boundary ★ditch 溝・用水路 or the boundary, or moves the boundary stone
【Black コンサイス辞】
misru(m), misirru, misaru; pi. m. & f. Bab., M/NA 1. "border, boundary 境界・周辺"; NB bel m. "(adjoining) neighbour"; "boundary mark"; "band, dividing line" on figurine etc.; jB pi. f. "limit" of time (? ≫ masdru D) 2. "territory, region"; ana m. mdti turru "to reconquer" 3. M/NA (an ornament); > masdru ?
シュメール語
ég, ék, íg, e (= : n., levee, embankment, ★dike, bund (a, e4, 'water', + ig, 'door') [EG2 archaic frequency: 12; concatenates 5 sign variants].
v., to water; to speak, say (e = sing. maru, plural hamtu, and plural maru; cf., dug4 , also di); to do (as auxiliary verb preceded by a noun).
demonstrative pron., this one; in the immediate vicinity; suffixed to ergative agent. prep., locative/terminative suffix - in; toward.)
【出雲弁】たなへじ〔2〕   (= 台所の汚水。汚水を流す溝。また、その汚水を受ける貯めます ex. たなへじね なんぞ せかっとー へんか 。 えらぇ 流れがわりが。 【= 台所の汚水の溝に なにか 引っかかってい ないか。えらく 流れが悪いが。】)
【民】tUmpuvAy (= ★drain 下水、溝、どぶ, gutter 溝) (v-j) たなへい、どぶ
【熊本弁】ぜーたん  (= どぶ,下水 生活排水が流れる溝,下水が普及してゼータンも死語か ゼータンボも)
【賛】tIrtha (= ; a ★channel 水路, iv , 8 , Paddh. ;) ぜーたん (+ん)
【民】tuNTam (= 01 1. piece, fragment, bit, slice; 2. a small piece of cloth; 3. small ★channel;) ぜーたん (N 無音)
【十津川弁】いで  (= 水源から水をひく溝)
【賛】vyud (= (or %{und}). P. %{-unatti} , to ★spring 湧き出す or gush forth 湧き出る RV. ; to sprinkle thoroughly , wet , drench 水浸し ib. ) いで、いど
【十津川弁】めぞくた  (= みぞ)
【民】mahAkhAta (= n. a deep ★ditch 溝、水路、どぶ◆かんがい、排水、境界線などとして用いる。 or moat 堀 Hcar. ; mfn. having a large ditch or moat Hit.) めぞくた (h-z)
【富山弁ゼミナール】えめぞ
 【賛】zmazA (= f. (prob. connected with %{azman}) the elevated ridge or edge of a trench or ditch 溝 or channel for water or of a vessel RV.) えめぞ、いみぞ
77dog
cf. file f20 #s.47 dog in スワデシュ 207
cf. file tibet #g.86 dog
cf. file f20 #ss21 dog in スワデシュ 100
78draw (water), vt
【賛】kambi (= f. a ★ladle or spoon L. ;) くむ 【名詞→動詞化】
【チベ】khem bu /khem bu/ (= spoon, ★ladle [IW]) くむ ぶ
【賛】phaN (= ; to ★draw off (the surface of a fluid) , skim La1t2y.: ) ふむ
【民】kuRai-ttal (= 02 1. to lessen, shorten, curtail; 2. to cut, fell, hew down; 3. to reap, as a crop; 4. to file; 5. to ★draw, as water) くむ (r-m)
79drill, make a hole
【民】poku-ttal (= to make a ★hole, perforate) ほぐ
【民】vigku-tal (= 02 to ★drill, pierce) ひく
【賛】pravikas (= P. %{-kasati} , to ★open , expand (intr.) S3is3. ; to appear , become manifest , Peasannar.) ほがす、ひらくぜ、めーぴく (p-m)
【民】agkA-ttal (= 01 to ★open the mouth) あく、あけ
80drunk, be
【民】veRippu (= 01 1. dazzle, glare; 2. longing in consequence of privation; 3. jarring; 4. ★drunkenness) 酔ひ(よひ)、よっぱ
【賛】ApIta (= 1 mfn. ★drunk up , exhausted.) 酔った(よった) 【トルコ語】içkinin etkisiyle yapılan (= ★drunken) よっぱらいの
【賛】mAda (= m. (2. %{mad}) ★drunkenness , exhilaration , delight. passion , stupor L. ; fighting war Sa1y. (cf. %{gandha-} and %{sadha-m-}).) 酩酊(めいてい)
【大分弁】ゆーた  (= 酔っぱらった)
【民】viyatan2am (= 1. vice, arising from ★drunkenness 酔っぱらった, sensuality, etc.) ゆーたナム
【熊本弁】えーくりゃー  (= 酔(よ)っぱらい エークリャーはモドンナッセ(酔っぱらいはお帰り下さい) エークライとも,動詞はエークラウ)
【賛】aGgaja (= mfn. ; ★drunkenness 酩酊 L. ; a disease L. ;) えーくりゃー
【十津川弁】よたんぼ  (= 酔っ払い)
【賛】viSapIta (= mfn. one who has ★drunk poison 毒を飲んでしまった人 Hariv.) よたんぼだ (S-t, +ん)、ようたんぼだ (S-t, +ん)
c. 【土佐弁】 ようたんぼ、よたんぼ(酔っぱらい)、【伊予弁】よーたんぼ、【出雲弁】よいたんぼ, よいたくじ, よいたく, よいだくれ
【琉球】ヨーン  (= 酔う)
【民】veRi-ttal (= 04 1. to be ★drunk, intoxicated; 2. to become mad; 3. to be frenzied; 4. to stare; 5. to be furious; 6. to be frightened; 7. to shy, as a best; 8. to look with longing eyes; 9. to stand stiff; to stand on end, as hair) ヨー
c. 「よっぱーた」等はあるが、「よっぱらい」は、イマイチ。 why?
【チベ】a ro ba /ra ro ba/ (= to be intoxicated, ★drunk) よふ、ら ろ べ
【宮古口】びゅーず  (= 酔う)
【賛】pItazeSa (= mfn. left from ★drinking ; m. remainder of anything ★drunk) びゅーず
【宮古口】びゅーふさりゃ /bʲuufusarʲa/多びーふしゃら /biifuɕara/新びゅーふさりピとぅ /bʲuufusaripɿtu/来びゅーピとぅ /bʲuupɿtu/鏡びゅーふさら /bʲuufusara/友びゅーむぬ /bʲuumunu/ 多與 新鏡 来 名詞 〈全〉酔っ払い
びゅーふさり /bʲuufusari/多びーふしゃり乚 /biifuɕariɭ/ 多友 新鏡 動詞 〈全〉酔っぱらう
【民】veRi (= 03 1. toddy; 2. ★drunkenness, ★drunken fury, intoxication; 3. giddiness; 4. bewilderment; 5. confusion, perturbation; 6. frenzy; 7. anger; 8. quickness, hastiness; 9. fragrance; 10. savagery, wildness; 11. deity; 12. sheep; 13. sheep; 14. lgnorance; 15. fear; 16. disease) びゅー
【賛】pItataila (= mfn. one who has ★drunk oil , filled with oil (cf. %{taila-pIta}) ; (%{A}) f. Cardiospermum Halicacabum and some other species L.) ふさり/ふしゃり
【宮古口】びゅー /bʲuu/多びー乚 /biiɭ/ 多與 友新 鏡 動詞 皆びゅー、びゅーい、びゃーん 多びー乚、びーん 〈與、皆、新、多、鏡、友〉(酒に)酔う  〈與、皆、新、多、鏡、友〉毒にあたる
【賛】viSa (= 2 n. venom 〔ヘビやクモなどが分泌する〕毒(液)。〔一般に〕毒(物), ★poison; adj. f. {A3} ★poisonous.) びゅー
--
【出雲弁】すいきょ  (= 酒に酔って常軌を逸すること ex. わら、また、すいきょしちょーな。 【= おまえら、また、酒に酔って常軌を逸しているな。】)
【民】cerukku (= 02 1. haughtiness, pride, arrogance, self-conceit; 2. exultation, elation; 3. daring, intrepidity, courage, as of an army; 4. infatuation 夢中(になること)、心酔、のぼせ上がり; ★intoxication 酔った状態、陶酔、酩酊; 5. wealth; 6. luxury 贅沢, indulgence 甘やかし, as in bringing up a child) すいきょ (r-y)
【大分弁】樽を回す  (= 酒に酔って暴れる)
【賛】durmada (= m. mad conception or illusion , foolish pride or arrogance Pur. ; (%{-ma4da}) mfn. ★drunken 酩酊, fierce , mad , infatuated by (comp.) RV. ; m. N. of a son of Dhr2ita-ra1sht2ra MBh. i ; of a son of Dhr2ita (father of Pracetas) ; of a son of Bhadra-sena (father of Dhanaka) ; of a son of Vasu-deva and Rohini or Pauravi1 Pur. ; %{-da-vIra-mAnin} mfn. foolishly fancying (one's self) a hero BhP. ; %{-dA7ndha} mfn. `" blinded by mad illusion "' , besotted , v , 12 , 16 ; %{-din} m. drinker , ★drunkard Pat.) 樽を回す
【土佐弁】へべれけ  (= 泥酔のさま、よいどれ)
【賛】pA (= A1. %{pape} , %{papire} RV. ; ; to drink up 飲み過ぎ, exhaust , absorb 〔時間・体力・収入・資源などを〕使い尽くす、消耗する BhP. ; to drink ★intoxicating liquors 酩酊する Buddh.: ) へべれ
81dry, vi
cf.  教育漢字 干す 乾かす dry しなびた   f17#1.33
82duck
【賛】kAmin (= ; the ruddy 血色の良い、赤い ★goose (%{cakra-vAka}) L. ;) カモ(鴨)、ガン(雁)
【民】ANTittArA (= a species of ★duck) あんちったら → あちったら → あちる → あひる △
【賛】gharghara (= mfn. (onomat.) uttered with an indistinct gurgling or purring sound Katha1s. ; sounding like gurgling Ra1jat. ; (in music applied to a particular note) ; m. an indistinct murmur , crackling (of fire) , rattling (of a carriage) , creaking L. ; laughter , mirth L. ; a ★duck アヒル (`" an owl 《鳥》フクロウ"' BR.) L. ;) がーがー、がーな (r-n)
【民】kATTuttArA (= wild ★duck) がーとり
83dull
cf. スワデシュの 207 dull (as a knife) F20#s.192
【民】maNai (= 02 1. ★blunt instrument; 2. ★bluntness) (なまる)
【博多弁(消滅)】ズーカンサン  (= dull 【鈍感な人】  ヅカンで気づかぬこと。気づかんの略。)
【民】tUgkumUjnci (= 1. ★dull にぶい、トロイ, sleepy fellow;) ずーかんにゃしー
【民】tUkkam (= 01 1. sleep, drowsiness, sleeping; 2. fatigue, weariness; 3. laziness, lassitude, ★dullness のろいこと、鈍感;) ずーかん
【京都弁】とろい  (= にぶい、のろい)
【賛】sthUla (= a. = {sthUra3}, also coarse, gross, material (opp. {sUkSma}); stupid, ★dull 鈍い; n. = {sthUlazarIra}.) とろい
c. 【富山・高岡弁】とろ(+い) 「まぬけ」「すけべ」「にぶい」の3つの意。【熊本弁】とろか (= のろい,鈍い)
【京都弁、十津川弁】どんくさい  (= にぶい、ドジ)
【民】tUgku-tal (= ; 11. to be sluggish idle, ★dull, slow; ) どんくさい (+ん)
【十津川弁】うすい  (= 頭の程度の低い)
【賛】vaThara (= mfn. stupid 間抜け, ★dull にぶい、とろい , a fool 馬鹿, blockhead 血の巡りが悪い、ばかな Hcar. ; (only L.) wicked , vile (cf. %{vaTara}) ; m. a physician ; a water-poit = %{vakra} ; = %{ambaSTha} ; = %{zabda-kAra}.) うすい
【富山県高岡弁】かちにぶい  (= 飲み込みの悪いこと。(あいつなんちゆかちにぶいやつやの!))
【賛】kAsU (= %{Us} f. (cf. %{kAzU}) a sort of spear or lance Pa1n2. ; indistinct speech L. ; speech in general L. ; light , lustre L. ; disease L. ; devotion W. ; ★understanding 理解力 L.) かち (s-t)
【賛】nirvIrya (= (%{ni4r}.) mfn. powerless , unmanly , impotent ; m. a ★weakling 弱い TBr. ; %{-tA} f. unmanliess , powerlessness , impotence 不能, exhaustion A1past. BhP.) にぶい
c. 理解力が無い。
【名古屋弁】にすい  (= 「にぶい」「弱い」)
【賛】niHsaha (= a. unable to bear or resist (---); defenceless, ★weak 弱い, impotent, abstr. {-tA} f.) にすい
【名古屋弁】も(+っ)さい  (= 「どんくさい」「鈍い」「気が利かない」)
【賛】mUDha (= ; stupid 間抜け, foolish , ★dull にぶい, silly , simple Mn. ; swooned , indolent L. ; ) もっさい (d-s)
【民】metten2al (= expr. signifying (a) being smooth or soft; (b) being gentle; (c) being slow 遅い、トロイ; (d) being ★dull) もっさいな (t-s)
【琉球】カンドゥーサン   (= 勘がにぶい)
【民】kUzai (= 02 1. that which is short; 2. ★dullness 鈍感 of intellect, stupidity; 3. a mode of versification. -> kUzaittoTai ; 4. dwarf snake. -> kUzaippAmpu) かんどぅー (+ん)
84dust
【賛】pAMsukUla (= n. a ★dust-heap , (esp.) a collections of rags out of a ★dust-heap used by Buddhist monks for their clothing DivyA7v. ;) ほこり(埃) (su 無音)
【賛】parAga (= m. sgl. & pl. the pollen of a flower (poss. {-gin}), ★dust i.g.) ふき
【民】pUzi (= 1. powder; 2. ★dust; 3. sacred ashes; 4. soft mire or mud; 6. bubble in mudy water) ふき (z-k)
【賛】kiraNa (= m. very small ★dust, a mote, a ray or beam of light.) ゴミ
【民】kacam (= 02 ★filth ごみ、汚物、汚い[ひわいな]言葉、(道徳的)腐敗、堕落; dirt (TLS)) ゴミ
【賛】mudritapAMsu (= mfn. making impressions on ★dust or sand (said of drops of water) Amar.) むたぶき (s-k)
--
【民】tULi (= 03 1. ★dust; 2. pollen) チリ(塵)
【賛】saraja (= mfn. ★dusty , dirty BhP. ;) チリ(塵)
85ear, grain
【趣】innu [★STRAW] (169x: Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian, unknown) wr. in; in-nu; in-u-da "★straw" Akk. tibnu) 稲(いね)
pu(m) II, pd'um, pium (= "★chaff [IN.BUBBU 稲穂]; esp. as symbol of worthlessness istu p. adi hurdsim "from ★chaff to gold")   穂(ほ)、穂の(ほの)   [= もみ]
【賛】palAva (= m. ★chaff , husks 殻、抜け殻 AV. ; a fish-hook , Va1sav.) ほ (l 無音)
【民】pAvili (= a kind of ★ear-ornament 耳) ほ (l 無音)
【民】pOr (= 02 1. joining fast together; 2. heap; accumulation; 3. heap of unthreshed 脱穀されていない ★grain, straw stack;) ほ、ほー
c. 複合語:稲穂の(稲 + 穂の)---→ いほの
86earth
cf. 教育漢字 地 チ、ジ、つち、ところ earth, ground  なゐ、じめん、だいち、地震   f17_1"n.366
c. dust/tUci or tusta/土、 英印日同族
cf. 上代日本語サンプル 土    f17#on.42
【趣643.】naĝa(= [★MORTAR] (26x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ĝešnaĝa3; naĝa3ĝa2; ĝešnaĝa4 "mortar" Akk. esittu) 土(にた) (ĝ-t)
cf. 琉球祖語 *mita「土」と上代日本語の tuti「土」 (html) 「大(おほ)―土(みた)―族(から)」
c. *mita (沖縄)> nita (本州)---- オカシイと思う。∵ シュメールの時点で、既に N。
c. おほ・みた・から ---- オカシイと思う。∵ シュメールの下記と不整合。おほみ・たみ・から、である。
【趣】補(82.) ★citizen - namdumuĝir (= [STATUS] (2x: Ur III) wr. nam-dumu-ĝir15 "★citizen status") 民(たみ/みたから/おほみたから) ( 部分抽出すると可能) ◎
nishu(m) I, nisalihu; pi. f., NA nishdni (= "extract(ion)" Bab., NA 1. 'act of extraction': OB pi. "evacuations"; sab nishdtim "people torn away (from work), runaways"; NB ~ "(advance) payment" for workers; n. sa PIN (local tariff or due date 7 ); astr. "orbital velocity"? [Zl] 2. 'result of extraction': OB "(what is) torn out, stubble" of plant; "excavated ★earth, material taken (from s.th.)"; "(concentrated) extract"? of oil; "(choice) cut" of meat; j/NB, NA "section of a tablet series"; < nasdhu) みた
c. 「I believe tuti is a Paekche loan and mita is the original Japonic word」だって、「シュメール誤、アッカド語、古代インド語に失礼。」でオマス。多分。尚、Paekche とは英語で「百済」のこと。
【民】nIrccAyvu (= wet ★soil 濡れ土) みたゆ、みた
【賛】dharaNI (= f. (cf. %{-Na} and %{-Ni}) the earth , the ★soil or ground MBh. Ka1v. Pur. ; a vein or tubular vessel of the body L. ;) 泥ノ
【賛】dhUli (= f. (W. also m. ; %{dhU}?) dust (also the dusty ★soil) , powder , pollen Var.) どろ
【熊本弁】どろ  (= 土 共通語では水混じりの軟らかい土のことだが,乾いた土も含む。今では微妙)
【長野弁】べど (= :(全県)「土」の意。)
【魚津弁】ベト  (= 土、泥)
【民】paTi (= 05 ★earth 土) べど
【民】pITu (= 02 1. waste, uncultivated land; inferior ★soil 土、土壌;) べと 【魚津弁】ジャッケツ  (= 砂混じりの土壌)
【賛】saikata (= , f. {I} sandy, consisting or made of sand. n. (a. --- f. {A}) ★sandy soil, sandbank, poss. {-tin}.) じゃっけつ  ◎ 100 点
【賛】saikateSTa (= n. `" liked by ★sandy soil "' , ginger L.) じゃっけつ
【琉球】つち〔土〕 / [首里・那覇方言]
関連語彙:ミちャー
〔土まみれになること〕ミちャーブイ,ミちャーブッたー,〔土の塊〕ブラーちち,〔土のついた足〕ミちャービサー,〔土の中〕ミちャーヌミー(→ミちャー),〔土を足でねる者〕ミちャークナーサー,〔土の種類〕いッぷ,クちャー,くルミちャー,シナーヂ,ヂャーガルー,ニービ,ハーミちャー,マーヂ ‐ちち
c. 何コレ?。 同じ、日本なのか、と、疑いたくなる。
【賛】mAdhavI (= f. the ★earth (also with %{devI}) R. ; `" spring-flower "' , Gaertnera Racemosa Ka1lid. BhP. ; honey-sugar L. ;..) ミちャー
c. 「ミミズ」は、多分、親戚。earthworm
【琉球】ミミジャー  (= ミミズ)
【賛】mahIlatA (= f. an ★earthworm , dew-worm L.) ミミジャー (l-m)、みみず 【琉球】earth 土 んーちゃ n-cha
【賛】manuja (= m. `" Manu-born "' , a man MBh. ; (%{A} or %{I}) f. a woman ib. ; %{-nAtha} (Das3.) , %{-pati} (R. &c.) m. `" lord of men "' , a prince , king ; %{-loka} m. `" world of men "' , the ★earth MBh. ;) んーちゃ
【民】mAtiru (= 1. mother; 2. ★earth; 3. goddess of wealth; 4. cow; 5. brahmin woman; 6. sky; 7. the twenty-seventh naks2atra) んーちゃ (+ん)、マザー
c. 「んーちゃ 大地」と「マーザ/マザー 母」は、同じでした。とさ。
【箍】mundo (= world, globe, ★earth, universe) むんど
【タ】methnīdl (= ★earth, ground, land) めーちゃんだる?
【チベ】snying po'i gzhi /nying pö zhi/ (= - ★earth, that holds everything, all substances [JV]) にーんぐ ぽー ちー 、んーんちゃ?
【チベ】nya gro dha /nya dro dha(?)/ (= - banyan or indian fig tree [SK literally means growing downwards" (fibres descend from itsh branches to the ★earth and there take root and form new stems [IW]) にや どろ ちゃ、んーちゃ?
c. チベット語の馬鹿スペルは、崩れ切っている。
【宮古口】ふちゃんた /futɕanta/與ふたンた /futamta/ 與友 新鏡 来 名詞 〈全〉粘土状の土
【民】pacaimaN (= ★clay 粘土 (TLS)) ふちゃん
c. 「ふちゃんた」の「た」は、不明。 誰か、考えて下さい。
【宮古口】ンた /mta/ 多與 新鏡 来 名詞 〈全〉土
【賛】mRdA (= f. clay , loam , ★earth S3vetUp.) ンた
--
【民】tarA (= 03 ★earth 地球、大地、寺) テラ
87east
cf. 教育漢字 東 トウ、ひがし、あずま east   f17_1#n.362
【琉球】アガリ(あがり)/ 意味/ 東/ 解説/ 太陽が上る方角なので「アガリ」といいます。/ / 沖縄では東江(あがりえ)という姓や地名があり、比較的よく聞く方言。
【民】arukkan2Ricai (= ★east) アガリさい
【琉球】アガリンケー   (= 東向き)
【民】arukkan2Ricai (= ★east) あがりんけー (+ん, c-k)
【宮古口】あがイ /agaɿ/多あが乚 /agaɭ/ 多與 皆友 新鏡 来 名詞 〈全〉東
◇【あじまぁ】アガリ(あがり)/ 意味/ 東/ 解説/ 太陽が上る方角なので「アガリ」といいます。/ / 沖縄では東江(あがりえ)という姓や地名があり、比較的よく聞く方言。
【民】arukkan2Ricai (= ★east) アガリさい、あがイ、あが乚
【宮古口】あがイ /agaɿ/多あが乚 /agaɭ/ 多與 友新 鏡 動詞 皆あがイ、あがり、あがらん 〈全〉上がる  〈皆、與、新、鏡〉緊張する
cf. 教育漢字 上 のぼ(る) 上る rise  にほん、日本、あがる   f17#2.67
【民】akai-ttal (= 02 1. to sprout; 2. to ★rise; 3. to proceed at intervals 1. to trouble, oppress 2. to drive, cause to go, send forth 3. to beat; 4. to break; 5. to cut into pieces; 6. to ★raise) あが
◇【あじまぁ】■アガユン 上がる
【民】akavERRam (= dearth of grain, ★rise in the price of grain) アガユン
【賛】mahAvAta (= m. a great or stormy wind Ka1m. ; %{-vyAdhi} m. a great or severe ★nervous ナーバス、緊張、神経質な disorder Sus3r. ; %{-samUha} m. a tempest MBh.) あがった (m 強無音, v-g)
--
【民】kainaTukkam (= tremulousness of the hand through age, ★nervousness, etc) 緊張カモ(きんちょうかも)
【民】cavaikkOzai (= one who is ★nervous in company or assembly) 神経質(しんけいしつ)/神経症 (v-n)
88eat, vt.
cf. 教育漢字 食う eat   f17#1.142
cf. 教育漢字 食らう devour   f17#1.143
cf. 教育漢字 食 た(べる) 食べる eat   f17#2.210
【佐久弁】まくらう  (= 食べる   ex. おーまくれー(大食い))
【賛】nigara (= m. ★eating 食べること, swallowing W.) まくらう
【民】nakkal (= 01 1. food taken by licking, one of aintun2avu , q.v.; 2. electuary taken by licking with the tongue; 3. boiled rice; 4. leavings scrapings; 5. ★eating; ) まくらう
【長野弁】まくらう:(全県)「大食する」の意。
【民】nukar-tal (= 1. to enjoy; to experience, as the fruits of actions; 2. to ★eat 食べる, drink; 3. to do, perform) まくらう
【賛】nigRR (= 2. P. %{-girati} , or %{-gilati} Pa1n2. (%{-griNAti} Pa1rGr2. ; aor. %{-gArIt} RV. ; fut. %{-gariSyati} Katha1s. ; inf. %{-giritum} ib.) ; to swallow 飲み込む, ingurgitate ガツガツ食べる、ガブガブ飲む, ★devour 貪り食う、ガツガツ食べる RV. ; to swallow i.e. totally appropriate Katha1s.:) まくらー
【長野県の諏訪弁】[やっとくれ] (= 食べてください、飲んでくださいということ)
【賛】vyad (= P. %{-atti} , to bite through or on all sides , gnaw , nibble , ★eat 食べる R.) やっと
【賛】vyaz (= P. A1. %{-aznAti} , %{-azIte} , to ★eat up 完食する、どんどんやって, consume by ★eating RV.) やっと
【賛】kA (= 3 = %{kan} (perf. %{cake} , %{cakAna4} ; see %{kA4yamAna} s.v.) , to seek , desire , yearn , love (with acc. and dat.) RV. ; to like , enjoy , be satisfied with (loc. gen. or inst.) RV.: Intens. (p. %{cAka4t}) to ★please ~して下さい, be sought after , be ★wished for ~を希望する, satisfy RV. x , 29 , 1 (cf. %{anu-} , %{A-} , %{saM-} 3. %{kA} , %{kAti}.)) けー、くれ、けれ
【琉球】カムン  (= 食べる)
c. [ハチ21 八丈島弁] かむ(食べる) ex. あさけい かんできたらよー
【賛】jam (= 2 (derived fr. %{jama4d-agni}) cl. 1. %{ja4mati} , to go Naigh. ; to ★eat Dha1tup. : Intens. 強調用法 p. %{jAjamat} consuming continually 連続消費 MBh. ) かむ (j-g-k)/じゃむ
【賛】kavalaya (= Nom. P. %{-yati} , to swallow 〜を飲み込む[下す] or gulp down , ★devour Hcar.) かめヤ (v-m)
【賛】kavalIkR (= to swallow or ★eat up , devour Na1g.) かめーくー(v-m)、かめーくらえ (v-m)
--
【賛】sarvabhuj (= mfn. ★all-devouring BhP.) たらふく (s-t, j-g-k)
【琉球】クヮイン 食らう --- c. 説明不足だと思う。沢山食う、なのか、「拳骨をくらう」のどっちだ?。
【有 アルバニア語】gelltis (= gobble, ★devour, gulp, absorb, pocket, down) くらてぃす
【賛】gRR (= ;; to swallow , ★devour 貪り食う、ガツガツ食べる, eat RV. ) クヮイ、くらう
【民】kallu-tal (= ; 4. to ★eat away, as causetic誤字 caustic〔言葉・意見・批評などが〕辛辣な、痛烈な; ) クヮイ、くらう
【チベ チベット語】cur (= to ★devour, entire [RY]) くらう
【宮古口】ふぉー  (= 食べる)
【賛】vevI (= (cf. Intens. of 1. %{vI}) cl. 2. A1. %{vevIte} (3. pl. %{vevyate} ) , to go ; to pervade ; to conceive ; to desire ; to throw ; to ★eat ) ふぉー
【民】vAyvai-ttal (= 1. to ★eat; 2. to blow, as wind-instrument;) ふぉー
【宮古口】ふぉー /foo/多ふー /fuu/新ふぁヴ /faʋ/友ふぁう /fau/ 多與 友新 鏡 動詞 皆ふぉー、ふぁい、ふぁーん 多ふー、ふぇー、ふぁーん 〈全〉食べる
cf. 島の散歩 #131  ふぉー  食べる
【民】vAyvai-ttal (= 1. to ★eat; 2. to blow, as wind-instrument; 3. to taste; 4. to meddle; 5. to learn a little; to have a desultory knowledge; 1. to bite; 2. hear) ふぉー/ふー/ふぁヴ、くう/くふ (v-k)
【賛】valbh (= cl. 1. A1. to take food , ★eat Dha1tup.) ふぉー/ふー/ふぁヴ、くう/くふ (v-k)
【宮古口】んきゃぎ /nkʲagi/多んかぎ乚 /nkagiɭ/ 多與 新鏡 動詞 皆んきゃぎ、んきゃぐん 多んかぎ乚、んかぎん 〈全〉召し上がる、「食べる、飲む」の尊敬語
【民】nukar-tal (= 1. to enjoy; to experience, as the fruits of actions; 2. to ★eat, drink; 3. to do, perform) んきゃぎ/んかぎ乚 (r 反復)、飲み食い(のみくい)
c. この単語、少し、変わっている。珍しい。「召し上がる」は、「飯(めし)上がる(= to eat)」で【】のアッカド語 akalu(m) が謙譲語化した。と、解釈していたが、違うのか?。
akalu(m) (= "to ★eat" G (a/u) [GU7] 1. of men, animals "★eat, feed (on)";~) あかる(食べる)、あがる
【賛】AhArya (= mfn. to be taken or seized ; to be fetched or brought near A1s3vS3r. ; to be extracted or removed Sus3r. ; to be taken or ★eaten ;) あかり、--- cf. 宴(とよのあかり)
cf. 教育漢字 食う eat   f17#1.142
c. mukar のスペルは、シュメール語風に見ると、向く(むく)で、口(くち)を表す。食べるの感覚では「モグモグ」に対応する。
89eel
【民】En2ai (= 02 1. ★eel, anfuilla ; 2. a musical note) うない
【民】vilAgku (= ★eel, brownish, attaining more than 4 ft. in length, anguilla bengalensis) うなぎ (l-n)
【出雲弁】みょうりん  (= 〔魚〕ウナギの幼魚 ex. 川がえしたらみょうりんも取れた 【= 川がえしたらウナギの幼魚も取れた】
解説     川がえ=流れの一部を堰き止めて水をくみ出し、魚を取る子供の夏の遊び)
【民】mayirai (= 1. cf. brownish or greenish sand ★eel ウナギ; 2. cubeb) みょうりん (+ん)
【京都弁】まむし  (= 鰻の蒲焼)
【民】mOn2avarAl (= sand ★eel, brownish or greenish, attaining 15 in. in length, rhynchobdella aculeata) まむし (v 無音, r-s)
【十津川弁】いもうなぎ  (= うなぎの一種)
【民】En2ai (= 02 1. ★eel うなぎ, anfuilla anguilla 《魚》ウナギ属; 2. a musical note) いも、うない
【民】vilAgku (= ★eel, brownish, attaining more than 4 ft. [30.48cm ×4 = 120 cm] in length, anguilla bengalensis) うなぎ (l-n)
cf. 【十津川弁】はりうなぎ 【鰻の仔魚】。 「いも」、「はり」、ともにインド弁で「うなぎ」であった。
c. イタリア語で、ウナギは、冠詞がついて、ウナギッラ♪
ウナギ、ウナゴ、アナゴ、コウナゴ
同系です♪   だって。 by ❤️ミハイル大皇帝❤️ 氏
【十津川弁】がにくい  (= 鰻の一種)
【民】kiLuvai (= 1. common teal, querquedula creca; 2. indian balm of gilead, common hedge plant, l . sh., balsamoderndorn berryi ; 3. hill balsam tree, m. tr. balsamodendron caudatum ; 4. a kind of ★eel ウナギ, grig 〈英方言〉小さいウナギ) がにくい (L-n, v-k)
c. 【英】grig /グリグ/ 〈英方言〉小さいウナギ。 は、発音が「がにくい」とよく似ている。多分、必然。
c. 十津川村の人への質問: 「がにくい」って、小型のウナギですか?
【十津川弁】はりうなぎ  (= 鰻の仔魚)
【民】pErArAl (= thornybacked eel うなぎ, rich brown, attaining more than 2 ft.[30.48cm ×2 = 60 cm] in length, mastacembelus armatus) はり
【民】pEyArAl (= Eel, rich brown, attaining more than 2ft. in length, mastacembelus armatus) はり
cf. 【十】いもうなぎ 【うなぎの一種】
cf. mastacembelus armatus
【民】vilAgku (= eel, brownish, attaining more than 4 ft. in length, anguilla bengalensis) うなぎ (l-n)
c. 普通のウナギが 4 feet の 120 cm 以上と言っているので、「はり」は 2 feet 60 cm 以上で、小型のウナギと推察される。なので、「鰻の仔魚」との解釈は合っている。
【魚津弁】オナギ(グ)  (= うなぎ(魚類))
【民】vilAgku (= ★eel ウナギ, brownish, attaining more than 4 ft. in length, anguilla bengalensis) おなぎ、おなぐ (l-n)
【讃岐弁】ベエスケ (= 大型のあなご。)
【民】vilAgku (= eel うなぎ, brownish, attaining more than 4 ft. in length, anguilla bengalensis) べらけ → べえすけ (l-s)、うなぎ (l-n)、あなご (l-n)
c. 4 フィート = 4 × 30.5 = 122.0 cm ---- 大きいな。
---
【京都弁】うなぎのねどこ(寝床)  (= 京都の町屋のたとえ、間口が狭くて奥行が深いから)
【賛】Amandra (= a. somewhat deep or ★hollow (of a sound).) うなぎの (d-g, r-n)
【賛】nADika (= mfn. ifc. id. BhP. ; (%{A}) f. a ★hollow stalk 空洞の幹 Jyot. ; any tubular organ (as a vein or artery of the body) Ka1tyS3r. ;) ねどこ
c. 奈良弁では「ひゃわい」で、路地。隙間の意。 hollow は、隙間の意。
90egg
cf. 教育漢字 卵 たまご egg   f17_1#n.362
【民】civappukkaru (= yolk 卵黄、(卵の)黄身 of an ★egg) かぴんこル (c-k, +ん)
【賛】Dimbha (= m. a new-born child, fool, ignorant; young animal, sprout of a plant; ★egg, globe.) とぅなか、たまご
【琉球】クーガ(くーが)/ クーガ/ / 意味/ 卵/ 解説/ ニワトリの卵はもちろんですが、沖縄では烏骨鶏やダチョウの卵も市場ではよく見かけます。/ / ※ちなみに男性器のことを「クーガ」という場合もありますのでご注意。
【賛】kozaka (= m. an ★egg , testicle 睾丸(こうがん) L. ; (%{ikA}) f. a drinking-vessel L. ; (%{am}) n. case , receptacle of (in comp.) Ma1rkP. ) クーガ (z 無音)、カイグゥ、卵(かひこ) (z-i)
万9-1755; 鴬の 卵(かひこ)の中に 霍公鳥 独り生れて~
【民】veLLaikkaru (= the white of ★egg) ふーがー、あらかい
【民】karppam (= 1. ★embryo 〔人間の〕胎芽、胚◆受精卵が分裂を始めてから8週目の終わりまでの、分化が終了する前の状態を指す。9週目以降は胎児(fetus)と呼ばれる。, foetus 〔人間の〕胎児, the young in the womb; 2. womb; matrix; 3. fig, essence, sustance; inside, inner contents of anything; 4. crisis of a plot in a drama, one of five na1t2aka-c-canti , q.v.; 5. name of an upanis2ad) かびの
【民】karuvam (= 02 foetus, ★embryo) かびの
【賛】gabha (= m. womb, inside, interior (adj. --- having in the interior, containing, filled with); fetus, ★embryo, scion, fruit, offspring, child.) かび
91eggplant
【悪832.】nassabu(m), nanlmsabu, nussabum, nunsabu (= ; pi. f. Bab., NA 1. "drain pipe" 2. (a type of ★cucumber 胡瓜) ; < nasabu I) 茄子(なすび) ◎ ?--意味不明。
【十津川弁】なすび  (= 茄子)
【賛】mahoTihA (= or %{mahoTI} f. the ★eggplant 茄子、ナス Bhpr.) なすび(h 無音)、なす (h 無音)
c. 【富山弁】なすび 【なす。茄子。】
92enemy
cf. 教育漢字 敵 てき enemy   f17_1#n.115
cf. 教育漢字 ◆仇 かたき foe, enemy あた、あだ   f17_1#n.116
93extinguish, vt
cf. 教育漢字 消す extinguish   f17#1.135
【琉球】■チェースン    (動詞)  消す。
【賛】saMdas (= (only pf. p. P. %{-dadasva4s}) , to die out or become ★extinguished (as fire) RV. ) チェース
【賛】saMzam (= ; to be ★extinguished 消火 S3Br. ; ) チャースン
--
【民】keTu-ttal (= 02 1. to destroy, annihilate; to squander, as wealth; to ★extinguish; 2. to damage, spoil tarnish, blast in jure; 3. to corrupt, demoralize, seduce, violate; ) 消す(けす)
94fall, vt (rain)
cf. 教育漢字 降 ふ(る) 降る rain   f17#2.63
cf. 教育漢字 落 お(ちる) 落ちる   f17#2.117
c. 【英】fall /フォール/ --- フル (f-f, l-l) そのまんま東。
【宮古口】ふイ /fuɿ/多ふ乚 /fuɭ/ 多與 友新 鏡 動詞 皆ふイ、っふぃ、っふぁん 〈全〉降る
【民】pey-tal (= 1. to ★rain, ★fall, as dew 露(つゆ)、しずく or hail アラレ; ) ふイ
---
【賛】pravRSTa (= mfn. begun 始める to ★rain or to pour down (instr.) MBh.; (%{e}) ind. when it ★rains Var.) 降る(ふる)、降り出した
【賛】pUrvavat (= ind. as before , as hitherto , as heretofore , as aforesaid ; according to something previous (applied in the Nya1ya to a kind of inference such as inferring from the previous appearance of a cloud that rain will fall) ) --- pre-(ふる、古)と fall(降る)は同じ。
c. 【賛】さんは、previous プレビィアス の pre. ブレは、古(ふる)であり、しかも、雨降りの降る(ふる)と同源だ、と、おっしゃっています。 cf. f20#pre.
--
【趣888】šeĝ3,7, še7(= : rain; to ★rain (šu, 'to pour' + to mete out).) しぐれ (+ れ)
万3-0423; ~  九月(ながつき)の しぐれの時は 黄葉(もみちば)を 折り挿頭(かざ)さむとあらむ ~
万8-1440; 春雨のしくしく降るに高圓(たかまと)の山の桜はいかにかあるらむ c. 【趣772.】の雨時化(しけ)も兼務。
95fang
【民】kOraippal (= canine ★tooth 犬歯 (TLS)) きば (l 無音)
【民】kompu (= 1. bough, branch, twig; 2. seedling; 3. stick, staff, pole; 4. poles of a palanquin, etc.; 5. horn of an animal; 6. ★tusk of an elephant or hog; 7. horn, pipe, cornet; 8. squirt, tube for discharging fluids in jets; 9. the symbol in certain tamil letters as ke, ko; kE, ko; 10. farthest end of a tank bund) こむぷ → こぷ → きば
【民】pal (= 02 1. ★tooth; ★fang 牙; 2. tusk; 3. fluke of an anchor; 4. cog of a wheel; tooth of a saw or sickle; 5. tooth of a comb; 6. scollop in the border of a garment; indentation; notch; 7. the inner tooth-like piece, as of garlic; 8. small piece of cocoanut pulp) ぱる → は
96fat (oil)
cf. 教育漢字 油 あぶら oil, butter   f17_1#n.122
【趣351.】ghee - i'abdea [GHEE] (= wr. i3-ab2-de2-a "ghee, clarified ★butter") 油/脂(あぶら) (i' 無音, d-l)
c. ghee は、バターの油脂のこと。 oil で引くと、i[oil] とあるので、油のうちバター系の名のみが日本語に来た。
c. 質門:アブダカラブラと、i'abdea は関係あるか?。
【趣351-2】i [OIL] (= (8654x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian, unknown) wr. i3; u5; u2 "oil; ★butter; container for oil" Akk. tallum; šamnu) 油(ゆ)
【民】atipalam (= true croton ★oil クロトン油 plant (TLS)) あぶらノ (t 無音)
【琉球】アンラ(あんら)/ または:アンダ / / アンラ/ / 意味/ 油/ 脂/ 解説/ 暑く湿度が高い沖縄では、食べ物がいたみやすく、油を使った料理は多いです。/ / 沖縄では豚の脂を料理油として用いる事が多いです。
【賛】Amrataila (= n. mango ★oil L.) アンラたいら、アンラ
c. 「あぶら」も有る。
【民】vEppeNNey (= ★oil extracted from margosa seeds. マゴサ種子から抽出された油) あぶら (N-l)
【宮古口】あっヴぁ /avva/ 多與 友新 鏡 名詞形容詞 〈全〉(動物や料理用などの)油  (車などの)燃料  (形容的に使われて)油っこい
【民】URRuppU (= rediuum誤字 Residuum of the kernel of the coconut after the ★oil has been expressed therefrom, dist. fr. pizintapU オイルがそこから搾り出された後のココナッツの穀粒の残留物、dist。 fr ピジンタプ) あっヴぁ、【宮古島キッズネット】あっぱぁ
97female, animal
cf. 教育漢字 女 ジョ、ニョ、ニョウ、おんな、め、むすめ、めあわせる、なんじ woman, female   f17_1#n.379
【趣】munus[SAL]; nunus[Emesal](= : ★female; woman (this pronunciation found in absolute inflection,
   cf., ) (mí, 'woman', + nuz/nus, 'egg') (cf., mí/mu10, nunuz, and etymology of nitaḫ).) メス、メ
murte'dtu — » re'u Gt inurtu, mustu (= "young ★female animal" MA, MB; < mum nulrtu — » wu'urtum) メス
【賛】menA (= f. a woman (also the ★female of any animal) RV. ; speech ( = %{vAc}) Naigh. i , 11 ; N. of the daughter of Vr2ishan2-as3va RV. ; of an Apsaras (= %{menakA} , wife of Hima-vat and mother of Parvati1) Hariv. R. ; of a river MBh.) 雌、女、♀
【賛】mAtR (= 1 f. mother (applied also to the earth, the cow, the sticks of attrition, in respectful address to near relatives or elderly women i.g.); E. of Laks2mi1 & Durga1; du. father and mother, heaven and earth; du. & pl. the sticks of attrition; pl. the (7, 8, 9, or 16) divine mothers, or the (8) ★female Manes.) マザー、メス
【出】めんた, めんし  (= 雌 ex. 此の兎はめんただ 【= 此の兎は雌だ】)
【賛】mAtR (= 1 f. ★mother (applied also to the earth, the cow, the sticks of attrition, in respectful address to near relatives or elderly women i.g.); E. of Laks2mi1 & Durga1; du. father and ★mother, heaven and earth; du. & pl. the sticks of attrition; pl. the (7, 8, 9, or 16) divine ★mothers, or the (8) ★female メス Manes.) めんた/めんし (+ん)
c. mother マザー、だって。
【熊本弁】めっちょ  (= メス ソンメジロ(目白)ハ メッチョタイ(そのメジロは雌だよ) メジロのメスはさえずらないのでメッチョカスとも)
【賛】mAtR (= 1 f. mother 母 (applied also to the earth, the cow, the sticks of attrition, in respectful address to near relatives or elderly women i.g.); E. of Laks2mi1 & Durga1; du. father and mother, heaven and earth; du. & pl. the sticks of attrition; pl. the (7, 8, 9, or 16) divine mothers, or the (8) ★female メス Manes.) めっちょ
【奈良弁】めん。めんた。  (= 雌)
【十津川弁】めん、めんた  (= 雌 牝)
【賛】menA (= f. wife, ★female.) めな、めん
【賛】muni (= ; (%{i}) f. a ★female Muni (also %{I}) Un2. ; ) むに、めん
【賛】muNDa (= ; (%{A}) f. a (close-shaved) ★female mendicant L. ; ) めんた
【賛】mAtR (= 1 f. mother 母 (applied also to the earth, the cow, the sticks of attrition, in respectful address to near relatives or elderly women i.g.); E. of Laks2mi1 & Durga1; du. father and mother, heaven and earth; du. & pl. the sticks of attrition; pl. the (7, 8, 9, or 16) divine mothers 聖なる母, or the (8) ★female 雌、メス Manes.) めんた (+ん)
【民】manti (= 01 1. ★female monkey 雌猿; 2. monkey in general; 3. bee) めんた
--
【宮古口】みーびき /miibiki/ 多與 新鏡 来 名詞 〈全〉雌雄同体
【賛】naranArIvilakSaNA (= f. `" having the signs of man and woman "' , a ★hermaphrodite 〔人の〕両性具有者、半陰陽者。《生物》〔動植物の〕雌雄同体[株・花] Gal.) みーびきサン
--
【民】peNNali (= ★hermaphrodite with feminine characteristics predominating) はんなり
【民】makaNmA (= 1. a fabulous animal having the form of a woman 女性の形をした素晴らしい動物; 2. ★hermaphrodite) おかま (m 強無音)、おかんま (m 強無音)
【民】kOcA (= 01 ★hermaphrodite, eunuch 去勢された[去勢手術を受けた]男性。〔ハーレム【harem】に仕えた〕宦官。〈話・侮蔑的〉〔役に立たない〕無能[無力]な男) 宦官(かんがん) (+ん, c-k-g, +ん)
c. 「はんなり」は「半成り」で、 inter sex 半陰陽 と思っていたが web で調べると hit しない。 京都弁の「優雅」になってしまう。「ふたなり」の勘違いだったかも知れないとインド弁辞書を調べたが、hermaphrodite に「ふたなり」はなかった。カタツムリは、両性具だって。
c. 「みーびき」って、単純に、「みー 雌(メス)」と「びき 雄(オス)」の気もするが。
【賛】menA (= f. wife, ★female.) ママ、めー
【民】pukalvi (= ★male of an animal) ひきるび → びき
c. 【賛】naranArIvilakSaNA のスペルが、【賛】menA + 【民】pukalvi、とソックリだ。これは偶然か、それとも、必然か?。
98ferment
【民】pan2agkAykkATi (= dilution 〔液体を〕薄める[希釈する]こと of palmyra pulp in water, ★fermented to give relish 〔飲食物のおいしい〕風味、味わい to palmyra jelly パルミラゼリーを味わうために発酵させられた) 風味きゅーん、ふーみきかーす (n-m)
【民】viLaiyavai-ttal (= 1. to cause to mature or ripen; 2. to make a thing serve its purpose; 3. to cause to be productive; 4. to allow to crystallize; 5. to set aside ~を脇[傍ら]に置く、取りのけておく、取っておく、蓄えておく to ★ferment, as indigo 発酵のために取っておくこと、例えばインディゴを; 6. to kindle a fire for burning a corpse) 風味きわい (L-m, y-ki)
【賛】paJcAGgarasa (= m. the water of boiled rice or pulse 〔食用の〕豆類 three days old (undergoing spontaneous ★fermentation) L. ; `" secret doctrine of SivaN. of a ch. of the SkandaP. (also %{-khaNDa}) and of a Tantra wk.) ぱにゃきかーせ、風味効かせ
【糸島弁】うんぞわきする  (= 群れて湧く(シロアリ))
【賛】uRaz-tal (= ; 3. to be close, dense, ★crowded 混雑; ) うんぞ (R-n)
【賛】vIgku-tal (= ; 6. to be close, ★crowded; ) わき、わく
【宮古口】ばキ /bakɿ/ 多與 新鏡 動詞 皆ばキ、ばき、ばかん 〈皆、與、多、新、鏡〉発酵する   〈皆、與、多、新、鏡〉(水が)湧きでる
【民】pogku-tal (= 01 1. to boil up, bubble up by heat; 2. to foam and rage, as the sea; 3. to increase; 4. to expand, swell, as with joy; 5. to shoot up; 6. to be elated, spirited; 7. to burst in anger; 8. to be haughty; 9. to ferment 発酵する。〔感情などが〕沸き立つ, effervesce 〔炭酸水などが〕気泡を発する、泡立つ; ) ばキ
【民】pAyccu (= 03 ★spring 湧く、泉、バネ, leap 跳ねる) ばキ
99fertilizer, manure
【秋田弁193】だら  (= ダニ、とかズラ、とか、方言にはいろんな語尾がありますね。でも大はずれ~~~ 実は人糞のことなんですねぇ。 昔は貴重な有機肥料でしたけど、今は田舎も洋式水洗のウォシュレット。だんだん見かけなくなりました、だら汲みも。)
【熊本弁】だら  (= 糞尿(ふんにょう)肥料 人をののしる言葉にも。他に山菜の「タラの芽」を「ダラン芽」,タラの木を「ダラの木」と濁る)
【賛】sAra (= 2 m. n. (ifc. f. %{A} ; perhaps to be connected with 1. %{sAra} above ; prob. fr. a lost root meaning. `" to be strong "') the core or pith or solid interior of anything RV. ; firmness , strength power , energy AV. &c. &c. ; ,,, ; ★dung クソ・うんこ Kr2ishis. ;) だら (s-t-d)
【賛】karISa (= %{as} , %{am} m. n. (1. %{kRR} Un2.) , rubbish , refuse ; ★dung , dry cow-dung S3Br. ; N. of a mountain.) 肥し(こやし)
【魚津弁】コヤッシャ  (= 肥料店、し尿汲取りする人)
【賛】goviS (= f. ★cow-dung 牛糞、牛糞の肥やし L.) こやし、こやっしゃ、ぎゅうふんじゃ (+ん)
【賛】govara (= m. N. of a village ; n. ★cow-dung pulverized Bhpr. (v.l. %{gor-v-}).) ごえ、ごい
【民】kuvai (= 01 1. heap, conical pile; 2. ★dunghill; 3. collection, accumlation, crowd, shoal row; 4. a disease of the sclerotic or the white of the eye) こえ、こい
【民】kuppai (= 01 1. collection, heap; 2. clump, group; 3. stack of grain; 4. sweepings, rubbish, refuse; 5. mound, high ground; 6. ★dung, excrement, ordure) こえ、こい
【民】curuNai (= 1. anything rolled up; 2. roll of ola accounts; 3. rags for mopping the floor, especially with ★cow-dung mixture;) たまい (c-t) △
【宮古口】かずっヴぁい /kadzɿvvai/多むとぅぐい /mutugui/ 多與 友新 鏡 名詞 〈皆、與、多、新〉元肥
【民】kuzaiyuram (= green manure (有機質)肥料、肥やし) かずっヴぁいノ (y-v)
【民】mantaimuRai (= customary right of the mirasdars to have the cattle of the village penned on their fields for ★manure, by turn 順番に、村の牛に肥料のために畑にペンを持たせるミラダーの慣習的権利) むとぅむい → むとぅぐい
【民】kuppal (= 1. heap, as of ★manure; 2. high ground, mound; 3. multitude, company) ぐい、こい/こえ(肥) (l 無音)
--
【民】kuzaiyaTi-ttal (= 1. to effect a magic cure by passing a handful of neem twigs over the body; 2. to wheedle, use artful means to secure a selfish interest; 3. to apply green ★manure to paddy fields) こやし (z 無音)
100field, agricultural
cf. 教育漢字 畑 はた、はたけ 畠 field   f17_1#n.243
cf. Nature 論文解説部   (1) Proto-Transeurasian *pata ‘field for cultivation’
【琉球】ハルサー(はるさー)/ 意味/ 農家の人/ 畑で働く人/ 畑人/ 解説/ 沖縄では南部から北部まで、農作物も盛んです。
【賛】balaja (= mfn. produced by strength or power W. ; m. n. a heap of corn , grain L. ; (%{A}) f. ; a pretty woman L. ; the earth L. ; Arabian jasmine L. ; a rope A1pS3r. ; N. of a river BrahmaP. ; n. (only L.) a city-gate , any gate ; a ★field ; war ; a pretty figure ; pith , marrow.) はらじゃ、ハルサ
【民】paRRu (= ; 20. family life; 21. paddy ★field; 22. bundle; ass of betel leaves;) ハル
【民】tozuti (= 1. multitude; ★crowd 群衆、集まった大勢の人。大衆、民衆; herd; 2. flock of birds; 3. chirping of birds; 4. denseness, fullness, as of bird's feather) チュ、スー、衆(しゅう)
【宮古口】ぱり  (= 畑)
【民】payirveLi (= ★field) ぱヴェり、ぱり
【賛】phAla (= ; a ploughed ★field 耕作地 ib. ; ) ぱり
【宮古口】いしぐーずー /iɕiguudzɿɿ/ 多 名詞 〈多〉石だらけの畑
【民】kEttu (= ★field 畑) ぐーずー
【賛】kRSTa (= s. a ploughed ★field.) ぐーずー
【宮古口】ぱりすぐとぅ /parisɿgutu/多ぱるすぐとぅ /parusɿgutu/ 多與 新鏡 名詞 〈全〉畑仕事、農業
【民】pulacceykai (= ★agriculture 農業, husbandry 農業、畜産, tillage 耕作) ぱりすかい → ぱりすぐと
【宮古口】ぱるわじゃ /paruʋadʑa/ 多 名詞 〈多〉畑仕事、農業
【賛】halabhRti (= f. ★agriculture , husbandry 農業、畜産 L. m. = %{-bhUti} L.) ぱるわじゃ
101field, rice
田、田んぼ、田中
cf. 教育漢字 田 デン、た、かる、かり paddy, field   f17_1#n.333
【民】taNNIrkaTTu-tal (= 1. to irrigate 〔土地に〕水を引く、〔土地を〕かんがいする a ★field , garden bed, etc.; 2. to form pus 《医》膿、膿汁の形成; to blister 〔~に〕水膨れ[火膨れ]を作る) 田中だ
102field, wild
野、野っぱら、山(やま)、くさやま、野山、くさはら/くさわら、草野、くさば、原っぱ
cf. 教育漢字 原 はら、もと、たずねる、ゆるす origin, plain field   f17_1#n.204
【民】tampal (= 02 hardening of ★★rice-fields after heavy rain) たんぼル --- 大雨後の水浸しにより米畑の苗の耐凍性が高められること。米畑の水引き焼き入れ・ハーデニング。
【民】tampalaTi-ttal (= 1. to plough a ★field after it has been hardened by rain 雨による鍛錬化の後の畑に鋤を入れること。; 2. to become even and hardened 緊張化・鍛錬化, as a ★field after rain 雨の後の畑の状態) たんぱらてぃッタル → たんぼらてぃ
【民】tompainARRu (= ★rice-plant with its root grown stout in hardened clay) 田んぼ稲、田んぼ苗--- ハーデニングがなされた粘土に育った頑丈な根を持つ米の植物体。
【賛】vAraTa (= n. a ★field 畑 L. ; a number of ★fields L. ; ) やまだ (r-m)
【賛】mAla (= m. N. of a country, pl. of a people; f. {A} wreath, garland, chaplet, necklace, row, line, collection, esp. of words, dictionary; n. ★field, garland (only ---).) のら
103fire
火(ひ)、ぴー、ちー、うまち umatsï umatsï umatsï umakï umutsï *umati , mˀatsɨ マッチ(名瀬?)
cf. 上代日本語 (Old Japanese) の代表サンプル  pu 火 武藏 pi, po₂  f17#on.32
【民】umiccaTTi (= vessel containing rice-husk in which ★fire is kept alive 火が燃えるのをキープしている籾殻の入った器。つまり、火種の入った容器) うみち
【賛】upadah (= P. %{-dahati} (aor. %{-adhA-} %{kSIt} MBh. ) to burn 燃やす, set fire to 点火する S3Br.) うまし (p-m)
【賛】upAhita (= mfn. put or placed on , deposited ; set out , proposed (as a prize) S3Br.; caused , effected , produced Bhartr2. Gi1t. ; joined , annexed L. ; agreed upon , made or done mutually L. ; m. outbreak of ★fire , ★fire Gaut.) ウパチ、うまち (p-m)
【宮古口】うまつ (= 火)
【賛】appitta (= n. ★fire ; a plant L.) うまつ (p-m)、うぱつ
【宮古口】ピぬ /pɿnu/ 名詞 〈多〉火
【賛】pAru (= m.= %{peru} , the sun Un2. ; ★fire L.) ピぬ (r-n)
【宮古口】ピだに /pɿdani/鏡うまつだに /umatsɿdani/ 多與 新鏡 名詞 火種〈全〉
【賛】dhAnA (= f. corn , grain (originally the grains of ★seed from their being `" laid "' into and `" conceived "' by the earth cf. 1. %{dhA} , but usually = fried barley or rice or any grain fried and reduced to powder) RV.; coriander L. ; bud , shoot L.) 種(たね)
【賛】sarvayoni (= f. the ★source 提供元、源(みなもと) of all.) 種(たね)
【民】umiccaTTi (= vessel containing rice-husk in which ★fire is kept alive 火が存続するもみ殻の入った器) うまつ
【宮古口】うまつ /umatsɿ/新ンまつ /mmatsɿ/ 多與 友新 鏡 名詞 〈全〉火
cf. 島の散歩 #37  うまつ  火
【賛】appitta (= n. ★fire ; a plant L.) うまつ (p-m)、うぱつ
【賛】nirmath (= or %{manth} P. A1. %{-manthati} , %{-te} RV. ; %{-mathati} , %{-te} MBh. ; %{-mathnAti} Ka1t2h. (fut. %{-mathiSyati} ind. p. %{-mathya} MBh.) ; to grind (★fire) out of (wood) , to produce (★fire) by rubbing 擦る(こする) (wood together) , rub or churn anything out of anything (double acc.) RV. ; ) うまつ、ンまつ
c. 「石器時代の火おこし操作」の名前(動詞)が、生成物の名詞に化けた。「マッチ」、「摩擦(まさつ)」は、親戚。
【民】mantacAn2am (= ★fire) うまつモン、ンまつモン
104firewood
焚き(たき)、たきもん、たむん、たむぬ、たもの、たきぎ(薪)、われき(割れ木)、まき(薪)、めしむん、うじる
【民】tIkkarumpu (= ★firewood (TLS)) てぃーっかるむぷ → 中間スキップ・てぃーっかぷ → たきび、たきぎもん、たきぎ 【民】tIpAkkin2i (= fire lighted with a chip of ★fuel 燃料 two fingers thick 2本指の厚さの火の付いた木片, one of three a1yurve1ta1kkin6i q.v.) てぃーぱーっきにゃい → たきにゃ → たきぎ
【八丈島弁[ハチ25]】 ごみ (薪・たきぎ・まき)
【民】kaRal (= ★firewood たきぎ, fuel 燃料) ごみ (r-m)
【チベ】khya ma (= ★firewood, kindling [IW]) ごみ
【出雲弁】きじしし  (= 《名》枝薪類の積み山 ex. きじししからよーだしちょんぼほど持って下りちょか で。 【= 枝薪類の積み山から枝薪を少しほど持って下りておこう や。】 解説    藁の“ししし”に対して、枝薪類を積んだ山を連濁してこういう(東出雲))
【民】kaTTaittoTTi (= ★firewood 薪(まき)depot 倉庫、貯蔵所 (TLS)) きじしし
【民】kaTTai (= 1. ★firewood; 2. funeral pyre 火葬の薪の山; 3. block, small stump, piece of timber; 4. stake; 5. wooden float of a big sea-fishing net;) きじ
【出雲弁】さでぎ  (= (枝木の)薪 ex. 山からさできを持って帰った 【 = 山から(枝木の)薪を持って帰った】)
【賛】samidh (= mfn. igniting , flaming , burning RV. ; f. ★firewood 薪(たきぎ) , fuel , a log of wood , faggot , grass &c. employed as fuel 燃料として供する) さで (m 無音)
【民】kiLai (= 03 1. ★branch 枝, bough;)
【民】kalIram (= a ★tree 木)
【石見弁】おどろ  (= くど(かまど)で使う小枝(束))
【民】tULviRaku (= ★firewood 薪(たきぎ) of small size) とろらく → おどろ
【賛】vistAra (= m. (ifc. f. %{A} ; cf. %{vi-stara}) spreading , expansion , extent , width MBh. ; becoming large or great (met. said of the heart) Sa1h. ; the breadth 幅 of a circle i.e. its diameter Col. ; specification , detailed enumeration or description Ya1jn5. (%{eNa} , diffusely , at length , prob. w.r. for %{vistareNa} R. ) ; the ★branch 枝 of a tree with its new shoots 木の新芽の枝 L. ; a shrub 低木、藪 L. ; the diameter of a circle 円の直径 L.) おどろ
c. おどろ = 小枝の直径1cm程度、長さ約1mまでにして、直径50~60cmぐらいにした小枝の束。
【石見弁】わりき(たき火に~をくべる)  (= 薪、(たき火に薪を入れる))
【十津川弁】わりき  割木
【民】viRaku (= 1. ★firewood 薪(たきぎ), fuel 燃料; 2. sacrificial fuel) わりき
【民】cuppiviRaku (= small sticks of ★firewood 薪の小さな枝, dist. fr. kat2t2ai-vir6aku) すっぴヴィらく → くべる (c-k)、くべわりき c. わりき、って、割木、じゃ無く、インド語。   ----- ビックリ。
c. 「くべる」って、薪の名詞名からの変化なんだ。「くべる木」から「木」が取れた。
【博多弁・消滅】キンメギ  (= fire wood 【市販の薪】)
【賛】krumuka (= m. (cf. %{kRmuka4} , %{kram-}) a piece of ★wood or match used to catch the sacrificial ★fire when kindled by friction TS.) きんめぎ (r-n)
【熊本弁】たきもん  (= 薪(まき,たきぎ) クドに タキモンば クベちハイヨ(かまどに薪を燃やしてください) 焚き物からの音変化)
【民】tIttAgki (= 1. fire-fender, masonry projection to protect a doorway from fire; 2. A mantelpiece マントルピース or mantelshelf intended mainly for preventing the sparks shot off from the oven from reaching the roof and also for preserving cut fuel 燃料 and other things that require to be kept warm) たき、たきぎ
c. 「もん」は、物、の接尾辞。
【十津川弁】ほた  (= 榾[ほた])  [ほた = 【榾】 たきものにする、木の切れはし。]
【民】paTTaTai (= 01 1. anvil; 2. smithy, forge; 3. stock, heap 山積み, pile, as of straw, ★firewood 薪(まき、たきぎ) or timber 材木、木材、樹木、森林;) ほた
【津川弁】よろ  (= 小枝の多い焚きつけ用の薪)
【民】vaLAr (= twig 小枝, tender ★branch 柔らかい枝) よろ
cf. 【十】まめよろ 【小さい柴】
【富山県の高岡弁】ばいぎ  (= まき。薪。(松・杉の割り木))
【民】viRaku (= 1. ★firewood まき, fuel 燃料; 2. sacrificial fuel) ばいぎ
【富山県の高岡弁】ばいた  (= 材木。まき。)
【民】vATi (= 02 1. garden; 2. wall; 3. courtyard; 4. house; 5. fish-curing yard; 6. village, hamlet; 8. hut of bamboo and grass, of ka1n2i-k-ka1rar ; 9. enlosure, fenced place; 10. yard, shed where ★firewood まき、薪(たきぎ) is stored for sale) ばいた
【長野県の佐久弁】ぼや  (= 木の枝の焚き物   ex. ぼや取りに行く)
【民】virAy (= 1. fuel 燃料, ★firewood 薪; 2. a flowering plant;) ぼや
【魚津弁】ホイ  (= しば、たきぎ)
【民】virAy (= 1. fuel, ★firewood まき、薪(たきぎ); 2. a flowering plant;) ほい
【琉球】■たきぎ〔薪〕/ [首里・那覇方言]/ 関連語彙:タムーヌ/ まき(薪)
【民】tuvar (= 03 1. ★firewood, as dry; 2. dry leaves) タムーヌ (v-m, r-n)
【民】viRaku (= 1. ★firewood, fuel; 2. sacrificial fuel) まき (v-m)
--- 【民】tULviRaku (= ★firewood of small size) たきぎ (v-g-k)
【宮古口】たむぬ /tamunu/與新たむる /tamuru/ 多與 友新 鏡来 名詞 〈多〉可燃物  薪
【賛】saMjvalana (= n. ★fire-wood 薪(たきぎ), fuel 燃料.) たむぬ/たむる
【宮古口】きだむぬ /kidamunu/友きだむる /kidamuru/ 多與 友新 鏡 名詞 〈全〉薪
【民】kATTam (= 01 1. ★firewood 薪(たきぎ、まき); 2. small stick as of pipal tree used in ritual) きだむ → きだむぬ
105fish
いお、うお、いゆ、さかな、いず、ゆー
cf. 教育漢字 魚 ギョ、うお、さかな    f17_1#n.249
【宮古口】っズぅ /zzu/ 多與 友新 鏡来 名詞 〈全〉魚
【賛】dRti (= m. (fr. %{dRR}) a skin of leather , a leather bag for holding water and other fluids (fig. = a cloud) , skin , hide , a pair of bellows RV. ; a ★fish L. ; N. of a man with the patr. Aindro7ti or Aindro7ta Ta1n2d2yaBr. [cf. %{dArteya} ; Gk. ].) っズぅ
【賛】ad (= mfn. ifc. `" eating "' , as %{matsyA7d} , eating ★fish. 食用魚)  【宮古島キッズネット】、いただく/イート (eat) 【賛】vAricara (= a. living in or near water; m. ★fish, pl. N. of a people.) いぅず in 【しまくとぅば読本(小学生、中学生)】
【琉球】イマイユ(今魚)=鮮魚。イユは古語の「魚(いお)」に由来。なお、沖縄では魚屋のことを「さしみ屋」と呼ぶ。
【民】in2n2E (= 1. ★now, at this moment; 2. here, in this place; 3. thus, in this manner) イマ
【賛】amlAna (= a. unfaded, unimpaired, fresh.) イマ
【民】ayilai (= a fish, as edible 食用としての) イユ (l 無音)
【民】avuLiyA (= * pomfrets, marine fish, stromatens) イユ
【民】avuri (= a kind of fish (TLS)) イユ
c. 「さしみ」も有った。
【賛】sadyomAMsa (= n. fresh meat.) サシミさ
106fish, vt.
釣る(つる)、しゆん、くわすん、
【民】tuRaTTipOTu-tal (= to ★fish out) 釣るッチホーツ(つるッチホーツ)
【琉球】■クヮースン  (= 釣る)
【民】cArpOTu-tal (= to put up a small bund for ★fishing) クヮースン (c-k, +ン)
【宮古口】つす /tsɿsɿ/多つー /tsɿɿ/ 多與 新鏡 動詞 皆つす、ちし、つさん 〈皆、與、多、新、鏡〉釣る
c. 下記  動詞 (= 名詞)
【宮古口】つす /tsɿsɿ/多つー /tsɿɿ/友っずぅキす /ddzɿぅkssɿ/ 多與 友新 鏡来 名詞 〈全〉釣り
【民】cArpOTu-tal (= to put up a small bund for ★fishing 釣りのために小さな堤防を立てる) つーふす → つす、くわすん (+ん)
【民】cAr (= ; 5. bund across a river or channel with an opening for placing a ★fishing net; ) つー
【民】tagkUcu (= string tied to ★fishing tackle 釣り道具に結ばれたひも) っずぅキす
--
【民】cArvalai (= a fishing net 釣りの網) つり(釣り)
107fish for, scavenge
あさる、あさゆん、あさい、いざり、いさゆん、しおがり、けとい、貝取り、潮干狩り
c. fish for =〔情報などを〕聞き出す、探り出す ---- つまり、漁(りょう)
c. scavenge = 〔ごみ・残飯などを〕あさる
【趣854】 ešsad: fisherman (éše, 'rope', + sud, 'to immerse, sink'; same signs (ZAG.ḪA) as enku). いさし
ペン辞 esir [FISH] (19x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb) wr. esirx(LAK173)ku6; esir3ku6; LAK173 "a fish" Akk. šēnu 漁(いさり・いざり)
ペン辞 izi [FISH] (3x: ED IIIb) wr. i-ziku6 "a fish" いさ
万3-0256; 武庫(むこ)の海の船にはあらし漁(いざり)する海人の釣船波の上(へ)ゆ見ゆ ?-誤植?「にはあらし」は「にはよくあらし」。
【民】aTaLai (= a marine ★fish) あたらい → いさり
【賛】visAra (= m. spreading , extension , diffusion RV. Nalo7d. ; a ★fish L. ; n. a wood , timber W. ; (%{I}) f. the region of the winds 風がある領域 ib.) ヴぃさーら → いさり
【民】izuppuvalai (= a kind of ★fishing net (TLS)) いずっぷヴぁらい → いさり
【民】izuvai (= 1. dragging, pulling, as of the eddies in a stream; 2. things drawn, as thorns, ★fishes or timber 森林; 3. long rope for draught, cable; 4. track made on the ground by a thing which is drawn) いずヴぁい → いさり
【民】cALaittaTi (= a ★fishing catamaran, used on the west coast) さーらいったてぃ → さらいとる → すなどる
【賛】samudrAru (= m. `" sea-torment 海の苦痛、苦悩"' , a large fabulous ★fish 大きな素晴らしい魚 (= %{grAha-bheda}) ; also = %{setubandha} L.) すなどる
【民】aTaLai (= a marine ★fish 海洋魚) あさり
【琉球】イザリ(いさり)。イジャリンジャイとも。干潮時にサンゴ礁内を歩いて魚介類を獲ること。いわゆる潮干狩りだが、貝類だけではなく魚、エビ、タコなども対象となる。
【賛】uJchazila (= n. the gleaning 〔情報・落ち穂などを少しずつ〕集める、拾い集める、収集する、探り出す, gathering L. (cf. %{zilo7Jcha}.)) イザリ、イジャリ、ンジャイ
【宮古口】いざイ /idzaɿ/多いだ乚 /idaɭ/友いさイ /isaɿ/来いじゃイ /idʑaɿ/ 多與 皆友 新鏡 来 名詞 〈全〉夜松明などを以って魚を獲ること
c. 漁り(いさり)、の、関係か?。漁火(いさりび)は、Fishing fire 。 いさりび【△漁り火】. a fire lit on a boat to lure [attract] fish. 出典: 小学館 この辞書の凡例を見る 編集主幹:近藤いね子、高野フミ 編集委員
【英】lure 他動 〔人を〕誘惑する、おびき出す、おびき寄せる、誘い出す。名詞 《魚釣り》ルアー、擬似餌
【民】ettu-tal (= 01 1. to inveigle, ★luree, cheat, seduce, defraud) いざイ/いだ乚/いさイ/いじゃイ
108fishing hook
【趣261-2】 hook - gagkula [FISH-HOOK] (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. ĝešgag-ku6-la2 "★fish-hook"
    - še [HOOK?] (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. še "★hook?" 鉤(ち) (s-t)
【民】kokki (= 1. ★hooks 鉤・鈎(かぎ), clasp, as of a necklace or earring; 2. ★hooked knife attached to a long bamboo, for cutting leaves and twigs) かギ
【宮古口】つー /tsɿɿ/皆つっかに /tsɿkkani/與つかに /tsɿkani/ 多與 友新 鏡来 名詞 〈全〉釣り針
【賛】zuSkala (= m. a kind of fish L. ; (also n. and %{I} f.) flesh (f. also dry flesh) L. ; n. a ★fish-hook TBr. ; mfn. one who eats flesh L. (cf. %{zauSkala}).) つしゅから → つっかに/つかに (S-t, l-n)
【民】tOTTi (= 02 1. elephant hook or goad; 2. ★hook 鉤(かぎ), clasp 留め金、締め具、金具; 3. sharp weapon planted in the ground to keep off enemies) つー
109fishing pole
【趣69.】 pole - sal [POLE] wr. sal3 "a ★pole" Akk. mudulu 竿(さを・さお) (l-wo)
【民】cOTTAttaTi (= 1. club, ★rod; 2. small stick, baton with a curved end, walking stick) そーったったてぃ → さお
【民】taTi (= 02 1. stick, staff, ★rod, cane; 2. club, cudgel, bludgeon; 3. a piece, as of wood; 4. measuring ★rod; 5. pestle; 6. bow; 7. rice-field; 8. plot of a field; 9. flesh; 10. dried fish; 11. iguana; 12. gfemini in the zodiac; 13. signature-mark) たてぃ → 歯擦音化・さてぃ → さお
【出雲弁】はんじき  (= 釣り竿 ex. 昔のはんじきは竹で作った継ぎ竿だった 【= 昔の釣り竿は竹で作った継ぎ竿だった】)
【賛】daNDa ( = $ -v , hence cognate with %{da14ru} and %{dRR}) m. (n. [cf. %{ikSu-}] g. %{ardharcA7di}) a stick 杖, staff , ★rod 棹(さお), pole 棹, cudgel こん捧, club こん棒 RV. &c. (staff given at investiture with the sacred thread S3Br. &c. ;) はんじくしゅー → はんじき
【土佐弁】 さあ(竿)
【賛】taTi (= 02 1. stick, staff, ★rod 竿, cane; 2. club, cudgel, bludgeon;) さあ
c. サンスクリット語の文法では、同音の2連続の発音は、1音に訛るとのこと。 ホントかな?。
【琉球】■さお〔竿〕 / [首里・那覇方言] 関連語彙:ソー 〔かまどに火を押しこむのに用いる竿〕ぴヂョー
【賛】dhura (= m. yoke , ★pole 竿(さお), burden , peg of the axle (esp. ifc.) MBh. ; mfn. having anything as chief (foremost) part or ingredient , distinguished by (ifc.) Ba1lar. ; (%{A}) f. burden , load Pan5c. ; ★pole , shaft 柄 Pan5c.) ソー、ヂョー
【宮古口】つぶく /tsɿbuku/多じぶく /dʑibuku/友つーだき /tsɿɿdaki/ 多與 友新 鏡来 名詞 〈友、多、與、新、鏡、来〉釣竿
【民】cuLLaRkOl (= 1. 1. flexible stick 柔軟性のある杖・棒 or ★rod; 2. whip ムチ) つーらきノ → つーだき  △
【民】ziphA (= f. a fibrous or flexible root (used for making whips ムチ &c.) Mn. ; a lash or stroke with a whip or ★rod ib.) つぶ/じぶ → つぶく/じぶく  △
c. fishing rod では引っ掛らなかった。
110fish scales
うろこ、いりき
【宮古口】皆イーキ /ɿɿkɿ/與新イーき /ɿɿki/多い乚き /iɭki/来いイき /iɿki/鏡いイキ /iɿkɿ/ 多與 友新 鏡来 名詞 〈全〉鱗
c. ALC 英辞郎は非常識である。「鱗(うろこ)」で引くと scale と出ると思っていたが、ラテン語の squama《動物・植物》しか表示されなかった。 scale は無いか捜したら、下の方のサンプルに scaled (鱗のある)で表示されていた。これでは、 scale が単独で「鱗」の意がある、という、中学基本英単語に失礼である。昔は scale だったが、最近の英語では scale と呼ばないのカモ( scale は多義語なので、単独だとマギラワシイので使わないのカモと思ったが、「鱗」の wikipedia の 英語版で確認したら、 scale だった。英辞郎は、学習者に失礼である。 )
【民】azugkAmai (= 1. hawk's bill, caretta ★squamata ; 2. pangolin 《動物》センザンコウ、(鱗甲目)) イーキ/イーき/い乚き/いイき/いイキ (mai 無音)
【賛】valka (= 2 m. n. (prob. connected with %{va4} `" to cover "' ; for 1. see above) `" covering "' , the bark of a tree TS. ; n. the ★scales of a fish L.) いーき、うろこ
【賛】zalka (= m. n. chip, piece, bit; n. ★scale of a fish.) いーき、うろこ
【民】azugkOTu (= ★scales of the pangolin) いーき (Tu 無音)
--
【民】cekiL (= 1. skin or rind of fruit 果物の皮または皮; 2. fish of ★scales) こけら (c-k)
【民】cakkai (= 02 1. ★chips 木屑; 2. small wooden peg; 3. wadding of a gun) こけら (c-k, +ら)、こけ
c. 「うろこ」は、「こけら」とも言う(ex. 博多弁 コケラ  chip, scale 【木屑】)。 cf. こけら落とし、とは。 = 木くず落とし。 カキ、 こけら
111flatfish, flounder
c. flounder = 平らな魚、ヒラメ、カレイ
【賛】pAdAsphAlana (= n. trampling or shuffling of the feet , ★floundering W.) 裸足ヒラメ
112flea
【趣362.】parasite - mar [PARASITE] wr. mar "★louse シラミ; worm; parasite 寄生生物、パラサイト" Akk. miqqanu; tūltu 蚤(のみ・ノミ) (r-m)
   ùmun: ★flea; louse 蚤(のみ) (ù-無音)
c. シュメール語では、ノミもシラミも、同一視。
【宮古口】ぬン /num/ 多與 友新 鏡 名詞 〈全〉蚤
【民】namaTu (= ★louse シラミ (TLS)) ノミだ → ぬン
c. 蚤(ノミ) flea は、インド弁辞書では、ハズレ。シラミにあった。
【民】cIlaippEn2 (= ★lice) しらみ
113flour
cf. 教育漢字 粉 こな flour, powder   f17_1#n.94
114flow, vi
cf. 教育漢字 流す flow, draw   f17#1.84
115fly, n
ハエ(蝿)
【出雲弁】はいぶんぶん, はいぼんぼ  (= 〔昆〕蠅 ex. はいぶんぶんが えっぱい たかって あばかん 【= 蠅が 沢山 集って かなわない】)
【魚】ハイボボ   (= 昆虫のハエ、子供)
【賛】bambharAli (= or f. a ★fly 蝿(はえ) L.) ぶんぶん
【賛】barbara (= ; (%{A}) f. a kind of ★fly 蝿の一種 L. ; ) ばいばい、はいぼぼ
【賛】parArbuda (= m. a species of fire-★fly L.) ハエぶだ
【長野弁】へんぼ:(北信、中信)「蝿」の意。
【賛】bhambha (= m. or n. the mouth or aperture of an oven or stove Car. ; m. smoke L. ; a ★fly 蝿(ハエ) L. ; (%{A}) f. a kettledrum HParis3) へんぼ
c. 熊本弁では、「へんぼ」は、「トンボ」を指す。
【琉球】フェー(ふぇー)/ または:ヘー / / フェー/ / 意味/ 蝿/ ハエ/ 解説/ 蝿がたくさん飛んでいる様を「フェーブーブー」といいます。
【賛】barbara (= mfn. (also written %{varvara}) stammering (see %{-tA}) ; ; ; (%{A}) f. a kind of ★fly ハエ L. ; ) フェー、フェーブーブー
116"footpath between rice fields"
畔(あぜ)、あぶし、ごじ、ぎし  --- 「あぶし」って何だ?。
cf. ditch 畔(あぜ), 畝(うね), お堀(おほり), 城(しろ), 城(きしろ・き), 溝(みぞ), 畔(くろ)   f20#mountain1
【趣】absin(3) (= : (seeded) ★furrow 〔鋤で耕した〕畝間、畝と畝の間。溝、わだち (ab, 'niche', + sín, 'to sift').) あぶしん
【趣】a-tur-ra, a-tùr, é-tùr (= : hollow 〔表面が深く〕くぼんだ、へこんだ (of the ★furrow) ? ('water' + 'birth-hut' for a plant seed ?;
   related to Orel & Stolbova #1323, *hadar- "darkness" ?).) あぜ
absinnu(m), absennu (= "★furrow" O/jB [AB.SIN] also j/NB astr. constellation Spica, eastern part of Virgo [MUL.AB.SfN; NB also MUL.ABSIN]; < Sum.) あぶしん
【趣 659.】ditch 溝・どぶ, 土手- [ e-še-á: a type of canal or ditch. ] 畔(あぜ) ◎
【趣】- adaga [DITCH] (120x: Ur III) wr. a-da-ga "irrigation ditch 灌漑用溝" 畔(あぜ) 〇
c. 畝(うね)、 溝(うなて、うなで)、は未だ見つからない。 cf. (wikipedia) タミル語の、くろ、なんて載ってない。
c. タミル語の畔(くろ)は、ケルン辞書に見つからず。---- furrow で攻めたら、kIRu があった。
【民】kIRu (= 02 1. streak, mark, stroke line, scratch; 2. notch, furrow ~を耕す、~に畝を作る[立てる・付ける]、溝を掘る[付ける]、しわを寄せる, indentation, gash, cut, slit, incision; 3. slice, piece; 4. scrawl, writing; 5. half of a coconut leaf or an esculent palmyra root) くろ
【民】kurampu (= 1. artificial bank 人工土手, dam, causeway, bund; 2. dam of sand, brushwood, loose stones, etc, running out from the banks of a river diagonally for a distance upstream; to ture the water into an irrigation channel; 3. ridge 畦(あぜ、うね)、畝(うね) in a ★rice field of garden; 4. boundary 境界線, limit) くろムプ
c. 畝(うね)は ditch/ irregation のシュメールにあった。2015/08/11。堀、お堀、城、池、も親戚
【趣】e-pa5(-r): hydraulic 水力 system (of a particular farmer or of the land as a whole) ('levees' + 'irrigation ditches'; asyndetic hendiadys). お堀(おほり) ◎, 畝(うね) (p 無音, r-n) 〇
【趣】pa4,5,6(-r): irrigation ditch, small canal, dike. 堀(ほり) ◎
【趣】sùr: ditch; deep furrow; drain (to fill, inundate + to flow; contrast sug, 'flood basin'). 城(しろ) ◎
【趣】ki...sur: to fix the boundary ('place' + 'ditch; to delimit'). 城(きしろ・き) ◎
】アッカド語 heru(m) II, OAkk hard' urn "to dig; excavate" G (///) [BAL] canal, ditch etc., Early Mari hard' is "in order to dig"; well, cistern; "dig up" ground, field D * G pi. obj. "dig up" tree stumps ? ; "excavate" cisterns Dtn iter. S caus. of G N pass., of canal etc.; > heru I; hem; hiritu I, hirutu; mahrum II 縁(へり) ◎、畝(うね)(r-n)  〇
【趣】suru(m) IV "(a type of) ditch"? O/jB lex., Mari, Nuzi; < Sum. 城(しろ) ◎
【趣】suru, surru "canal, ditch" j/NB [SUR]; < Sum. 城(しろ) ◎
【趣】Iku(m), eku, igu(m) "dyke, ditch" OAkk, O/jB [E] "bank of earth"; "ditch, small canal"; also "plot surrounded by a dyke or ditch"; < Sum.; > ikis 池(いけ)・いけす ◎
【趣】nartu(m) I "ditch, canal" OB, M/NA [id- ]; < ndru I 溝(みぞ) (t-z) ◎
c. 【英】 "moat" モウト ①~を堀で取り囲む②堀 ---溝のルーツ(?)
c. 【karu(m), NB also karru "quay, port" [KAR] 1. "(river) quay, quay-bank, wall"; NB "bank" of ditch 2. "port" on river, on sea, in PINs; rab kdri "quay, port overseer"; NB "quay, port dues" 3. OB - "chamber of commerce" 4. OA "trading colony", e.g. karum Kanes, St. abs. kdr karma "colony by colony"; bit k. OA, also NA "customs house", NB "shop" S. OB ~ "current price" (set by karum); < Sum.; > kdrtum 畔(くろ) ◎
c. タミル語に ditch で素直に畔(あぜ)が有った。一体、大野晋氏は、何故 畔(くろ)なんて難しい単語を提示したのだろうか。あぜ、より、くろ、の方が古語なのか。解釈に苦しむ。
【民】uTu (= 02 ditch 畔(あぜ) or moat around 囲む溝・堀) あぜ
【民】aTiccAl (= first furrow 〔鋤で耕した〕畝間、畝と畝の間 in ploughing) あぜの
c. ditch は堀に近いので、 furrow で畝(うね)と関連付ける方が良い。
【十津川弁】あぜまめ  (= 畦に植えた莢[さや]大豆)
【民】uTu (= 02 ★ditch 畔(あぜ) or moat around 囲む溝・堀) あぜ
【賛】mahAmASa (= m. a species of large ★bean 豆 Sus3r.) まめしゃ
117fruit
果物(くだもの、くだもん)、実(み、な、ない、なる)、成り物(なりもん)、むーた
kakkullu(m), klqaqqullu, MA kukullul (= f. "mash-tub" O/jB, M/NA [GAKKUL] in similes; also (a wooden box); NA (a basket or tray) for ★fruit, leavings, rab qaqqulldte (an official); MA sa kukulli (a desig. of young worker); < Sum.; > kakkultu) 香久の木の実(かくのこのみ)
kannu III(= ; pi. f. "shoot, seedling 種子" jB, NA of vine, ★fruit-trees) 木の実
【趣488.】 progeny - [numun, nuĝunx, niĝunx: (= n., ★seed; sowing; cornfield; offspring, progeny (níĝ, 'thing', + gun, 'dots, speckles') [NUMUN archaic frequency: 22]. v., to produce.)] 裔(みこはな)、実(み) [= 【文語】子孫、跡継ぎ] (+ h ) ◎  シュ協
【趣488-2.】 seed - niĝkiluha (= [STONE] wr. ĝešniĝ2-ki-luh-ha "stone or ★seed of a plant" Akk. abnu ) 裔(みこはな) (k-h, l-n) ◎ ペン辞
【賛】kauTaphala (= n. a ★fruit of %{kauTa} Car. ) 果物、くだふぁら、くだ
【賛】karkandhu (= m. f. the jujube tree, n. its ★fruit.) かくのこのみ・かくのみ
【民】mUtai (= 02 mistletoe ★berrythorn) むーたい
c. mːta とは、(berries and other small round fruits) 、だそうです。
【民】narA (= hardness in ★fruit through blight or injury) 成り
【民】niRa-ttal (= 1. to take on colour 色づく, as ★fruits or leaves; to be tinged, as flowers; 2. to deepen in colour; 3. to be distinguished, brilliant; to be bright and fresh in appearance; 4. to have effect) 成る
118fulling block
砧(きぬた)、板棒(いたぼう)、ぬのばいき、にりばん
不明 → とりあえず、有り
【民】kan2i-tal (= 1. to ripen, as fruits; to turn mellow, luscious, sweet; 2. to be overripe; 3. to become complete perfect; 4. to be mellifluous, to be ★full of sweetness; 5. to melt, grow tender, become soft 柔らか, as the heart by affection, love devotion; 6. to be red-hot, to glow; 7. to become red-hot, as a metal; 7. to become red-hot, as a metal; 8. to get suddenly angry, to be irritable) きぬ
【民】nira-ttal (= 1. to spread, expand, as air or water; 2. to be ★full; 3. to mingle, mix; 4. to be pacified; 5. to be thick, crowded; 6. to be sufficient; 1. to arrange in order; 2. to divide equally or proportionately) にり
119game
cf. i.178⬟meat, game
cf. i.3⬟animal  けもの、いきもの/いきもん、けだもの、どうぶつ、四つ足
120garlic
蒜(ヒル)、大蒜・人肉(ニンニク)
cf. アルタイ諸語 語彙対応比較表 garlic    f17_1#al.36  ひる(蒜)、ゆり、ニンニク、ニラ
121go, v
cf. 教育漢字 行・往く (行く、ゆく) go   f17#1.169
122go, advance, v
速ゆん(はゆん)、進む、はるん、
cf. 教育漢字 進 すす(める) 進める proceed, progress, develop, advance 進む   f17#2.224
【民】pAy-tal (= 01 1. to spring, leap, bound, gallop, prance; 2. to ★flow, issue or gush out, as blood or stream; to rush down, as a waterfall;) はい、はゆ、はよー、はや
【民】paRi-tal (= 01 1. to slip out, run away, as a horse; to ★flow out quickly, as water;) はる
123go over, v
超える、越える
【琉球】■クイユン  (= 超える)
【民】kaiyaRu-tal (= 1. to be laid prostrate, overcome, as with pity; 2. to be broken-hearted; 3. to ★exceed limits; 4. to be irremediable, overwhelming; 5. to die; 6. to become immoral) クイユ
【宮古口】くい /kui/多くい乚 /kuiɭ/ 多與 新鏡 動詞 皆くい、くいゆん 〈全〉超える
【民】kaipO-tal (= to attain thorough mastery; to overstep, pass beyound, ★exceed the limits) くい/くい乚
124goat
山羊(ヤギ)、ひんだ
cf. 教育漢字 羊 ひつじ sheep 山羊 ヤギ goat   f17_1#n.2
【賛】payasvala (= mf(%{A})n. rich in milk Hariv. (v.l. %{-vin}) ; m. a ★goat L.) ヒージャー
【民】piravaiyATu (= a kind of ★goat (TLS)) ヒージャー、ぴぴざ、ひびだ
【賛】paJcAja (= n. the 5 products of the ★goat Sus3r.) ピンザ
【琉球】■ベーベー    (名詞)  [2]〈1〉(幼)山羊。〈2〉沖縄民謡の一。
【民】puruvai (= 1. ★goat; 2. sheep; 3. female of goat or sheep; 4. youth, juvenility) ベーベー
【賛】vAlavIjya (= m. a wild ★goat 野生のヤギ L.) ベーベー
【琉球】■ホーホーピーヂャー    (名詞)  山羊(やぎ)の一種。在来種より大きい
【民】piravaiyATu (= a kind of ★goat (TLS)) ホーホーピーヂャー (r 反復, v-p)、ピーヂャー
【民】puruvai (= 1. ★goat; 2. sheep; 3. female of ★goat or sheep; 4. youth, juvenility) ホーホー
125grass
cf. 教育漢字 草 くさ grass   f17_1#n.13
【宮古口】ふさ /fusa/多ふしゃ /fuɕa/ 多與 皆友 新鏡 来 名詞 〈全〉草
【民】paccai (= 1. green colour; greenness; 2. emerald; 3. pulse or cereals; 4. betel leaf; 5. seaside Indian saltwort; 6. a fragrant ★grass; ) ふさ/ふしゃ
【賛】pUta (= 1 mfn. (for 2. see %{pUy} , p. 641) cleaned , purified , pure , clear , bright RV. ; m. (L.) a conch-shell ; white Kus3a ★grass ; ) ふさ/ふしゃ
【民】putal (= 01 1. bush, thicket, low jungle; 2. ★grass; 3. medicinal shrub; 4. bud) ふさノ/ふしゃノ
--
【賛】kaTa (= ; an annual plant L. ; ★grass L. ; ) くさ
【賛】kAza (= m. a kind of ★grass.) くさ
126grave
cf. 教育漢字 墓 はか grave, burial   f17_1#n.56
【琉球】n■シンジュ  (= 墓、お墓)
【民】tAzi (= 02 1. large pan, pot or vessel with a wide mouth 広口の壺、ポット; 2. jar; 3. ★burial 埋葬、墓所、葬式、墓 ur誤字 urn 〔死者の〕骨つぼ) シンジュ (t-s, +ン)
c. タミル辞書は、スペルミスだらけである。 original の Madras Tamil Lexicon を確認した。 ur では無く、 urn であった。
「シンジュ」とは、「骨壺」のことである
【琉球】n■ジーシガーミ  (= 骨入れ)
【賛】dhAtu (= ; or the 7 fluids or secretions , chyle , blood , flesh , fat , ★bone 骨, marrow , semen Sus3r. ) ジーシ
【賛】sAsthi (= mfn. having ★bones (said of any animal) see comp.) ジーシ
【民】kalam (= 01 vessel; hollow utensil, as a cup; plate, whether of earth or metal; earthenware; 2. ★bottleshaped vessel 広口ビンの形の容器; ) カーミ(瓶[かめ])
cf. 〒urn ここは、アンカー名 urn (〔死者の〕骨つぼ)です。   ~古代南インドには、甕棺(かめかん)の風習がある。~
127grind, vt
挽く(ひく)、摺る(する)
【賛】piSTIkR (= to ★grind down Ni1lak.) 拉ぐ(ひしぐ)、挽く(ひく)
【賛】vicUrN (= P. %{-cUrNayati} , to ★grind to pieces , pound , smash , pulverize MBh. ) ひくん
【琉球】■ヒチュン 挽く
【賛】piS (= ; inf. %{pesTum} , %{pe4STavai4} Br.) , to crush , bruise , ★grind , pound , hurt , injure , destroy;) ヒチュ、ヒチュン
【琉球】■780. シリキヂュン    (動詞)  擂鉢(すりばち)などですってかき回す。
【民】tITTulakkai (= ★pestle すりこぎ used for cleansing rice) シリキ (t-shi)、すりこぎ (t-s)
【民】tUNTu-tal (= ; 8. to ★pound 乳鉢[すり鉢]で〜をつき砕く, as with a ★pestle; 9. to push 押す, force forward) ヂャース(N 無音)、ヂュ (N 無音)
【賛】saMcUrN (= P. %{-cUrNayati} , to ★grind グラインド to powder , comminute , pulverize Sus3r.) ヂャースン、ヂュン
--
【民】cira-ttal (= 1. to crush, ★grind グラインド; 2. to destroy) する(擦る)
【賛】kSottR (= %{ttA} m. a ★pestle , any implement for grinding グラインド Comm. on Un2. ) こすり
128ground
土地(とち)、地(ち、ぢ)、地面(じめん)、土(つち)
cf. 教育漢字 地 チ、ジ、つち、ところ earth, ground なゐ じめん だいち 地震   f17_1#n.366
129grove
森(もり)、山(やま)
cf. 教育漢字 森 もり forest  林 はやし wood, thicket   f17_1#n.3
cf. 教育漢字 山 サン、セン、やま mountain   f17_1#n.571
【賛】marAla (= ; a ★grove of pomegranate trees ; ) もり(森、杜)
【賛】ArAma (= m. delight , pleasure S3Br. TUp. Bhag. Bhartr2. ; place of pleasure , a garden , ★grove Mn.) やま
【民】ArAmam (= * 1. pleasure garden, park; 2. mountain ★grove) やまノ
130grow, vi
cf. 教育漢字 育つ   grow up,grow   f17#1.37
131hammer, wood
【民】tUtai (= 02 a small ★hammer ハンマー、槌) つち
132hammer, metal
【出雲弁】きんま  《名》木馬(きうま) ex. 前にゃ の、山で木切って、きんまね乗せて運びょった わな。 【= 前には ね、山で木を切って、木馬に乗せて運んでいた よ。】
解説    木材を切り出した場所から馬車が入る場所まで運び出す時に使ったのが「きんま(木馬」と呼ばれる「ソリ」状のものでした。昭和30年頃までの「やまおろし」は殆んど木馬(きうま)でした。
【民】kaimAyam (= 1. magic 手品, sleight of hand 〔手で行う〕手品、奇術、曲芸; 2. dexterous stealing 巧妙な盗み) きんま
【民】cammaTTi (= 1. cf. carmayas2t2i horsewhip; 2. smiths large hammer 鍛冶屋の大きなハンマー, sled そり; 3. a plant) きんまみち (c-k)、かなづち (c-k)
cf. 現役の木馬道(きんまみち)@鳥取  sledge road 木馬道
c. cammaTTi は、きんまみち、でもあるが、金槌(かなづち)カナチチ、camma 玄能(げんのう)(TTi 無音)とも読める。英語の「そり」は、sledge, sled, sleigh は、ハンマーの意もある。[sled = slide、きんまみちを作る時、大きなハンマーが、必要。なので、同じ名前になった。インド語も同じ。 又、きんま、と、ハンマー、は、(k-h) 音通でつながっている。beetle コガネムシも実はハンマーの親戚だって。beat するから。] つまり、きんま、と、げんのう、ハンマー、は同源である。また、手品 sleight of hand は hand でcard をすべらせるから、だって。
c. ついでに「トンカチ」を調べてみよう。 hammer で攻める。
【民】tANi-ttal (= 01 1. to fasten, affix, enchase, as gem; 2. to ram down, make firm, as earth round a tree; to hammer down; ) トン 動詞
【民】koTTu-tal (= 01 1. to beat, as a drum, a tambourine; 2. to hammer, beat, as a brazier; 3. to clap, strike with the palms;) カチ 動詞
【民】tAn2ai (= ; 5. a kind of sledge-hammer, a weapon) とん 名詞
【賛】kAja (= n. a wooden hammer.) かち、きんま (j-J)、げんのう (k-g, j-J) 名詞
【民】taTTu-tal (= 01 1. to knock at, rap at; 2. to strike against, dash against, run aground, as a vessel; 3. to approach, come in contact with; 4. to strike or beat, as drum, tambourine; 5. to drive in by hammering;) つち
【民】tUtai (= 02 a small hammer 打ち出の小槌) つち
【琉球】■ガッパイミカースン    (動詞)  小槌(こづち)などでごつんと打つ。ガッ˹ぱイミかース˺ンともいう。
【民】kavarccuttiyal (= claw ★hammer 爪ハンマー) ガッパイミカースン (r-m, c-k, l-n)、こづちやの
【民】kompuccuttiyal (= a kind of ★hammer used by gold-smiths 金の鍛冶屋が使用したハンマー) ガッパイミカースン (m 無音, +み, c-k, l-n)
【民】kavucutti (= ★claw-hammer) 小槌(こづち)
【琉球】■ガンニン    (動詞)  鉄鎚(てつつい)などでがんとくらわす。やっつける。
【賛】ghana (= mf(%{A4})n. (%{han}) a striker たたき屋, killer 殺し屋, destroyer 破壊者 RV. ; compact , solid , material , hard , firm , dense , i (%{ghanA4} for %{●-na4m@A4}) Sus3r. ; ; an iron club 鉄の棍棒, mace 〔儀式で使う〕職杖, weapon shaped like a ★hammer , i ) ガンニン
--
【民】cammaTTi (= 1. cf. carmayas2t2i horsewhip; 2. smiths large ★hammer, sled; 3. a plant) かなづち (c-k)
【民】cammaTTikkUTam (= ★hammer for beating metal into plates or thin leaves) トンカチの (c-t, TT 無音)
【賛】tADaghAta (= mfn. beating or ★hammering ib. ) トンカチ (+ン, D 無音)、たたくだ
133harvest
秋、稲刈り、取り入れ、、取り上げ、収獲、すのう、しーのう、つつたち

cf. 教育漢字 秋 シュウ、あき、とき autumn, fall, harvest   f17_1#n.359
【熊本弁】しの  (= 米や麦の収穫 シノんカセにイクバイ(収穫の手伝いに行くよ) ムギシノ(麦の収穫期),アキジノ(秋の収穫期) 収納?)
【民】cummai (= 01 1. burden; charge; 2. group, gathering, as of rays; bundle; 3. stack 〔物をきちんと〕積み重ねる or rick 〔わら・干し草などを〕積み上げる of ★reaped paddy 刈り取った稲;) しの
【出雲弁】かーとーえわい  (= 稲の収穫祭(刈り取り祝い) ex. おまえとか、もーかーとーえわいしてや。 【= おまえのところは、もう刈り取り祝い(を)したかい。】)
【賛】kRSi (= f. ploughing, agriculture, husbandry; field (also {kRSI}); ★harvest 収穫、刈入れ.) かーとー (S-t)
【賛】ahar (= ; a sacrificial or ★festival お祭り、祝い day , portion of a sacrifice appointed for one day's performance AitBr. &c. (often ifc. , as %{dvAdazA7ha4} , &c. see s.v. 2. %{a4ha}) ;) えわい
【民】kAraRu-ttal (= to ★reap kar paddy) 刈る(かる)、刈り入れ
【民】kAlappayir (= lit., seasonal ★crop, wet season ★crop, op to katai-p-payir) 刈り入れ
【民】kuvil (= 1. ★reaping, cutting; 2. handful of reaped grain in stalks) 刈り(かり)
【民】viLaiyugkAlam (= time of ★harvest, ★harvest season) 稲刈りノ (L-n)

134harvest, vt
刈る、かい 上の harvest に包含。
135hawk, falcon
タカ、ワシ

【趣】anzud(2), anzu(2) (= -(d)[dIM.MI/DUGUDmušen]: a mythical giant bird; vulture コンドル, ★eagle ) 鷲(ワシ) (n 無音)
赤1046mesukku l.jB, NA (a bird, phps.) "★falcon" 2. MB (pi. f. mesukketi), Am. (bird- shaped jewellery) 雎鳩(みさご)
赤1046bu"uru I, buru, Ass. ba"uru (= subst. "hunting" jB, NA, b. epesu "to go hunting" of king, of ★falcon; "prey", transf. in love lyrics "quarry, catch"; < baru I D infin.; ? ? mu'uru) ハヤ
【トルコ語】doğan (= ★falcon, hawk, tercel) 鷹(たか)
【賛】mAraka (= mfn. (ifc. f. %{A}) , killing a killer , murderer (cf. %{tri-} and %{daza-mArikA}) ; calcining (cf. %{lohamAraka}) ; m. any deadly disease , plague , pestilence (personified as the god of death) S3am2k. ; a ★falcon , hawk L. ; (also n.) death of all creatures at the dissolution of the universe L. ; (%{ikA}) f. a plague , pestilence BhP.) 雎鳩(みさご)
【賛】zauGgeya (= m. metron. of Garud2a; ★hawk or falcon.) 鷹(たか)
【民】tOTTappairi (= a peregrine ★falconハヤブサ) トビ
【民】pairi (= peregrine ★falcon, falco peregrinus) ハヤ→隼のハヤ
万3-0362; 雎鳩(みさご)居る磯廻(いそみ)に生ふる名乗藻(なのりそ)の名は告(の)らしてよ親は知るとも
【十津川弁】とんび  (= とび)
【賛】zyenapAta (= m. an ★eagle's flight 鷲(ワシ)の飛行 、宙返り (a favourite feat of jugglers ジャグラーのお気に入りの偉業) Das3. (cf. Pa1n2. ) ; mfn. flying along like an eagle MBh.) とんびだ
c. 【魚津弁】トンベニトト 【鳶に魚】
【魚津弁】トト   (= 魚)
【賛】dRti (= m. (fr. %{dRR}) a skin of leather , a leather bag for holding water and other fluids (fig. = a cloud) , skin , hide , a pair of bellows RV. ; a ★fish L. ; N. of a man with the patr. Aindro7ti or Aindro7ta Ta1n2d2yaBr. [cf. %{dArteya} ; Gk. $].) とと、どど
【民】tETu (= 02 a ★fish 魚) とと
c. 【秋田弁】 どど 【魚】。【出雲弁】たいたい 【魚のこと(幼児言葉)】、【博多弁】ジージー【魚:幼児語】
【宮古島キッズネット】 ましゃ    (= ワシ)
【賛】matsyanAzaka (= and m. `" fish-destroyer "' , a ★sea-eagle 鷲(ワシ), osprey L.) ましゃましゃカ
---
【博多弁・消滅寸前】ボテフリ hawker
【行商人】  棒手振り。天秤棒で荷を担いで売りまわること。言葉だけが残った例で、実際はいつごろまでこんな姿が見られたとでっしょうね。時代小説の挿絵あたりではよく見るとですが。
【賛】vaivadhika (= m. (fr. %{vi-vadha}) a carrier , burden-bearer , porter (%{-tA} f.) Hcar. ; hawker 行商人 who carries wares 《wares》商品 to sell L. ; (%{I}) f. a female hawker Ra1jat.) ぼてふり (k-r)
【賛】patadbhIru (= m. `" terrible to birds "' , a hawk 鷹 or falcon 《鳥》ハヤブサ L.) ぼてふり
c. 英語で行商人のことを hawker、鷹のことを hawk と言う。何故だか分からないが、関係あるのだろう。サンスクリット語で、鷹のことをズバリ「ボテフリ」という。面白い。
c. 英語の語源辞典によると、 hawker は、鷹狩と、行商人の2つの意味あり。どちらも肩や背中に乗せるからカモ。--- そうみたい。荷物を背負い、前かがみの姿勢になるから、だって。
http://www.etymonline.com
hawker (n.) = "one who hunts with a hawk," Old English hafocere; see hawk (n.) + -er (1). For sense "one who sells or peddles 行商," see hawk (v.1).
hawk (v.1) = Look up hawk at Dictionary.com "to sell in the open, peddle," late 15c., back-formation from hawker "itinerant vendor" (c. 1400), agent noun from Middle Low German hoken "to peddle, carry on the back, squat," from Proto-Germanic *huk-. Related: Hawked; hawking. Despite the etymological connection with stooping かがむ under a burden on one's back, a hawker is technically distinguished from a peddler by use of a horse and cart or a van.

136hear, vt
聞く、聴く
cf. 教育漢字 聞 きこ(える) 聞こえる hear, audible   f17#2.141
【琉球】■チチュン  (= 聞く)
【賛】saMzru (= 1. P. A1. %{-zRNoti} , %{-zRNute} , to hear or hear from (e.g. %{mukhAt} , `" from any one's mouth "') , attend or ★listen attentively to (acc.) MBh.) チチュ
【宮古口】キキ /kɿkɿ/ 多與 新鏡 動詞 皆キキ、キき、キかん 〈全〉聞く  〈全〉訊く、質問する
【賛】carca (= m. `" repeating over in thought "' , considering deliberation L. Sch. ;; ; ★inquiry 質問する、問い合わせ W. ; ) キキ
【民】carccai (= 1. ★inquiry; critical study; 2. discussion, debate) キキ (c-k, c-k)
137heart, mind
肝(きも)、ちも、ちむ、気持ち、こころ(心)
cf. アルタイ諸語 語彙対応比較表 f17_1#al.65 heart, chest
【琉球】チム:肝(きも)。心臓。どきどきする表現として「チムダクダク」がある。「チムドンドン」は、わくわくと胸がときめくような心情を意味し、「チムワサワサ」は不安や胸騒ぎのする状態を表す。
【賛】taniman (= m. thinness, weakness; n. the ★liver 肝(きも)、肝臓.) チム
【民】karuvIral (= ★liver) きも
【民】kaNTakam (= 01 ★heart, core, of the tree) きもたかむ、きもったま、ちむ
【賛】kantu (= mfn. id. ib. ; (%{us}) m. (fr. %{kam} Un2. ) , love , the god of love ; the mind , ★heart Comm. on Un2. ; a granary L.) きもつ、気持ち、きも、ちむ
【賛】uttapta (= mfn. burnt ; heated , red hot , glowing , S3a1rn3g. ; pained , tormented , pressed hard Ra1jat. ; bathed , washed L. ; ★anxious , excited W. ; (%{am}) n. dried flesh L. ; great heat T.) ワサワサ
【琉球】チムグクル:真心(まごころ)
【賛】sthAyin (= a. standing, abiding, being in, at, or on (---), present; steady, constant, ★faithful 誠実な, true 真の.) チム
【民】tIn2 (= 02 ★faith, religion) チム
【賛】guhAcara (= mfn. moving in secret i.e. in the ★heart Mun2d2Up.) グクル
138hearth, stove
釜(かま)、くど、かまど、はま、はまーどぅ、かまち
cf. 3. Language contact in the Bronze Age (in 補足資料 5
     |--- Ancient borrowings from a Proto-Japonic model
         |--- (4) METAL COOKING POTVEGETABLE JAR
139heavy
cf. 教育漢字 重い heavy, weight   f17#a.31
【琉球】■ンブサン  (= 重い)
【賛】abhibhAra (= mfn. very ★heavy) あびばーら、おぼーい
【民】van2poRai (= ★heavy burden 重い荷物; ponderous weight) おんぽらい、んぶー (v-n)
【宮古口】ゆー /juu/多いっヴぅ /ivvu/鏡新いヴ /iʋ/ 多與 新鏡 形容詞 〈全〉重い
【賛】abhibhAra (= mfn. very ★heavy S3Br.) いっヴぅ/いヴ
【民】aiyavi (= 1. white mustard, brassica alba ; 2. Indian mustard; 3. a ★weight; 4. chrbuliv myrobalan; 5. upright bar for the gate of a fort; 6. bundle of arrows) ゆー/いっヴぅ/いヴ
--
【賛】anUnaguru (= mfn. of undiminished weight , very ★heavy.) おもき
【民】van2poRai (= ★heavy burden 重い荷; ponderous 〔大きくて〕重い、重たい weight 重さ) おもひ
【民】vimmu (= 02 ★weight; burden) おもー、おもに
140hemp
麻(あさ)、ぶー、うぉー、おーづ
c. ぶー、うぉー、おーづ 不明
cf.  (10) Proto-Japano-Koreanic *ʌsa ‘hemp’ (in 補助資料 5
141hide (skin)
cf. 教育漢字 革 かわ leather   f17_1#n.168
cf. 教育漢字 皮 かわ bark, skin, peel   f17_1#n.169
142hill
【賛】ucca (= mfn. (said to be fr. %{ca} fr. %{aJc} with 1. %{ud}) , high , lofty , elevated ; tall MBh. Kum. S3is3. Katha1s. &c. ; deep Caurap. ; high-sounding , loud Bhartr2. VarBr2S. ; pronounced with the Uda1tta accent RPra1t. VPra1t. &c. ; intense , violent R. ; m. height MBh. ; the apex of the orbit of a planet , Ka1las. R. &c. ; compar. %{ucca-tara} , superl. %{ucca-tama} ; [cf. Hib. {uchdan} , `" a ★hillock 小丘 "' ;) おか(丘、岡)
【民】vEgkai (= 1. tiger, felis tigris ; 2. east Indian kino tree, l. tr., ptcrrocarpus marsupium ; 3. a ★hill 岡、丘; 4. gold) おか
【十津川弁】おかつぼね   (= 丘状の地 又は(→「おか」に同じ))
【民】vEgkai (= 1. tiger, felis tigris ; 2. east Indian kino tree, l. tr., ptcrrocarpus marsupium ; 3. a ★hill 岡、丘; 4. gold) おか
【民】tavAvin2ai (= 1. salvation, deliverance; 2. ★hill, mountain 山) つぼね
【琉球】ムイ(むい)/ ムイ/ / 意味/ 山/ 丘/ 解説/ 沖縄にはあまり高い山がありません。/ / 沖縄で一番高い山は石垣島にある於茂登岳 (おもとだけ)で標高 526メートルになります。
【趣】mà-ùr (= : ravine 〈フランス語〉〔深くて細い〕峡谷、渓谷◆流水によって浸食されてできた峡谷を指す。, gorge 〔狭くて深い岩場の〕山あい、渓谷、山峡、地溝 ('to go' ? + '★mountain pass 山道').) ムイ
【賛】maru (= m. waste, desert (often pl.); ★mountain.) ムイ
【民】maru (= 02 1. ★mountain) ムイ
【民】malai (= 04 1. ★hill, mountain; 2. collection, aggregation; 3. abundance, bigness, as a mountain) ムイ
c. wikipedia の「Appendix:Okinawan Swadesh list」で、「171 mountain 盛 むい mui」と、定義している。面白い。
【宮古口】ンみ /mmi/多来ンに /mni/ 多與 新鏡 来 名詞 〈全〉丘、高い所
【民】mEn2malai (= 1. the ★hill where the sun sets 太陽が沈む丘; 2. a mountain range in coorg 【地名】 クールグ◆インド) ンみ/ンに
【民】veRpu (= 1. mountain 山, ★hill; 2. foothill 〔高い山の〕山麓の丘; spur 《地学》山脚、海脚◆(海底)山脈の尾根が分かれて麓へ低くせり出しているもの。) ンみ/ンに (v-n, p-m)、やま (v-y, p-m)
c. もしかして、「山(やま)」のルーツは、これだったりして。 on 2020/06/24 発見。
143hoe
鍬(くわ)
3. Language contact in the Bronze Age (in 補足資料 5)
  |--- Ancient borrowings from a Proto-Tungusic model
    |--- (3) PLOUGH  鋤(すき)と 鍬(くわ)
144horn
cf. 教育漢字 角 カク、かど、つの、すみ、くらべる angle, horn, corner   f17_1#n.282
145hot water
cf. 教育漢字 湯 トウ、ショウ、ゆ hot water, boil   f17_1#n.260
146hungry, be, vi
katsueru かつえる。 「かつえる」って何ですか?。ya:saN やーさん。| | jowasari よわさり
c. かつ‐える、「腹がへる」、うがりーん
かつゑる 【餓える・飢える】
《下一自》
1. ひどく飢(う)える。空腹を感ずる。
2. 欠乏を感ずる。求めるものが与えられず、しきりにほしがる。
 「親の愛に―」
--- 生まれて初めて聞いた言葉です。
hungry, famished, ひもじい, はらへった・はらすいた, 飢謹(いひうゑ), 飢(いひにう)ゑたり, ひだるい,
【趣607.】 - [ šà-sù-ga: ★hungry 空腹; starved 餓死・飢餓; without recompense 手当なし ('stomach' + 'empty' + nominative). ] (腹が)空き過ぎ(すきすぎ) (+ き)
】607-2 hunger - išim [HUNGER] (8x: Old Babylonian) wr. u2-šim; i3-šim "hunger" Akk. berû (腹が)減る(へる)
【補(アッカド辞)】 berû (= : [Human → Disease] G. to be ★hungry, starve D. to starve s.o., let s.o. be ★hungry Š = D ; field : to be starved of water , to be parched , to thirst for water ; ressource : to be unexploited ; )(腹が)減る(へる)
【賛】kSudhAlu (= mfn. ★hungry , continually ★hungry Pan5cat.) かつえる
【賛】jasvan (= mfn. needy , ★hungry RV.) やーさん
【賛】jasuri (= mfn. ★starved RV.) やーすり
【賛】apatRp (= Caus. %{-tarpayati} , to ★starve , cause to fast Car. ) よわさり
ex3. hungry, hunger.. 空腹、のインド辞書結果の中から、日本語似の単語を探せ。
【賛】paribubhukSita (= mfn. (Desid. of %{pari-} 3. %{bhuj}) , very hungry MBh.) ハラペコだ、ぺこぺこだ (b-k)
【賛】bhuj, bhunakti, bhuGkte (= 2 ({bhuJjati, -te}), pp. {bhukta}, wish to eat, be hungry. ) ひにゃじいだ → ひもじい
【民】pUkA (= hungry) ぺこパク つく (+つく)
【賛】kSudh, kSudhyati (= , pp. {kSudhita} 1 be hungry.) かつと  [= 秋田弁「かつと (飢人??飢えている人)」]
【賛】kSudhAlu (= & {kSunmant} a. hungry.) かちーる  [= 八丈島弁「かちーる (餓(かつ)える 腹が減る)」]
【賛】vikSudh (= P. %{-kSudhyati} , to be hungry TBr.) よわい◆よわくつて◆よわくて(v-y)   [= 八丈島弁「(空腹。)」]
【民】nUr-tal (= 01 1. to go out; to be extinguished 消滅[絶滅]する、消える, as a lamp ランプが; to become extinct, as a family; 2. to be appeased (人)の飢えを鎮める or suppressed 抑制されている, as hunger 空腹, anger 怒り; 3. to be spoiled 損なわれた; to begin to rot; to grow too soft) なえる  [出雲弁「なえる(はらがなえる)【元気が無くなる、力が入らない(腹が減る)】」]
【民】kaTumpaci (= extreme hunger 極度の空腹, ravenous ①飢えた、ひどく空腹な ②〔望みを満たすのに〕貪欲な、強欲な appetite 食欲) くちにほしい  [出雲弁「くちにほしい 【(満腹なのに)欲しくなること】」]
【民】paciyEppam (= belching おくび、げっぷ due to excessive hunger 極度の空腹に起因したゲッブ) ひだりい (c-d)
c. 【英】hungry ハングリー、は、ひもじい (h-h, n-m, g-j, r 無音, y-y) そのまんま東、だ、と言うと、眉をひそめる人達が居る。 アルファベットの G は、英語では、ジー /j:/ と発音する。独語では G /ゲー/と発音。 (g-j) 音通はザラにある。
【十津川弁】ひだるい  (= ひもじい)
【民】paciyEppam (= belching おくび、げっぷ due to excessive ★hunger 極度の空腹に起因したゲッブ) ひだるい (c-d)、ひだるばら (c-d, m-r)
c. 大分弁の「ひだりい」、熊本弁「ひだるか」、博多弁「ひだるい」、【名古屋弁】ひだるい(/りゅう) 【ひもじい】、【長野弁】ひだるい【:(北信、東信、南信)「空腹だ」】
【賛】paribubhukSita (= mfn. (Desid. of %{pari-} 3. %{bhuj}) , very ★hungry MBh.) ハラペコじゃた、ぺこぺこだ (b-k)
cf. 【十】ひだるばら 【空き腹】
【八丈島弁[ハチ31] 】かちーる (餓(かつ)える 腹が減る)
【賛】 kSudhAlu (= & {kSunmant} a. hungry 空腹.)
【民】 kAtaTai-ttal (= to experience a choking sensation in the ear owing to fatigue, hunger, disease, etc) かちー
【チベ】kha stong (ng-l) (= 1) hungry [lit. empty mouth] 口が空、口さみしい  RY])
【チベ】ka gcig sgo gcig くちすぎ(朽ちる) (= small house, poor cottage 貧しい小屋, fasten prisoner to pillar until he dies of hunger 空腹で死ぬまで柱に縛り付けられた囚人 [JV])
c. 【GAL】hungry 未登録。ボロ。
c. 「かちーる」と「朽ちる」は、多分親戚。
147hurt, damage, vt.
病む(やむ)
cf. 教育漢字 病む suffer, sick 患う(わずらう)、罹る(かかる)、風邪引き、病(やまい)   f17#1.108
148husband
夫(おっと)、*wo-pitə "male person" うぉぴた、utu うつ、hutu ふつ、butu ぶつ、*woto をと
c. 「おっと」以外の発音は、私には、理解できない。上記発音は、正しいのか?。納得できん。
【民】pattA (= 01 ★husband) ふつ、ぶつ
【宮古口】びきどぅン /bikidum/與来びきどぅむ /bikidumu/ 多皆 友新 鏡来 名詞 〈全〉男性  夫、旦那
cf. 島の散歩 #121  びきどぅん  男
【民】vikirtan2 (= 1. ★man of freakish behaviour 気まぐれな行動の人; 2. God, as different from the world 神、つまり、世界が違う人) びきどぅン/びきどぅむ
【賛】piGga (= ; of a ★man A1s3vS3r. (cf. %{paiGgi} , %{-gin}) ;) びき、彦(ひこ)
c. 【宮古島キッズネット】夫  ぶどぅ
【賛】vettR (= 2 m. ★husband.) ぶどぅ、おっと
【民】pattA (= 01 ★husband) ぶどぅ、おっと
【賛】pAti (= m.= %{pati} , a master , lord , ★husband Un2.) ぶどぅ、おっと
149husk
から、もみがら、はら、ぐる、くー、ごろ、あらぬか、もみぬか、ぬか、しくぶ、ふき
【趣363.】 ★winnow - mar (= [★WINNOW] wr. mar "to ★winnow" Akk. zarû) 籾殻吹き(もみがらふき)の籾(モミ) (r-m)
【趣582.】 - [ imĝaĝa(2,3): ★husked (?) emmer wheat. ] いがいが or 稲殻(いながら) (g-r)
c. イガ、って、漢字ないのか?。「いが」で Google しても、出てこない。---- 問題だ。日本文化が滅亡するよ。 cf. イガ (wikipedia)
c. 籾(もみ)のイガイガって、言いますよねー。(栗のイガ、は、当たり前。) c. 喉がイガラっぽいの feeling も同源。モミを見たことない・触ったことない人には、もう無理かも。
ガラ……穀物……もみがら
---- シュメールでは、 imĝaĝa(2,3) 稲殻(いながら)と、 guru [grain store 穀物倉庫;] 蔵・倉(くら) に痕跡がある。
---- ヘブライ語では、【蛇227.】husk(n) - קְלִפָּה /ke-lip-pah/ 殻(から) or 空っぽ(からっぽ)
糠(ぬか) nuk-a nukk-u  糠   もみがらをとる
【民】min2ukku-tal (= to remove bran 糠 from rice in polishing 米を磨いて糠を削除;) ぬか  100 点
【韓国語】milgiul (= bran) ぬか
【賛】niSkula (= stripped off 脱いだ, husked ~の殻を剥く、外皮を剥く)
【賛】nagnIkaraNa (= n. stripping , undressing 脱ぐ W.) ぬがす

【タガログ】maghubad (= undress)
【インドネシア】menanggalkan pakaian (= undress)
【英】naked 裸、ぬか、脱ぐト
【十津川弁】もみづき  (= 地米 その土地でとれた米) 【民】mazukkal (= ★husked rice 玄米 with bran ふすま、ぬか not removed) もみづきの (+み)
c. 英語熟語 husked rice 玄米,
cf. 玄米 (wikipedia)  玄米(げんまい)とは、生物学的視点からは稲の果実である籾(もみ)から籾殻(もみがら)を除去した状態。食品としては精白されていない状態の米である。 玄米の「玄」は、「暗い」または「色が濃い」という意味で、精白されていないのでベージュ色または淡褐色を ...
c. 籾(もみ)に対応する英単語が無い。籾殻はある、 chaff, hask --- 英語、オカシイ、ボロイ。
籾、と、籾殻、は、違うだろうに。論理的に考えると、稲穂の paddy が籾に近いと思うが、英辞郎で paddy を見ると「米、稲◆【同】paddy rice 。稲田、水田◆【同】paddy field、」しか出てこない。バカである。
インド辞書を paddy で引くと、「籾」似は出てくる。
【民】min2min2inel (= a kind of ★paddy) もみの
【民】vANan2 (= a kind of ★paddy (TLS)) もみ (v-m)、いね
c. 「もみ」と「まんま」は、「mm」と「mnm」は、大きく見れば、同一?。
c. paddy 稲穂、のインド辞書をみていると、かなり有名な下記がある。
【民】valci (= 1. food; 2 boiled rice; 3. rice; 4. ★paddy) ウルチ、もち (v-m, l 無音))
【富山弁】【富山弁ゼミナール】にか  糠(ぬか)
 【賛】niSkula (= mf(%{A})n. without family , having no kindred Mn. (%{-taM} %{kR} , to make family-less , exterminate R.) ; shelled , ★husked Car. ; %{-tA} f. dying out , perishing , Pan5c , ; %{-tvoc} mfn. stripped off , ★husked Bhpr. ; %{-lA-} or %{-lI-} %{kR} , to shell , strip off , ★husk 籾殻 Das3. ; %{-lina} mfn. of low family , plebeian Ka1v.) にか (S 無音, l 無音)、にしゅから
【魚津弁】ネカ  (= もみがら)
【民】neRkuRucAlai (= place where paddy 稲 is ★husked もみ殻 (TLS)) ねか、ぬか
c. 糠(ぬか)の親戚
【伊予弁】すくも  (= もみがら)㈹ 【民】cagkAyam (= 1. dried leaves of sugar-cane; 2. weeds growing in paddy fields, typha elephantina ; 3. thin immature 未熟 grain or ★chaff 籾殻 of black-gram 黒い粒, etc) すくも
【民】cakkal (= 1. rotten straw, muck; 2. that which is withered しなびた, shrivelled, ★chaffy) すくも (l-m)、から (c-k)
c. 【石見弁】「すくも 【籾殻、役に立たない殻】」と同じ。石見弁の解釈が、本来正しい。
--
【民】mazukkal (= ★husked 殻付き rice 米 with ★bran ぬか・糠 not removed) ぬか(糠) (z 無音)
【民】min2ukku-tal (= 01 1. to polish みがく, brighten, beautify; 2. to remove ★bran ぬか from rice in polishing; to make a display or show) ぬか(糠)、ぬく(抜く)、みがく(磨く)
c. 糠(ぬか)/抜く(ぬく)/磨く(みがく)、は、インド弁的には、同源 or 親戚 です。
--
【琉球】■ぬけがら〔脱け殻〕
関連語彙:グルー,プルー, シディグルー
【民】kazaRRu-tal (= 01 1. to unfasten, loosen, unhinge, dislocate, unlock, unhook, unbolt, unscrew, unbutton, disentangle, extricate, disenmber; 2. to strip, take off, divest, dismantle, unrig; to ★slough off, as a snake, its skin; 3. to remove, to be freed, as from sing) グルー (z 無音)
【民】caTTaikazaRRu-tal (= to cast ★slough 抜け殻を投げ捨てる, as a snake 例えば、蛇の様に) シディグルー (z 無音)
【民】pollu (= 02 ★empty 空の glume or husk 殻 of grain) プルー
【民】pIli (= 02 1. gold; 2. toe-ring of a woman; 3. small trumpet; 4. musical instrument; 5. large lance; 6. mountain; 7. fortification, wall of a fort; 8. ★shell 殻、貝殻 of conch) プルー
【民】muktakajncukam (= snake which has cast off its ★slough) ぬけたかにゃすかん、ぬけがらすかん?
【琉球】■もみ〔籾〕 / 関連語彙:ムミー
【民】mun2vAy (= 1. forepart of the mouth; 2. lip; 3. the direction opposite to that whence the wind blows, in winnowing; 4. grain found mixed with ★chaff 籾殻 even after winnowing 選別後も雑穀が混入していることが判明) ムミー、もみがら (v-g, y-r)
【民】pALai (= 01 1. spathe of palms; 2. a reddish kind of paddy; 3. empty ears of grain, ★chaff; 4. shark's liver) ぱーらい、ムミー (p-m, l-m)
c. 籾殻が付いている米、籾殻自身が「モミ(籾)」と言われるようになった。「モミ」と「マメ(豆)」は、明らかに同源である。米の豆が、「モミ」に化けただけだ。多分。
【琉球】■シティガラー   (名詞)  <捨殻。捨てたかす。粗末にほうり散らすこと。
☑【民】caTTaikazaRRu-tal (= to cast ★slough 抜け殻を投げ捨てる, as a snake 例えば、蛇の様に) シディグルー (z 無音)、シティガラ
【宮古口】くー /kuu/ 多與 新鏡 名詞 〈全〉(卵、貝などの空っぽになった)殻
【賛】kapAla (= (%{as} m. L.) n. (%{kamp} Un2.) , a cup , jar , dish (used especially for the Purod2a1s3a offering) TS. (cf. %{trikapAla} , %{paJca-kapAla} , &c.) ; the alms-bowl of a beggar Mn. ; a fragment of brick (on which the oblation is placed) S3Br. ; a cover , lid A1s3vGr2.; the skull , cranium , skull-bone AV. ; the ★shell of an egg 卵の殻 S3Br. ; the ★shell of a tortoise 亀の甲羅 S3Br. ) くー (l 無音)、から、こうら
【宮古口】くー /kuu/ 多友 新鏡 名詞 〈全〉甲羅
c. ALC 英辞郎。  甲羅 = carapace(亀などの) mail《動物》(亀などの) shell(カニ・エビ・昆虫などの)
【賛】kukUla (= %{as} , or %{am} m. or n. chaff Prab. ; conflagration or fire made of chaff 籾殻(もみがら) L. ; (%{am}) n. a hole filled with stakes L. ; armour 鎧(よろい), ★mail L.) くー、甲羅(こうら)、殻(から)
150hut, shed
いほ、小屋、番屋、あさぎや、や
【賛】gaJja (= ; a ★hut , hovel , abode of low people (%{pAmara-sadman}) W. ; ) 小屋
【民】kUrai (= 1. sloping roof, commonly thatched with grass or palm; 2. small ★hut, shed, cottage) 小屋 (r-y)
【賛】pAnIyazAlA (= or f. a place (esp. a ★shed on the road-side) where water is distributed L.) 番屋、ばんやザーラー
【賛】vATaka (= m. an enclosure , garden , plantation Katha1s. ; (%{ikA}) f. id. Ka1v. ; the site of a house L. ; a ★hut L.) あさぎ
【賛】vatsazAlA (= f. a ★calf-shed ib.) あさじら
【魚津弁】カースベ  (= 蚊よけの方法)
【民】kocuvalai (= ★Mosquito-net 蚊網、蚊除け網、みたい) かーすべらい、蚊帳(かや)
151illness
病(やまい)、病む(やむ)、病気(びょうき)、あんべい、あんばい、具合、痛み(いたみ)、わずらい
c. 147 hurt, damage, vt. を包含。病む 系。
cf. 教育漢字 病む suffer, sick 患う(わずらう)、罹る(かかる)、風邪引き、病(やまい)   f17#1.108
【賛】vyAdhi (= m. disease; {-ta} a. ill, ★sick.) 病気 (dh-k)
【賛】Atura (= mf(%{A})n. ★suffering , sick (in body or mind) RV. ; diseased or pained by (in comp.) MBh. ; desirous of (Inf.) (cf. %{an-Atura4}.)) わずらい(患い)、いたみ (r-m)
【賛】anamIva (= a. having or causing no ★sickness or pain, healthy, propitious. n. health, weal.) あんばい、あんべー
【民】kayilA (= ★sickness, ill health) 具合
152insect
cf. スワデシュ・リスト 207 虫 むし worm, insect   f20#s.50
153intestines, guts
わた、はらわた、なかみ、ばた
pasehtu (= "(part of) the ★intestines" jB lex.; < pasahu) わた、ばた
【賛】mahAnimna (= n. the ★intestines , abdomen Car.) 中身(なかみ) (h-k)
154irrigate, vt
うるぷ、みずひくり、みずはらしゅん、しみるん、湿る(しめる)、うる、うり
不明  →  有った
【民】URRuppeyar-tal (= to flow from a spring, as ★water into a well) うるぷっぺやる
【民】URRuppaTTai (= scoop for throwing out ★water from artificial springs in river beds) うるぷタイ
155island
島(しま)
cf. 教育漢字 島 しま island   f17_1#n.157
156jar
壺(つぼ)、甕(かめ)、とっくり
【民】tavalai (= metallic ★pot with a wide mouth 広口金属製ポット) つぼライ
【民】taTavuttAzi (= big ★jar) つぼッターツィ
【賛】kumbha (= m. a ★jar , pitcher , waterpot , ewer , small water-jar [often ifc. (f. %{A}) e.g. %{chidra-k-} , a perforated pitcher R. ;) かめ
【民】kuNam (= 02 water-★pot, pitcher) かめ
【民】takkar (= ★jar) とっくり
157journey
旅(たび)
cf. 教育漢字 旅 たび travel   f17_1#n.170
【趣】súb, súg, su8 (= : to lead out; to stand; to ★travel (plural marû su8-bé, said of two or more, such as a herd; cf., also du, ĝin, re7).) たび (súb の s-t)
sabatu(m), Ug. sabdtu (= ; "undertake" ★journey, "take" route; ) 旅立ち、旅路
requ(m) (= "to be distant, go far off' OAkk, Bab. G (< ?; stat. usu. ruq, OB also riq) 1. stat. "is distant", of place, person; of ★journey "is long" 2. "go far away from (= ace. or prep.)" place, person;) 旅行
【民】sapar (= 1. journey; ★travel; 2. the second month of the muhammadan calendar) たび (s-t)
【民】tAvaTi (= 1. ★journey; 2. battle, fight, skirmish; 3. stride) 旅路(たびじ)
158jug, wide mouth
かめ、はんず
【賛】vRnta (= ; the stand of a ★water-jar Ka1tyS3r. ; ) はんず
【賛】kuNDa (= n. ★jar, pitcher (also {I} f.); hole in the ground, fire-pit. m. the son of a wife by a paramour.) かんぞ → はんぞ・はんず (k-h)
159kettle
はがま
【賛】bherIghnat (= m. `" strikinga ★kettle-drum "' , a ★kettle-drummer Jaim. Sch.) はがまダ
【出雲弁】はがま  (= 釜 ex. はがまで 飯を炊く = 釜で 飯を炊く)
【博多弁・消】ハガマ wing,pot 【炊飯釜】  羽のついた釜。かまどに置くために、胴の周りにつば(羽根)をつけた釜。
【民】pakkam (= 01 1. side; 2. neighbourhood, nearness; 3. place; 4. country, region; 5. house; 6. side of the body extending from the shoulder to the hip; 7. wing 翼, ★feather 羽根;) はがま
【賛】parNa (= n. wing, plume, ★feather (also of an arrow), leaf; m. = {palAza3} m. ) はね
【賛】gam (= 1 Ved. cl. 1. P. %{ga4mati} (Naigh. ; Subj. %{gamam} , %{ga4mat} [%{gamAtas} , %{gamAtha} AV.] , %{gamAma} , %{gaman} RV. ; ★Pot 釜. ) 釜(かま)
160kill
ころす
cf. 教育漢字 殺ぐ(そぐ) kill, reduce, lessen 削ぐ 殺す (ころす)   f17#1.19
【ギャロン語】[@ Maerkang Japhug Shaerzong(A) 马尔康沙尔宗/茶堡 gSar rdzong/Ja phug] cowu’sat̚ けせっt、消せ
【シュメール語】gul (= TO KILL (to destroy)) 殺す(ころす)
【趣】gaz(2) (= : n., powder; break, fracture; war (chamber + repetitive motion; cf., [ĝiš]naĝa3,4, naĝX[GAZ, KUM]).
   v., to crush; to kill, slaughter (with -da-); to vanquish, defeat.) 消す
【趣】úš (= : n., blood; blood vessel; death
   v., to die; to kill; to block (singular hamtu stem).
   adj., dead.) 亡す(うす)
【赤】daku(m), Ass. dudku(m) (= "to kill; beat" G (u) [GAZ] 1. "kill" person;) たたく
【有】vras (= kill, murder, slay, zap, stab, finish off) ころす (v-k)
【賛】krath (= cl. 1. P. %{-thati} , to hurt , kill Dha1tup. %{krAthayati} , to hurt , injure , destroy ) ころす
【賛】klath (= cl. 1. P. (p. %{kla4that}) to be formed into clots or lumps VS.; to hurt , kill Dha1tup.) 殺す
【民】kOLizai-ttal (= to kill) ころす
【民】pogkalvai-ttal (= to boil rice for offering to a deity; to injure; to kill, destroy) ぶっころす
【賛】math, manth, mathnAti, mathnIte, mathati (= ; strike, hurt, cut off, tear or root out, destroy, kill. {upa} stir up, mix, mingle. {nis} elicit by attrition out of (2 acc), shake or tear out of (abl.), wipe off; ) 抹殺(まっさつ)
【賛】vadh (vadhati) (= , P. {vadhyate (-ji)} strike, slay 殺害, kill, destroy. C. {vadhayati} = S. -- {apa} cut off, cleave; drive away. {abhi} & {samabhi} smite upon (acc.). {A} crush down, dash to pieces. {ud} tear out or in pieces. {upa} strike on (acc.), slay, kill. {ni} fix or fasten in (loc.); knock down, kill. {nis} frustrate, annihilate. {parA} cleave, tear asunder. {pra} beat. {vi} destroy.) やっちゃって
【賛】ud (= strike down, kill, destroy. {saMni} strike at, attack, kill. ) 討つ
【チベ】gri sha (= flesh of person killed with sword 剣で殺された人の人肉, flesh of an adult man who has been killed with a sword [JV]) ころす
【チベ】gri chad (= killed person’s knife la 'khri ba'i fault [IW]) ころした
【チベ】gri rus (= offering substance of bone of mature person w/o sickness suddenly killed w a knife] [IW]) ころす
c. 古代チベットには、人食い or 人肉提供 の習慣が有るのか?。
【チベ】gsod pa (= {gsod pa, bsad pa, gsad pa, sod} trans. v.; to kill; slay [RY]) 消す べ
【チベ】krongs (= to kill, murder, Variant imp, tense [RY]) ころす
c. チベット語には、「殺す」は無い。「消す」は有る。西田語彙に「殺す」がある。
【賛】tigh (= cl. 5. %{-ghnoti} , to hurt , kill (= %{tik})) 殺ぐ(そぐ)
【趣】šag5 (= : to slaughter (ša5, 'to cut, break' + ug5,7,8, 'to kill').) 殺ぐ(そぐ)
【有】zhduk (= wipe, eradicate, wipe out, kill, obliterate, efface) 殺ぐ(そぐ)
c. 「殺ぐ(そぐ)」は、初めて聞いたが、有名らしい (が行五段動詞)。
161kill, murder
死なす
【賛】samAhata (= mfn. struck together MBh. ; joined , united Nir. ; struck down , wounded , ★killed MBh. ; beaten (as a drum) Amar.) 死なす
【民】ceviTTu-tal (= 01 to crush, destroy, ★kill) 死なす (v-n)
162knead
練る(ねる)、にゆん、こねる、くなし、こなす、
cf. 教育漢字 練 ね(る) 練る knead   f17#2.57
c. 「練る」「こねる」は有るが、「くなし、こなす」系はインド弁辞書には無い。
c. 「こねる」は、【英】knead こねた、に近い。つまり、英語にも近い。現英語は k は黙字扱い。つまり、日本語発音は英語より古形を残す (? カモ)。
163knife
包丁(ほうちょう)、小刀(こがたな)、しぐ、しーぐ、はたな、かたな、なた。 「しぐ」って何?。
cf. 沖縄の刃物「シ-グ」   cf. 沖縄型 包丁とシーグ(ナイフ) シーグ(大意:巣具、サヤ付のナイフ)[ (c) カニマン鍛冶工房日記]: 動物の解体や工作に用いるナイフである。沖縄ではシーグと呼ばれ、日本本土では合口、短刀に類似する。グスク時代の遺跡からよく出土する。現在では金物屋で売られることはありません。
両刃で短刀に類似しシィー(大意:巣サヤ)に差し込んだ携帯用もある。
柄は琉球松を焼いて刃を差込で握りやすく使い勝手がいい。
縄シーグ(大意:巣具、サヤ付のナイフ)
沖縄型 包丁とシーグ(ナイフ) from Copyright(C)2022 カニマン鍛冶工房日記, ALL Rights Reserved.
【賛】churikA (= f. ★knife.) シーグ
【民】cattakam (= 01 curved ★knife, small bill-hook 小さな鉈) しーかむ
【賛】zastraka (= 2 n. (for 1. see p. 1044 , col. 1) a ★knife L. ; iron L. ; (%{ikA}) f. a dagger 短剣, ★knife Das3.) シーグ
【賛】pattra (= ; any thin leaf 薄い葉 or plate of metal 金属製板 or gold-leaf. Var. (cf. %{paTTa}) ; the blade of a sword or ★knife (cf. %{asi-}) ; a knife , dagger ダガー・短剣・短刀 L. ; ) はっとら →  はったー → ほうちょう(羽根、包丁、庖丁)
【博多弁・消滅】サキトガリ  (= knife 【出刃包丁】)
【民】corukupiTikatti (= sword or ★knife with handle kept in sheath さや 訳: 鞘で保護された剣やナイフ) さきっぽとがって
【京都弁】ながたん  (= 包丁)
【民】maccukkatti (= pruning 剪定 ★knife) ながたん (+ん)
【賛】nakhara (= a. shaped like a claw 爪; n. such a ★knife or dagger, also = {nakha3}.) なが
【賛】dhArA (= 2 f. (2. %{dhAv}) margin , sharp edge , rim , blade 刃 (esp. of a sword , ★knife , &c. ; fig. applied to the flame of fire) RV. ;) たん (r-n)
c. 京ことば、から追加した。
【十津川弁】でば  (= 出刃包丁)
【賛】svadhA (= f. (for %{sva-dhA} see p. ) an axe 斧(おの), ★knife ナイフ TS.) でば
c. 刃(は)が、斧(おの)の刃の様。▼ で分厚い。  cf. 出刃包丁 (wikipedia)
【十津川弁】ほうちょ  (= ∈ 包丁 ウ脱落)
【賛】pattra (= n. (and m. S3a1tkat. ; ifc. f. %{A} and %{I}) the wing of a bird , pinion , feather VS. ; ; the blade of a sword or ★knife ナイフ (cf. %{asi-}) ; a ★knife , dagger ダガー、短剣 L. ; ) ほうちょ、ほーちゃ、ほいちゃ
c. 【富山弁】ほいちゃ【包丁】、【魚津弁】ホーチャ 【包丁】
【十津川弁】ほうちょう  (= 腰にさす山刀)
【民】paTTA (= 01 ★sword 剣) ほうちょう
【賛】pattra (= ; the blade of a ★sword or knife (cf. %{asi-}) ; a ★knife , dagger ダガー、短剣 L. ;) ほうちょう
【宮古口】かたな  包丁
【宮古口】かたな /katana/ 多與 友新 鏡来 名詞 〈全〉包丁
【賛】kSadman (= %{a} n. a carving ★knife 肉切り用大型ナイフ、肉切り包丁、彫刻刀 RV. ; (pieces of) food (cut off or carved) Naigh. ; water , i ) かたな (S-t)
【賛】kartari (= f. scissors , a ★knife , or any instrument for cutting) かたな (r-n)
【賛】parzu (= 1 f. rib; curved ★knife, sickle 鎌.) ほうちょう
164knit
編む(あむ)、くむ、うつ
cf. 教育漢字 編む braid, weave, knit, bind   f17#1.112
【民】kuyil(lu)-tal (= 02 1. to make, execute, shape, construct; 2. to weave; 3. to plait, ★braid, intwine;) くむ (l-m)
【民】muTai-tal (= 02 to ★braid, plait, wattle; to become lean) うつ (m 強無音)
165ladder
はし、梯子(はしご)
cf. 教育漢字 橋 はし bridge   f17#n.59
【民】paTi (= 03 1. step, stair; rung of a ★ladder; 2. grade, rank, class, order, sphere; 3. nature; 4. stirrup;) はし
【民】paTikkAl (= ★ladder) はしごール
166ladle
ねぼ、にぶ、ひしゃ、ひしゃく、さじ、ふだる
【賛】nirvapaNa (= n. pouring out , sprinkling , scattering Ka1tyS3r. ; offering (esp. the funeral oblation or libation) Mn. ; that by which a libation is made (as a ★ladle or vessel) S3Br. ;) にぶパナ、ねぼな
【賛】praseka (= m. flowing forth, discharge; the bowl of a spoon or ★ladle.) ひしゃく (r 無音)
【賛】pratinigrah (= A1. %{-gRhNIte} , to take up (liquids) , ★ladle out S3Br.) ひしゃく (ni 無音)
--
【賛】vasAhoma (= m. an offering of fat TS. ; %{-zeSa} m. n. the remains of an offering of fat , ManGr2. ; %{-ha4vanI} f. the ★ladle used at an offering of fat S3Br.) おたま (s-t)
167lick, vt
なめる、、ねぶる
【賛】nirlih (= P. %{-leDhi} , to ★lick off , sip off or away A1pS3r.) なめる (r-m)
【民】mUjncu-tal (= 1. to ★lick) ぬーにゃち、なめち
【糸島弁】ねぶる  (= 舐める)
【賛】vilih (= P. A1. %{-leDhi} , %{-lIDhe} , to ★lick , ★lick up , lap MBh. BhP. Sus3r.: Intens. (only p. %{-lelihat} and %{-hAna}) , to ★lick continually or repeatedly MBh.) ねぶ(v-n, l 無音, h-b) △
【賛】nipA (= 1. P. %{-pibati} , to drink or ★suck in 吸い込む, kiss Ka1v. ; to absorb , dry up BhP.: Caus. %{-pAyayati} , cause to imbibe or ★suck in ib. 1.) ねぶ △ →◎
c. 博多弁には、しゃぶる、の意もあるとのこと。【なめる・しゃぶる】
c. 【大分弁】ねぶる = 舐める。
【和歌山弁(177)】ねずる  (= なめる、という意味です。関西弁では「↑ねぶる」と言いますが、和歌山弁では《ねずる》だそうです。)
【十津川弁】ねずる  (= 舐める    --- 【十】ねぶる、とも言う。)
【名古屋弁】ねぶる  (= 「なめる」「しゃぶる」)
【讃岐弁】 ねぶる (= 舐める、舐め回す。古語の保存。「そなんねぶりまわりますな(=そんなに舐め回してはいけませんよ)」「飴ちゃんでもねぶっじょりな(=飴でも舐めておきなさい)」)
【賛】madhulih (= mfn. (ifc.) one who has ★licked the honey of. 蜂蜜を舐めた人 BhP. ; m. a bee 蜂 Ka1v. BhP. Kuval.) ねずり
【民】mUjncu-tal (= 1. to ★lick 舐める) ねじっち
【宮古口】なン /nam/皆なンミ /nammɿ/多なンー /namm/ 多與 鏡 動詞 皆なンミ、なンみ、なンまん 〈全〉舐める
【賛】nirlih (= P. %{-leDhi} , to ★lick off , sip off or away A1pS3r.) なンり (r-n) → なン、なンミ (l-m)、なンー、なめる (r-m)
---
【京都弁】ぺろぺろ  (= 一口で食べられるようなくず餅)
【賛】pralih (= P. A1. %{-leDhi} , %{-lIDhe} , to ★lick up 舐める、舐め回す, cause to melt on the tongue 舌の上で溶かす Sus3r.) ぺろり、ぺろ
【賛】parilih (- P. %{-leDhi} , to ★lick all round , ★lick over , ★lick Ya1jn5. .: Intens. (pr. p. %{-lelihat} , %{-hAna}) to ★lick all round , ★lick repeatedly ペロペロ MBh.) ぺろり、ぺろぺろ
168lid
蓋(ふた), Mugiya-higashi (Yoron Island 与論島) (i) puta (ii) siNta 「しんた」何。この変わり者は?。
【民】pAn2aimUTi (= a ★lid used to cover an earthen pot) ふんた、ふた
【賛】pidhAna (= n. covering, shutting up; cover, ★lid.) ふたーナ
【賛】saMdhirodha (= m. obstruction of a point of junction (as of the hinge in the ★lid of any vessel) Bhpr.) しんた
169lie, falsehood
やかす、よこしま、よこしまな、うそ、ふらち、だらく、そらごと、しろ、--- 「いつわり(偽り)」は無いのか?。
【賛】asatya (= a. untrue, false; n. falsehood, ★lie.) うそだや、うそや
【民】viRicuviTu-tal (= 1. to send up a rocket; 2. to tell ★lies) やかす
【民】taLuku (= fraud, ★lie) そらく、だらく
【民】piruTai (= 02 1. false rumour, ★lie; 2. that which is hollow; empty show) ふらち
【民】veTivai-ttal (= 1. to shoot with a gun; 2. to seek an opportunity to destroy or injure; 1. to make a surprisingly ★false statement; 2. to foment or start a quarrel) いつわ
【賛】visaMvAda (= m. ★false assertion , breaking one's word , disappointing MBh. ; contradiction , disagreement with (instr. with or without %{saha} , loc. , or comp.) MBh.) うそっぱち
170life
命(いのち)、ぬち、ʑimjo ~ ʑumjo | | | | | ʑumjo って何と発音するの?。ʑ の発音記号は、IPA の ʐ と違うが親戚か?。 ʑ 有声歯茎硬口蓋摩擦音  --- 寿命(じゅみょう)だね。
ex. 日本語 - 家事 [kaʑi]。日本語では、母音の後ろに置かれた /ジ/ や /ジャ/, /ジュ/, /ジョ/ の頭子音に現れる。
cf. 教育漢字 命 いのち life   f17_1#n.18
【賛】jIvya (= n. impers. to be lived , Ca1n. ; `" ★life "' see %{-vyo4pAya} ; (%{A}) f. = %{-va-priyA} L. ; ) 寿命(じゅみょう) (v-m)
【民】jIviyam (= ★life, existence) 寿命(じゅみょう)ノ (v-m)
【宮古口】【島の散歩】んぬつ  命
【宮古口】【宮古語電子辞書】んぬつ /nnutsɿ/多ぬつ /nutsɿ/ 多與 新鏡 名詞 〈全〉命
【宮古島キッズネット】んぬぅつ
【賛】amRta (= mfn. not dead 死んでない MBh. ; ★immortal 不死身;) いのち、うぬつ  by [life] で辞書引き
【賛】anavattva (= n. the state of being endowed with breath or ★life Nir. 呼吸や生命に恵まれた状態) んぬつ、いのち
【琉球】ヌチグスイ(命薬)=文字通り「命の薬」の意。人生の糧となるありがたい経験、気持ちがリフレッシュするような体験、たまにしか食べられない贅沢なご馳走などを指す。
c.
首里 DB : ヌチグスイ /nucigusui/ 0  (名詞)  意味:  [1]命の薬。長寿の薬。 イラブーシンジェー ヌチグスイ ナイビーン。irabuusiNzee nucigusui naibiiN.エラブウナギの煎じ汁は命の薬になります。  [2]転じて、非常においしいもの。
今帰仁 DB : ヌチグスイ /nucigusu'i/   (名詞) 意味: 命の薬。命をのばす薬。
----
c. medicine, life, long life, longevity 当初ハズレ。しょうがないので、不死身の immortal → アタリ。
【民】nittiyacUri (= immortals 不死身 residing permanently in Vis2n2u's heaven ヴィスヌの天国に永久に住む不死者)
ヌチグスリ/ヌチグスイ (y-ki, r-y)、ヌチ薬草(やくそう)

【民】mAccal (= 1. dying, ★mortality 死ぬこと; 2. great suffering; 3. laziness, sloth) ぬちる
【賛】maraNazIla (= mfn. liable to death , ★mortal MW.) ぬちる
c. Vishnu ヴィスヌ (wikipedia):ヴィシュヌ(梵: विष्णु Viṣṇu)はヒンドゥー教の神である。ブラフマー、シヴァとともにトリムルティの1柱を成す重要な神格であり[1][2][注 1]、特に ヴィシュヌ派では最高神として信仰を集める[4][5]。
【民】nalvAzvu (= 1. happy, prosperous life; 2. happy, married life) ヌチ
【民】nALviTu-tal (= to spend one's life-time) ヌチ
【民】mUccukkATTu-tal (= 1. to show signs of life 生命の印を示すこと、生きていることの証(あかし)の提示; 2. to show of signs of courage 勇気の印を示すこと) ヌチグス
【民】matti-ttal (= 03 1. to mix, as medicine; 2. to beat; 3. to rub) ヌチ、まぜ(混ぜ)
【民】kaTuvuppu (= 1. a kind of medicine, solvent of flesh 肉の溶媒; 2. gall of glass; neutral salt, skimmed off from the surface of melted crown glass, felvitri ;) グスイ
【賛】kSAra (= 14 ; a factitious or medicinal salt (commonly black salt 人工のまたは薬用の塩(通常は黒塩), ;) くすり
-- おいしい 系 --
【賛】madhu (= mf(%{U8} or %{vI})n. (gen. n. Ved. %{ma4dhvas} , %{ma4dhos} , or %{ma4dhunas} ; instr. %{ma4dhvA} ; dat. %{ma4dhune} ; loc. %{ma4dhau}) sweet , delicious , pleasant , charming , delightful RV.;) ヌチ
【民】coNTuttIn2 (= delicious food taken frequently) グスイな
c. 全体としては、古代人は、言葉のお遊びをしている。
171loom, n
機(はた)、はたもの、はたおり きかい、
cf. 教育漢字 機 キ、はた、からくり、きざし、はずみ、おり apparatus, device, machine, gimmick   f17_1#n.218
172lose, miss, vt.
うしなふ、なーんもなし、zjaama ɁucicirijuN って読めません。
cf. 教育漢字 失う lose   f17#1.151
173lost, get, become
まどぷ、ゆらり、むどゅるすん、とまどい、あもりゆん、どゅまんぎん、
 → 理解不能なので、検証不能。  作者は、どこのどいつだ。
174louse
c. 112五角形flea 蚤(のみ) と同系。
【民】cIlaippEn2 (= ★lice) しらみ
175mackerel
サバ、かつお
c. 【英】horse mackerel = 《魚》アジ
【Madras Tamil Lexicon】【民】செம்பாரை cem-pārai (= , n. id. +. Horse ★mackerel, silvery, Caranx affinis; வரிப்பாரை என்னும் மீன். (W.)) せむぱらい → さば
【民】kottuvAn2am (= ★mackerel sky) かつおモン
176male, animal
うぇけ、おす、おつこ、おっこ、おっこぶた、いきが、うーむん、うう、びき、ぴき、べけ、びきむぬ、おん、おっちょー、うー、うーむん、びきむー
【民】ATUu (= man, human ★male) おすー、おと、おつ
【民】vAkam (= 01 1. horse; 2. ★male buffalo; 3. bull; 4. wind) わーかむ → うぇけノ
【民】vENmAn2 (= ★male member of ve1l2lr-tribe) ヴぇーんまん → うーむん
【宮古口】びき /biki/ 與新 接頭辞 〈全〉雄。動物の名詞について「雄、雄の」という意味を表す
【賛】vIra (= m. man, esp. hero, chief (also E. of sev. gods, esp. of Indra); husband, ★male child, son, coll. male offspring; also the ★male of an animal. Pl. men, people, retainers, followers.) びき (r-v-k 反復) --- i.e. vIvI が びき (v-k) に化ける。
【賛】piGga (= mf(%{A})n. yellow , reddish-brown , tawny MBh. (cf. g. %{kaDArA7di}) ; m. yellow (the colour) L. ; a buffalo L.: a mouse L. ; N. of one of the sun's attendants L. ; of a ★man 男性の、雄の A1s3vS3r. (cf. %{paiGgi} , %{-gin}) ; (%{piGga4} , in one place %{pi4nga})N. of a kind of divine being (?) 神聖なもの AV. ; (%{pi4ngA}) f. a bow-string RV. 弓の糸 (Sa1y. ; cf. %{piGgala-jya}) ;) びき、彦(ひこ)、引き
177meat, flesh
malaku(m) (= 1 1. O/jB (a cut of ★meat) 2. jB lex. (a bush)?; < leku ? ) にく (l 無音)
nishu(m) I, nisalihu (= ; pi. f., NA nishdni "extract(ion)" Bab., NA 1. 'act of extraction': OB pi. "evacuations"; ; "(concentrated) extract"? of oil; "(choice) cut" of ★meat;) にく (sh-k)
nukkusu(m) I (= "cut (in pieces)" O/jB; of garments, ★flesh; < nakdsu D ) 肉だ
【賛】mAs (= 1 n. ★flesh, ★meat.) 身(み)ー (s 無音)、にー
【民】mammAyi (= solvent of ★flesh) まーうぃ
【民】mEkai (= ★flesh) にく
【民】nIrkkuvai (= proud ★flesh in the corner of the eye) にく
178meat, game
c. 【英】game (名詞)17. 〔狩った〕獲物の肉
【賛】sAmiSa (= mf(%{A})n. possessed of flesh or prey BhP. ; provided with ★meat (as a S3ra1ddha) Mn.) しし (m 無音)
【賛】sorAvAsa (= m. broth made of ★meat without salt L.) しし
【民】tacai (= 01 1. ★flesh, muscle, one of seven ta1tu , q.v.; 2. bad odour; 3. pulp or fleshy part of a fruit) しし
179melon
cf. gourd ウリ類、ゴード luffa, cucumber  f3#439
180milk
cf. 教育漢字 乳 milk, ちち、おっぱい nib, tit   f17_1#n.196
【民】cAci (= 02 mother's ★milk) ちち、ちーち
【賛】dadhi (= coagulated 凝固した ★milk , thick sour ★milk (regarded as a remedy ; differing from curds in not having the whey separated from it) RV.) ちち
181millet
【民】aruvi (= 02 stubble of italian ★millet イタリアのキビの無精ひげ) 粟(あわ)
【民】karuvai (= 01 ★millet straw) 黍(キビ)
【民】peruvaraku (= a kind of common ★millet (TLS)) 稗(ひえ)ラク
【賛】palAla (= m. n. a stalk , straw Mn. ; the stalk of the Sorghum , Indian ★millet Sus3r. ;) 稗(ひえ) (l 無音)
182miso
味噌
3. Language contact in the Bronze Age   in 補足資料 5
   |-- 3.1 Ancient borrowings from a Proto-Turkic model
        |-- Ancient borrowings from a Proto-Koreanic model
            |-- (1) BEANPASTE
183mold
か、黴(カビ)、こうじ(麹)、こーじ、かーぶ
kibsu II (or kipsu) (= (a fungal ★mould) jB as skin- complaint; zer k. as drug) きぶす、かびス、こーじ (b 無音)
【賛】kavaka (= n. a ★fungus , mushroom Mn. ; a mouthful L.) 黴か(カビか)、きのこ (v-n)
【津軽弁075】かんぷける  カビる
【秋田弁94】かぷける  (= 黴びる。「わ、かぶけったえば!(わ、黴びてるじゃないの!)」)
【博多弁・消滅寸前】カブ  (= mould 【カビ】)
【長野弁】こがふく:(北信、東信、中信)「黴が生える」の意
【民】cakkuppiTi-ttal (= to grow ★mouldy 黴(かび) (TLS)) かぶった (c-k)、こがふった (c-k)
【出雲弁】おげ  (= 《名》かび(黴) ex. おげがわいた。 【= かび(黴)がわいた 。】)
【民】ukku-tal (= 1. to rot 腐る, decay 腐る, ★moulder カビ; 2. to pine away, waste away) おげ
c. インド辞書の英語は英国スペルなので、 mold は無い。 mould でチェック要。
【土佐弁】 かべ(黴[かび])
【賛】kuNapa (= 2 a. rotting, ★mouldering 黴(カビ).) かんべ → かべ
c. インド辞書の英語は英国スペルなので、 mold は無い。 mould でチェック要。
【琉球】■かび〔黴〕 / [首里・那覇方言]
関連語彙:ホーヂ 〔黴がはえる〕ホーヂ プちュン(→ホーヂ),〔黒い黴〕くルベー、ハーブイ
【民】pAci (= 01 1. that which is green; 2. moss, lichen, duckweed, musci ; 3. seaweed; 4. sola pith; 5. saprophyte, ★mouldiness due to dampness; 6. green gram; 7. variegated necklaces; 8. cloud; 9. cf. pa1ja) ホーヂ
【賛】piz (= 1 (%{piMz}) cl. 6. P. (Dha1tup. xxviii , 143) %{piMzati} , Ved. also A1. %{-te} (pf. %{pipe4za} , %{pipize4} %{-zre} RV. ; ; to form , fashion , ★mould RV. :) ホーヂ
--
【賛】kuNapa (- 2 a. rotting 腐る, ★mouldering 朽ちる.) かんび、かび
【宮古口】こーず /koodzɿ/多友新かうず /kaudzɿ/ 多與 友新 鏡来 名詞 〈全〉麹
c. 麹(こうじ) rice malt ハズレ。発酵 ferment アタリ
【民】kATi (= 01 1. ★fermented gruel or rice water; 2. vinegat; 3. gruel; 4. acetous fermentation of sweet fruits; 5. pickles) こーず/かうず
184moldboard
へら、ぴら、ふうぃーら
c. moldboard = 名 土工板、除雪板
c. moldboard = NOUN A board in a plough that turns the earth over.
【趣】bar (= [PLOW] (18x: ED IIIb, Ur III) wr. ĝešbar "a type of ★plow" Akk. mayāru) へら(箆)
【賛】hAla (= m. = %{hala} , a ★plough 鋤 L. ; a `" scraper "' (kind of bird) Sus3r. ;) へら、ぴら
【賛】hali (= 1 m. a large ★plough (see %{zata-h-}) ; a furrow W. ; agriculture ib. ; ) へら、ぴら
185monkey
【賛】salIla (= mf(%{A})n. playing お遊び, sporting (not in earnest) MBh. R. ; ★mocking からかい、おふざけ, sneering 冷笑、軽蔑 R. ; sportive , coquettish こびを売る S3ak. Katha1s. ; ) さりら →  さる
猿 【賛】mandurAbhUSaNa (= n. a species of ★monkey L.) ましらブサナ
【賛】sarabha (= m. N. of a ★monkey (prob. w.r. for %{zarabha}) Ra1matUp.) 猿ブハ
--
【露】шалун /shalun さるん/ (= varmint 害をもたらす生物, rogue いたずらっ子、わんぱく小僧。悪漢、ごろつき、, imp いたずらっ子、わんぱく小僧, monkey, pickle 〈英話〉いたずらっこ、〔野菜の〕漬物、ピクルス) on 2017/06/01
【モンゴル語】 сармагчин /sarmagchin/  さるまぐちん on 2017/06/01
【クロアチア語】 /šaliti se/  しゃりてぃ せ on 2017/06/01
【チベット語】spre (= monkey [JV]) さる on 2018/09/17
【チベ】mi dang 'dra (= monkey [IW]) えてこうだ (m 無音)
【チベ】mi ma spra (= monkey w human-like shape, ape [IW]) ましら
c. チベット恐るべし。
【十津川弁】えてこ  (= 猿公 猿候)
【民】atakku-tal (= 1. to grind, rub in the hand, press softly, soften, as fruit; 2. to cram 〔人や物を無理に〕詰め込む、押し込む。〔人に〕おなかいっぱいに[ガツガツと]食べさせる in the mouth, as betel 《植物》キンマ, as a monkey 猿 its food 食べ物; 3. to subdue, subject, control) えてこ
c. 猿は古語で、「ましら」とも言い下記でインド弁なのに、何故十津川弁の中に無いのか?。→ 誰か調べて欲しい。
--
【かるた・諺】
●17. 「猿も木から落ちる」  ---- インド語は語彙数が多いため、複数の可能性が有り得る。
   [mandurAbhUSaNa, mandAra, majjati] or [kapi, kavai, kavi] 同音群
【賛】mandurAbhUSaNa (= n. a species of monkey L.) ましら...  [ましら、は、猿の古語]
【賛】mandAra (= m. (in some meanings also written %{mandara}) the coral サンゴ、ピンクっぽい赤 tree 木, Erythrina Indica (also regarded as one of the 5 trees of paradise or Svarga) MBh.) ましら
【賛】majj, majjati (= ; cause to sink or fall. C. cause to dive, drown. {saMni} sink down, fall. {nis} sink;) まし る、まち る、おち (m 無音)
--
186moon
つき、つこい、つきす、おつきさん、ちきしゅー、ぐわってんさま
【趣】usakar (= [★MOON] (381x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. u4-sakar "crescent ★MOON 三日月; ★MOON; crescent-shaped object; semi-circular line; half wheel" Akk. uskāru; warhu) 兎(うさぎ) ウ・サカール → ウサギー
【賛】zukra (= mf(%{A4})n. (fr. 1. %{zuc} cf. %{zukla}) bright , resplendent キラキラ輝く、まばゆい RV. ; clear , pure RV. ; light-coloured , white RV. ; pure , spotless RV. ; m. N. of Agni or fire R. ; of a ★month (Jyesht2ha = May-June , personified as the guardian of Kubera's treasure) MBh. ;~) 月(つき) [= 月あかり, 毎月の月]
【賛】aSTaka (= a. eightfold; m. a man's name; f. {A} the eighth day after full ★moon.) おつき
187mop, vt
ふく、ぬぐう、のごう、すするんぐ、すするー
cf. スワデシュ・リスト 207 拭く ふく to wipe   f20#s.133
【琉球】■ススイン  拭く 
【民】tuTai-ttal (= 01 1. to ★wipe, ★wipe off, scour, scrub; 2. to sweep, brush; 3. to dry by wiping, as wet hair; 4. to polish; 5. to rub, apply; 6. to remove, dispel; to expel, dismiss; 7. to ruin, destroy, obliterate, annihilate; 8. to kill; 9. to relin quish, desert; 10. to exhaust) ススイ
【宮古口】そぅそぅイ /susuɿ/多しゅしゅ乚 /ɕuɕuɭ/ 多新 動詞 皆そぅそぅイ、そぅそぅり、そぅそぅらん 〈皆、與、多、新〉拭く
【民】toTai-ttal (= 01 to ★wipe, ★wipe off, dust) そぅそぅイ/しゅしゅ乚
【民】tuvarttu-tal (= 01 to ★wipe off moisture) そぅそぅイ/しゅしゅ乚
c. 「拭う(ぬぐう)」も有る。
【民】nIvu-tal (= 02 1. to stroke, rub gently, handle softly; 2. to smooth by passing the fingers over; 3. to ★wipe off 拭き(ふき)取る; 4. to spread; 5. to daub, smear 〔油・ペンキなどを〕塗りつける) ぬぐう (v-g)
188mortar
臼(うす)、うし
【琉球】n■ウーシ  臼
【民】eruntu (= ★mortar (TLS)) うんす、ウーシ
【宮古口】うす /usɿ/ 多友 新鏡 名詞 〈全〉臼
【民】eruntu (= ★mortar (TLS)) うるんつ → うす
【民】vAyOTu (= 1. neck of a broken pot; 2. circular piece like the neck of a broken pot placed at the mouth of a ★mortar, while pounding paddy to prevent the grain from scattering) うす
189mosquito
【民】kocu (= 02 1. ★mosquito, gnat, culex; 2. eyefly which gathers in clusters on hanging threads, muscidae) 蚊(か)、かちゅ
【賛】bhambharAlikA (= (or %{-rA7l-}?) f. a gnatブヨ , ★mosquito 蚊 L.) ぼうふらリカー
【博多弁・消滅】ボーフリ  (= mosquito 【ぼうふら】  ぼうふり虫の略。)
【賛】bhambharAlikA (or %{-rA7l-}?) f. a gnat ブヨ, ★mosquito 蚊 L.) ぼーふり か (m 無音, k 無音)
【熊本弁】かぼか  (= 群飛する小さな羽虫 カボカントビヨル(羽虫が飛んでいる) カボカん飛んどると雨。ユスリカ。カブカとも) 【賛】karburAGgA (= f. a species of ★fly or bee ハエや蜂の一種 L.) かぼか、カブカ
【賛】uddaMza (= and %{uddaMzaka} m. a bug L. ; a ★mosquito 蚊, gadfly 《昆虫》アブ L.) ユスリカ (z-r)
cf. ユスリカ (wikipedia) --- 見た目は、完全に蚊。
【名古屋弁】かんす  (= 蚊)
【民】kocu (= 02 1. ★mosquito 蚊, gnat, culex; ) かんす (+ん)
【琉球】ガジャン:蚊
【宮古口】がざン /gadzam/多来がじゃン /gadʑam/友がだン /gadam/ 多與 皆友 新鏡 来 名詞 〈全〉蚊
【民】kocuttEn2I (= ★Mosquito bee) ガジャン、がたん、がざん
【琉球】n■アミヌックヮ  ぼうふら
【民】ajnal (= a species of ★gnat 《昆虫》ブヨ (TLS)) アミヌッ、あにゃぬ
【賛】gabha (= m. womb, inside, interior (adj. --- having in the interior, containing, filled with); fetus, embryo, scion, fruit, offspring, ★child 子.) がぶは、グワァー、クワ/クヮ
190mountain
やま、サン、だま
cf. 教育漢字 山 サン、セン、やま mountain    f17_1#n.571
191mushroom
なば、きのこ、みみぐい、きーぬ みむ、みむじゅー、みむぐる
【賛】kavaka (= n. a ★fungus , mushroom Mn.) きのこ (v-n)
【賛】karaka (= ; (%{am}) n. ★fungus , mushroom L. ;) きのこ (r-n)
【賛】kyAku (= %{u} n. a ★fungus A1p. Gaut.) きんく (+ん)、きのこ
【賛】mallipattra (= n. a mushroom or ★fungus L.) なばっトラ
【民】marakkALAn2 (= a hard ★fungus growing on trees) みみぐいノ (r 反復, L-y)、みむぐるノ (r 反復)
192nail, peg
くぎ、ふじ、ふぎ
【趣】【Pen.辞】gag [NAIL] (= wr. ĝešgag; gag; urudgag "arrowhead; peg, ★nail" Akk. sikkatu; ūşu) 釘(くぎ) or 杭(くい) (g-k, g-y)
c. 英語 peg も、くぎ。 (p-k)
【趣】 [ (ĝiš)gag, kak: ★peg; nail, spike; bone; hinge, joint, knee (reduplicated to be long and neck-like; cf., gub) [KAK archaic frequency: 46; concatenates 2 sign variants] . ] 釘(くぎ) or 角(かく)
【民】Cagku (= spike, stake, pole, ★peg) くぎ (c-k)
【民】cakkai (= 02 1. chips; 2. small wooden ★peg; 3. wadding of a gun) クギ(釘) (c-k)、クイ(杭) (c-k)
【賛】kIla (= & {-ka} m., {kIliMkA} f. a pointed piece of wood; ★peg ペグ, bolt, wedge 楔、クサビ、ウエッジ, etc.) くい、くぎ
193needle
はり(針)、はい
cf. 上代日本語 (Old Japanese) の代表サンプル from wikipedia paru 針 武藏 pari  f17#on.31
pulukku(m) (= "★needle; stake 〔地面に打ち込む〕杭、支柱; boundary" Bab. [BULUG] 1. "(metal) ★needle, pin"; st. abs. (not) "even a pin"; jB(Ass.) "mountain pinnacle" 2. "boundary stake", "boundary"; p. same u erseti "limits of heaven and earth"; < Sum.; > pulukkis; → pulungu) はりく
【賛】vezI (= f. `" entering , piercing (?) "' , a pin , ★needle RV. ) はり (z-r)、はじ
【チベ】phra ma (= slander, calumny, weapon with 2 points, ★needle, creating discord 不和、不一致、心のぶつかり合い、仲たがい, false word, cunning man, 1 of mi dge bcu, window [JV]) はり ま
【宮古口】ぴイ /piɿ/皆ピー /pɿɿ/友ぴゃイ /pʲaɿ/久ぴゃーイ /pʲaaɿ/多ぱ乚 /paɭ/友つんぬびゃイ /tsɿnnubʲaɿ/ 多與 新鏡 名詞 〈全〉針
【民】pA (= 04 1. expanse; 2. the central platform of chariot; 3. verse, stanza, poem; 4. rafter; 5. warp; 6. cotton thread; 7. shadow; 8. gnomon 〔日時計の〕指針 グノモン or ★needle of a sun-dial 日時計の針) ぴイ/ピー/ぴゃイ/ぱ乚、はい
【民】tun2n2am (= 1. seam, sewing 裁縫(さいほう), ★needlework 縫い仕事、針仕事; 2. eye of a needle;) つんぬ
194nest
す(巣)、しー、すー、しし、蜘蛛の巣系→ : え えばり、こぶのいぇ、かし
cf. 教育漢字 巣 す nest    f17_1#n.155
【出雲弁】えぎ   《名》くもの巣 ex. けー、蜘蛛がえぎ張っちょー さがって、顔ね ふっついた がの。 【= もー、蜘蛛が巣を張ってい やがって、顔に ひっついた よー。】
【賛】vAgurA (= f. snare わな, ★net 網, trap.) えぎ
【賛】jAlakAra (= m. `" ★webmaker 蜘蛛の巣メーカー"' , a spider Katha1s. ) ちゃらから、ささがね
■ささがね・ささがに saskallu(m) (= ★net) @アッカド語 from シュメール語 意味 = (捕獲用)網、蜘蛛の巣、網を使う人
【博多弁・消滅寸前】 エンバリ   web, spider, weave 【蜘蛛の巣】
【賛】avaprajjana (= %{am} n. ( %{pRj}) , the end of the warp of a ★web 蜘蛛の巣 (opposed to 2. %{pra-vayaNa} q.v.) AitBr.) えんばり (+ん) じゃね
【賛】UrNavAbhi (= m. ★spider 蜘蛛 (wool-weaver).) えんばり (h-r)
【大分弁】えば   (= 蜘蛛の巣)
【賛】Ave (= 1 P. %{-vayati} , to ★weave 〔織機で布を〕織る、作る。〔クモの巣などを〕かける、張る、作る on to ; to interweave , string ; to sew loosely AV.) えば
【熊本弁】やね   (= くもの巣/やに(脂) 屋根(?) 頭にコブのヤネんヒッツイトルばい(頭に蜘蛛の巣が引っ付いてるよ)/松ヤネ(松やに))
【賛】jAla (= 1 n. net, ★web 蜘蛛の巣, springe, snare, coat or helmet of wire, grate, lattice, (lattice-) window, the membrane between the toes of waterbirds (supposed also to exist between the toes and fingers of godlike personages), mane (of a lion); collection, multitude.) やね (j-y, l-n)
【民】kAvan2 (= ★spider スパイダー、蜘蛛) コブ
c. 英語で、蜘蛛の巣は、 cobweb, web と言う。
【十津川弁】あば   (= 蜘蛛の巣 流材を捕捉する設備)
【賛】Ave (= 1 P. %{-vayati} , to ★weave 〔織機で布を〕織る、作る。〔クモの巣などを〕かける、張る、作る on to ; to interweave , string ; to sew loosely AV.) あば、えば
【賛】avaprajjana (= %{am} n. ( %{pRj}) , the end of the warp of a ★web 蜘蛛の巣 (opposed to 2. %{pra-vayaNa} q.v.) AitBr.) あば..、えんばり (+ん) じゃね
c. 【大分弁】えば【蜘蛛の巣】、【博多弁】エンバリ 【蜘蛛の巣】
【魚津弁】クボノヨズ (= 蜘蛛の巣)
【民】kAvan2 (= ★spider クモ) くぼの
【賛】vayas (= 1 n. a ★web (?) 蜘蛛の巣 RV.) よず
【琉球】n■シー   巣 
【賛】svasara (= n. (perhaps fr. %{sva} + %{sara} , `" one's own resort "') a stall , fold RV. ; one's own place , home ib. S3Br. ; ★nest of birds 鳥の巣 RV. ; day Naigh.) シー
【宮古口】すー /sɿɿ/皆與っす /ssɿ/ 多與 友新 鏡来 名詞 〈全〉巣
【賛】svasara (= n. fold, stable, wont place, ★nest, house, home.) すー、っす
【民】kaTci (= 01 1. forest; jungle; 2. refuge; 3. bed, sleeping place; 4. bird's ★nest) かし --- 鳥の巣、蜘蛛の巣では無い。
【賛】ve (= ; to make into a cover , into a ★web or web-like covering , overspread as with a web (said of a cloud-like mass of arrows filling the air) Bhat2t2.:) いえ
195net
【賛】AnAya (= m. ★net; {-yin} m. fisherman 網員・漁師.) あーなーや → あみや、網(あみ)
【趣】■ allalx, alla (= : ★net, seine 引き網、大網; crab カニ. ) 網(あみ) (l-m)
【趣】sa-šú-uš-gal (= : huge ★net ('cord, ★net' + šúš/šú, 'to cover' + 'big'). ) さ・しゅしゅがる → ささがね (l-n) ◎ [= 巨大な網]
】■ささがね・ささがに saskallu(m) (= ★net) @アッカド語 from シュメール語 意味 = (捕獲用)網、蜘蛛の巣、網を使う人
【悪793.】 肴・魚(さかな)
アッカド語では、 net/ fishernet の事を、「ささがね」と言います。また fishernet のことを「さかな」とも言うそうです。 つまり、ささがねと魚は、発音が少し似ていますが、アッカドさんに言わせると、網でつながっているのです。
尚、アッカド語の fishnet の「さかな」の発音は、その取れた fish を酒の肴・オカズ、にして食べる、お供のもの、の意に由来しているとのことです(辞書がそう言っている)。日本語の肴・魚の語源由来と同じです。

つまり、クモさんは、ささがねで、さかなを取って、それを肴にして食に供する。

■アッカド語
sikinnu(m) II (= (a ★net) O/jB lex.; Sa S. "fisherman who uses a S" OB lex.; < Sakdnu) しきんぬ→魚(さかな) [原意 = 魚を取るための漁師の網] ◎
日本ささかね蜘蛛
英語cobweb, netspidercloudnetrainthreadroperope
シュメールsa-šú-uš-gal--allaimi, im, eméše, éšdim-
アッカドšuškallu(m)-----durmahunirru(m), niru
サンスクリット-kRmighanaAnAyaambuda-dAman-
タミルcAlakam-kamvalaiamutuizaitAmainAr
【秋田弁198】ちょなみ  (= 魚を捕る網ですけど、曲がった木枠に網を縫いつけた自家製だったと思います。こっちは農村なので、山の堤や潟で、淡水のエビやドジョウとかフナとかコイとかナマズとか捕っていました。(これは私が子供時代の実家の言葉です。婚家ではドジョウスクイと言っていたそうです。潟で淡水魚を捕まえる風習がなかったのでしょうね。))
【民】cen2n2avalai (= ★net for catching bieg fish) ちょなみ (c-ch)
【賛】jAlamAlA (= f. a ★net.) ちょなみ (l 無音, l-m)
【出雲弁】えぎ  (= 《名》くもの巣 ex. けー、蜘蛛がえぎ張っちょー さがって、顔ね ふっついた がの。 【= もー、蜘蛛が巣を張ってい やがって、顔に ひっついた よー。】)
【賛】vAgurA (= f. snare わな, ★net 網, trap.) えぎ
【博多弁・消】テッキュー  (= net 【餅焼き網】  鉄灸(てっきゅう)と書くようです。鉄網をじっと焼く意味ですかね。)
【民】tUkku (= 02 1. pendant, anything suspended; 2. suspended ★net-work of rope supporting a pot 深鍋をロープで支えるための吊るし状の網; 3. satchel 小型かばん, hanging frame for holding ola books;) てっきゅー
c. 鉄、とは無関係みたい???。
【十津川弁】てんきゅう  (= 炙[あぶ]り網)
【民】tInAkku (= 1. ★flame 炎(ほのお), as the tongue of fire 火のベロ; 2. evil tongue 悪魔のベロ) てんきゅう
【賛】tigma (= mfn. sharp 鋭い, pointed とんがった (a weapon , ★flame 炎, ray of light) RV.) てんきゅうの
c. 餅焼きの網、直火焼き。炙る(あぶる) roast, toast(パンなどを), grill, parch(トウモロコシなどを), scorch ハズレ。burn ハズレ。炎に直接当てるので、flame で攻める。アタリ。 c. 「てんきゅう」と【英】tongue タング (= 舌)、は、そのまんま東です。 (t-t, n-n, k-g)、また、tongue は、「とんがってる」とも親戚です。なので「チンコ」とも親戚です。
cf. 【十】あぶりこ 【炙り鋼(鹿児島・盛岡・宮城・佐渡・和歌山・隠岐) てっきゅう(鹿児島)】
【民】tUkku (= 02 1. pendant, anything suspended; 2. suspended net-work of rope supporting a pot 深鍋をロープで支えるための吊るし状の網; 3. satchel 小型かばん, hanging frame for holding ola books;) てっきゅー
c. 【博多弁】テッキュー 【餅焼き網   鉄灸(てっきゅう)と書くようです。鉄網をじっと焼く意味ですかね。】
c. 鉄、とは無関係みたい???。
【十津川弁】もっこ  (= 土を運ぶ、つなで作った網)
【民】makkiri (= big ★basket 籠 (TLS)) もっこ (r 無音)
c. 【富山弁】もっこふんどし。
【富山弁】めざら  (= スノコ)
【賛】matsyajAla (= n. a ★fishing-net 網、メッシュ L.) めざら
c. 不明 → 有った    mesh 状の板、なので、 mesh, net で攻めた。
【佐久弁】けーさんでー  (= 竹枠の魚取りの網   ex. けさんでーでせぎの鮒掬った)
【民】kaTTuvalai (= fishing ★net open at both ends, one of which is narrower end being tied when in use and the mouth distended 膨れる by a hoop 輪 or pegs 杭 when set in a stream 魚網は両端が開いている。そのうちの一方の終端は、使用時に閉じられる狭い方であり、他方の口の部分の終端は、川の流れにセットされたときに、輪または杭によって広げられる。) けーさんでー (t-s, v-n, l-d)
【魚津弁】カースベ  (= 蚊よけの方法)
【民】kocuvalai (= ★Mosquito-net 蚊網、蚊除け網、みたい) かーすべらい、蚊帳(かや)
【魚津弁】ハマス  (= 海士、海女)
【賛】puJjiSTha (= m. a ★fisherman 漁師 or a birdcatcher.) はにゃす
【賛】AnAyin (= %{I} m. a ★fisherman , fisher Ragh.) あまの
【賛】AnAya (= m. net 網、ネット; {-yin} m. ★fisherman.) あみや
【魚津弁】ワタス  (= 魚焼金網)
【賛】vItaMsa (= m. (fr. 1. %{vi} + %{t-} ; cf. %{vi-t-}) a cage or ★net 網 or any enclosure for catching or confining or keeping birds or beasts 鳥かごや動物の檻(おり)の網 Hcar.) わたす
【宮古口】うちゃン /utɕam/ 多與 皆友 新鏡 名詞 〈皆、與、多、新、鏡〉投網
【民】vIccuvalai (= ★casting-net) うっちアミ (l-m)  → うちゃン
【民】vIccu (= 1. throw, ★cast, as of a ★net;) うちゃン (+ン)
【宮古口】あン /am/ 多與 皆友 新鏡 来 名詞 〈全〉網
【賛】AnAya (= m. ★net; {-yin} m. fisherman.) あみ
【民】vauvAlvalai (= a kind of fishing ★net) あみ (v-m)
196new
ねぴ、にけ、にーけ、にんとな、みーさん、みーしゃん、みいさり、みいさい、もつかつ、みーしゃーる、みーかーる、あたらしか
cf. 上代日本語 (Old Japanese) の代表サンプル from wikipedia nipu 新たな 不明 nipi₁  f17#oa.3
【賛】nava (= 1 a. ★new, fresh, young; --- adv. newly, lately, just.) にぴ、にぷ、ねび、ニュー、ノヴァ
cf. 教育漢字 新しい new   f17#a.46
【賛】Ardra (= a. wet, moist, succulent, fresh, ★new, soft, tender. f. {A} N. of a lunar mansion.) あらた、あたら
197north
ねし、きた、にし、にーし、
cf. 教育漢字 北 ホク、きた、にげる、そむく north    f17_1#n.365
【琉球】にす   (= 北)
【民】matiticai (= ★north, as the quarter of Kube1ra) にす
【賛】niSadha (= m. N. of a mountain or chain of mountains (described as lying immediately south of Ila7vr2ita and ★north of the Hima7laya) MBh.) にす
c. インドの「にす」は【英】mountain にすノ (= マウンテン、山) だって。【英】North ノース、も「にす」に見えるが、何故だ?。
198oar, paddle
うぇーく、いょほー、オール、いゃふ、えーく、ざーく、いざく、いあく、いあこ、やこ、やく、かい(櫂)、ざく
   ↑↑↑↑↑ ----- 私には、櫂(かい)以外、理解不能。
【宮古口】っズぁく /zzaku/ 多與 友新 鏡来 名詞 〈全〉(船の)櫂
c. 櫂(かい)とは、人力により船の推進力を得るための道具である。櫂を使って船を進ませることを「漕ぐ」(こぐ)という。櫂を使って海や川を移動する。櫂は一般に長い棒状であり、一端の平らな部分を水に入れ、漕ぎ手はその反対側の柄の部分を握って操作する。
c. oar オール , paddle パドル、しゃもじ 《海事》(小型船用の短く幅広の)
【民】taNTukkOl (= 1. ★Oar, ★paddle; 2. iron-pointed pole for punting a boat; 3. a palas twig held by a piramaca1ri) つんざっくノ → っズぁく
--
【民】cavaL (= ★oar (TLS)) かいノ、かい(櫂)、こぐの (c-k, v-g)
【民】kOlvali-ttal (= to propel a boat with ★oars) こぐ (v-g)
【民】alIcA (= 01* ★oar) いあく、やく、やこ △
199octopus
タコ(蛸)
【民】cAkkukkaNavAy (= species of squid, ★octopus 蛸 vulgaris) タコ かなヴぁい (c-t)
【琉球】■タフー /tahuu/  (名詞) 動物 意味: 蛸(たこ)。
【民】cAkkukkaNavAy (=species of squid イカの一種, ★octopus vulgaris マダコ) たこなふぁーい (c-t) → タコ、タフー
200onion
玉ねぎ、ニラ、しびら
cf. 教育漢字 玉 ギョク、たま gem, jade, ball, sphere   f17_1#n.338
【民】tuvaiyal (= 01 1. chutny, a kind of strong relish, made of a number of condiments and fruits, as coconuts, ★onions, chillies) しびる → しびら
【賛】zUdrapriya (= mfn. dear to a S3udra L. ; m. an ★onion L.) しびら
【十津川弁】ねぶか  (= 葱[ねぎ])
【賛】nRpakanda (= m. a species of ★onion 玉ねぎ L.) ねぶかンダ
c. 【富山弁、魚津弁】ねぶか 【ねぎ   ex. うまそうな“ねぶか”やネ】
【十津川弁】ひともじ  (= 葱[ねぎ])
【賛】pharuNDa (= m. green onion ネギ L.) ひともじ (r-t, D-j)
【チベ】btsong (= 1) onion, leek 《植物》(セイヨウ)ニラネギ、セイヨウネギ、ポロネギ、リーキ; 2) [will] sell/ commerce [IW]) ひともじ (b-h)、しともじ (b-s)
c. 【熊本弁】ひともじ 【小ネギ,分葱(わけぎ)】
cf. 【十】しともじ 【ひともじ 葱[ねぎ]】
【佐久弁】ねぶろ(ねびろ)  (= 野蒜(のびる)   ex. ねぶろ、ぬたにして食うべー)
【賛】nRpapriya (= m. (only L.) `" dear to kings "' , a kind of parrot ; Bambusa Spinosa ; a species of Saccharum Sara ; rice ; a species of onion ネギ; the mango tree ; (%{A}) f. Pandanus Odoratissimus ; a species of date tree ; %{-phalA} f. Solanum Melongena L.) ねぶろ(ねびろ)ヤ
c. garlic にんにく, leek ニラ はハズレ
【佐久ホテル 10】からな (辛菜)   (= 葱(ねぎ))
【賛】kRmighna (= mfn. vermifuge 駆虫剤(の), anthelmintic Sus3r. ; (%{as} , %{am}) m. n. = %{-ghAtin} Bhpr. ; m. the ★onion ネギ、タマネギ L. ;) からな (g 無音)、かも (g 無音)
【賛】karavIra (= ; %{-kandasaMjJa} m. a species of ★onion ;) からな (v-n)
【賛】niketana (= n. a house , mansion , habitation , temple , Mn. ; m. ★an onion L.) ねぎだな
【琉球】チリビラー(ちりびらー)/ または:キリビラ / / チリビラー/ / 意味/ ニラ/ 解説/ 沖縄料理ではニラはよく使われる食材です。/ 特にヒラヤーチーやチャンプルーなどの油炒めによく使われる野菜です。
【賛】zUdrapriya (= mfn. dear to a S3nS3udra L. ; m. an onion L.) チリビラー、キリビラ (z-k, d-k)、しびら
【民】tiri (= 03 1. twisting; turning; 2. roll or twist of cloth or thread for a wick; 3. torch of twisted cloth; 4. match; 5. candle; 6. lint; 7. ★garlic ニンニク) チリ
【民】veLLuLLi (= ★garlic) ビラー
【宮古口】ミーな /mɿɿna/多ンな /mna/鏡みイな /miɿna/ 多與 新鏡 来 名詞 〈全〉韮
【賛】mahAmUla (= n. a large or full-grown radish Buddh. ; a species of ★onion 韮(ニラ)、玉ねぎ L.) ミーな/ンな/みイな (l 無音)、ニラ
【民】nIruLLi (= ★onion) ミーな/ンな/みイな (LL-n)、ニラ
【宮古口】すんな /sɿnna/多友すンな /sɿmna/新すヴな /sɿʋna/ 多與 友新 名詞 〈全〉葱
c. 葱(ネギ)
【民】cOcan2am (= white ★onion 白いネギ) すんな/すンな/すヴな、【宮古島キッズネット】すむな
201outside
他(ほか)、外(そと)
cf. 教育漢字 他 ほか、た other, another, different その他    f17#n.107
cf. 教育漢字 外 そと outer, outside, exterior, external, foreign    f17_1#n.64
202owl
とっこ、ころこっこーつ、ころとっこーつ、こぞーどり、ちぃくく、くふ、ちくーふ、くーほい、しくーふ、ちくく、たか ちくふ、ゆーがらがっつぁ、くぐーくーくー、ふだどぅり、すくく、つくぐる、ここ、みんくく、ぷくろぷ、こーこー、ふくるー、ふくろー、もま、よたか、夜よたか、そっこ鳥、みみじく、ふぁどれ、すくぐる
【津軽弁】もほ *3      フクロウ
【賛】mahApakSa (= mfn. having a grngreat party or numerous adherents Mn. Ka1m. ; hnhaving a grngreat family MW. ; m. `" grngreat-winged "' , a kind of duck L. ; N. of Garud2a L. ; (%{I}) f. an ★owl L.) もほパクシャ
【賛】mahApakSin (= m. the hooting ★owl L.) もほパクシィン
【出雲弁】よじく, ほっほ, ほほ  (= 〔鳥〕ふくろう ex. よんべは、よじくがほえて寝られんだった。 【= 夕べは、ふくろうが鳴いて寝られなかった。】)
【賛】vizAlAkSa (= mf(%{I})n. large-eyed MBh. R. ; m. a ★screech-owl フクロウL. ;) よじく (l 無音)
【賛】bRhadrUpa (= m. a species of ★owl L. ; N. of a Marut Hariv.) ほっほ、ほほ
【石見弁】よずく  (= (鳥) フクロウやミミズク等の総称、ヨズクハデ(文化遺産オンライン))
【賛】vrA (= 2 , `" ★night 夜 "' , `" dawn "')
【賛】zAkuneya (= mfn. relating to birds or omens 前兆 MW. ; composed or written by S3akuni Cat. ; m. a small ★owl フクロウ L. ; N. of a Muni Cat. ; patr. of the Asura Vr2ika BhP.) ずく
【賛】zaka (= (%{A}) f. a kind of ★bird 鳥 or fly or long-eared animal 長い耳の動物) ずく
c. よづく = 夜 + ずく。
【博多弁・消滅寸前】コーゾー  (= owl 【ふくろう】  コーゾーは小僧(こぞう)。仏法僧(このはずく)と同じく鳴き声から。)
【賛】kuzi (= m. an ★owl フクロウ L.) こーぞー
【民】kOTTAn2 (= 1. rock horned ★owl 岩の角のフクロウ.; 2. a species of bittern) こーぞー (n 無音)
【京都弁】めがかたい   (= 寝ないでいつまでも起きている)
【賛】nakta (= 1 n. ★night RV. AV. (%{na4ktA} f. only in %{naktayA4} q.v. , and as du. with %{uSA4sA} ; cf. %{-sa4-naktA} and %{nakto7SAsA}) ; eating only at ★night (as a sort of penance 罰) Ya1jn5. Hcat. ; (%{am}) ind. by ★night (often opp. to %{divA}) RV. &c. &c. ; m. N. of a son of Pr2ithu VP. ; of a son of Pr2ithu-shen2a and A1ku1ti BhP. ; (%{A}) f. (cf. above) Methonica Superba L. [Cf. %{nak} and %{nakti} ; Zd. {nakht-uru} , {nakht-ru} ; Gk. $ ; Lat. {nox} ; Lith. {naktis} ; Slav. &162101[524 ,1] {nos8ti} ; Goth. {nahts} ; Angl. Sax. {neaht} , {niht} , Engl. {★night} , Germ. {Nacht}.]) めがかたい
c. コレ、難しかった。「ノクターン」の「ノクタ」、 night のスペルは、ノクタ。
c. おまけ、夜型 night-bird
【賛】valgula (= m. the flying fox W. ; (%{A}) f. a species of ★night-bird L. ; (%{I}) f. id. or a kind of bat VarBr2S. ) フクロウ (l 無音)
【和歌山弁(48)】ふるつく   (= ふくろうの古い言い方)
【十津川弁】ふるつく 梟[ふくろう]
【賛】pratyulUka (= m. a bird resembling an ★owl ; (according to the Sch.) a hostile ★owl or a crow regarded as an ★owl's enemy BhP.) ふるつく
【賛】piGgalaka (= mf(%{ikA4})n. reddish-brown , yellow , tawny AV. ; m. N. of a Yaksha MBh. ; of a man (pl. his descendants) g. %{upakA7di} ; of a lion Pan5c. ; (%{ikA}) f. a variety of the ★owl (= %{piGgalA}) Var. ;) フクロウか
c. 「ふくろう」の名前は、他県の他の名前を含み、インド弁である。チベット語は全て今一だった。 why?。インド弁とチベット語の切り分け基準が、未だ不明。
【魚津弁】フクロドル (= ふくろう)
【賛】piGgala (= ; a small kind of ★owl フクロウ L. ; ; a kind of ★owl Var. ; ) ふくろ
【民】pigkalai (= ; 3. a kind of ★owl;) ふくろ
【賛】dhruva (= ; a partic. water-★bird 水鳥 ib. ;) とる、とり
c. 「とる」は「鳥」
【琉球】n■チクク   ふくろう
【民】cAkkuruvi (= ★screech-owl 《鳥》アメリカオオコノハズク, a species of athene アテネ、ふくろう, whose cry is believed to portend death その鳴き声は死の前兆と信じられている) チクク (v-k)
【琉球】■コーホイ  (= (名詞)  ふくろう。ふくろうの鳴き声。こッホイともいう。)
【賛】kAkabhIru (= m. `" afraid of crows "' , an ★owl (cf. %{kAkA7ri}) L.) コーホイ
【民】kukkUven2al (= onom. expr. signifying crowing sound, as of a cock; cooing sound, as of a dove; hooting noise 鳴き声, as of an ★owl) コーホイもの、こッホイもの
【賛】ghoradarzana (= mfn. = %{-cakSas} MBh. R. i ; m. an ★owl (cf. MBh. ) L. ; a hyena L.) ごらだるつぁーな、--- ころこっこーつ
【賛】kAkolUkikA (= f. the natural enmity between the ★owl and the crow Pa1n2.) くぐーくーくー
【賛】khargalA (= f. ★owl or some other night-bird.) ここ、こーこー
--
【民】vIccukkAri (= 1. extravagant woman; 2. boastful woman; 3. ★prostitute 売春婦) よたか、夕霧(ゆうぎり)
203ox
牛(うし)、こってうし、べぶ、おとこうし、おんちょううし、おうし、びきうし
cf. 教育漢字 牛 ギュウ、ゴ、うし cow    f17_1#n.251
【民】kuttam (= ★bull) こってノ
【賛】usriya (= a. reddish, bull-; m. bull, calf; f. {A} brightness, light; ★cow, milk.) うし
【民】uzai (= ★cow (TLS)) うし
【民】pARpacu (= milch ★cow) べぶす → べぶ
204pan
鍋(なべ)
cf. (3) VEGETABLE JAR
205pasture
牧(まき)
cf. 教育漢字 牧 ボク、モク、まき、かう、やしなう、つかさ herd   f17_1#n.465
【民】mEyccaRRalai (= ★pasture land; meadow (TLS)) まきラライ
【賛】navadAva (= m. recently burnt ★pasture land ; %{vya4} mfn. growing on ft TS.) まきたば (v-k) → まきば
206peak
高い、山のてっぺん(天辺)、たき、たけ(岳)、やまむえ、山のぱんた、山のちぢ、頂上?のつもり。
【民】tUpi (= 1. pinnacle, as of a tower, temple, place, etc.; finial; 2. tower タワー、塔; 3. mountain ★peak; 4. ★top; roof, as of a house;) つーぴ、てっぺん (+ん)
c. top と、、天辺は、は、モロ、親戚。
c. top は、もろ、「たわ (p-h)」にも見えますね。
【博多弁・消滅寸前】トンギョー (= top 【頂上】)
【賛】tuGga (= mf(%{A})n. prominent , erect , lofty , high MBh.; chief. W. ; strong W. ; m. an elevation , height , mountain R. iv , 44 , 20 (cf. %{bhRgu-}) Hit. ii (v.l.) ; top 頂上、天辺, ★peak 頂き W. ;) とんぎょう (+ん)
【宮古口】つず /tsɿdzɿ/ 多與 鏡 名詞 〈多〉頭  〈多、皆、與、鏡〉てっぺん
【賛】cUDa (= m. knob or protuberance (on bricks); the tonsure of a child (r.). f. {cUDA} the tuft or hair on the crown of the head 頭頂部の房または髪, ★top 天辺 i.g.; also = m. (r.).) つず
【民】cUzi (= 02 1. crown of the head; 2. ★top portion トップ位置) つず
【賛】tuGga (= mf(%{A})n. prominent , erect , lofty , high MBh. ; chief. W. ; strong W. ; m. an elevation , height , ★mountain R. (cf. %{bhRgu-}) Hit. ii (v.l.) ; top , ★peak W. ; ~) とうげ(峠)、たけ(岳)
207peanut
地豆(じまめ)、落花生(らっかせい)、だっかせい、はっせん
c. 「はっせん」系は不明
【十津川弁】そこまめ  (= 落花生)
【民】maNilAkkoTTai (= peanut ピーナッツ; ground-nut, arachis hypogaea) 豆落花生(まめ・らっかせい)、なんきん (l 無音, +ん) だ
【民】tappukkoTTai (= 1. ground-nuts left in the ground after havest) そこ (pp 無音) だ
c. ground 地面のことを底(そこ)というのは、ハズレではない。
【民】takar (= 05 1. elevated ground 盛り上がった地面; 2. earth 地面; 3. palas tree) そこ
【賛】mahAmASa (= m. a species of large bean 大型の豆 Sus3r.) まめしゃ
c. 何と、「落花生(らっかせい)」もインド語だと判明した。 つまり、【民】lAkkoTTai らっかせい
c. 【岡山弁】そこまめ(名詞) 【なんきんまめ、--- 落花生とも言うから,土の中の豆というところからきた名前か】
【琉球】ジーマミー:落花生。「地豆」に由来。
【民】tAmiranOvu (= a disease of ★ground-nut plants which makes the leaves turn yellow) 地豆病(じまめびょう)、ジーマミー■、【宮古島】ずまみ■
cf. 「落花生」考察 file f20_t #Okayama 「そこまめ」「南京豆」「落花生」
【民】tappukkoTTai (= 1. ★ground-nuts left in the ground after havest) ドーハッセン (kk 無音, +ン) △ or ×
c. ラッカセイ = 方言名に地豆(ぢまめ、ジーマーミ。沖縄方言)、唐人豆(とうじんまめ)、異人豆(いじんまめ)、だっきしょ(落花生。鹿児島県)、ドーハッセン、ローハッセン(落花生。長崎県)などがある。
208peel off, vt.
剥ぐ(はぐ)、剥く(むく) 【民】nArkkatuvu-tal (= to ★peel off bark from palmyra leafstalks) むくツブ
【賛】nirluJcana (= n. ( %{luJc}) pulling out or off , tearing off , ★peeling Ka1tyS3r. ) むくの
【賛】paridRR (= (only 3. sg. Prec. A1. %{-darSISTa}) , to break through (the foe) RV. : Pass. %{-dIryate} , to ★peel or drop off on all sides , to become dropsical TS.) はぎとる
【民】vazal(lu)-tal (= to be abraded; to ★peel off) はざる → はがす △
c. 麦(むぎ)--- 剥く(むく)の親戚。 bark 皮、剥ぐ(はぐ)の親戚。 naked 裸、脱ぐ・剥く(むく)の親戚。糠(ぬか)脱ぐの親戚。
【賛】nagnIkaraNa (= n. stripping , ★undressing 脱ぐ W.) ぬがす
【秋田弁184】たぐる    (= 皮を剥くことです。「えものかわ、たぐてすけれじゃ(芋の皮を剥いて手伝って ちょうだい)」)
【賛】udghaT (= Caus. %{-ghATayati} , to open , unlock , unfasten , unveil ; to ★peel , shell )  たぐつた (u 無音)  △ 50 点
c. 「たぐる」は無い。
【糸島弁】うっぱぐる  (= 剥ぎ取る)
【賛】apoh (= (1. %{Uh}) , %{-uhAti} (impf. %{a4pau9hat}) to ★strip off , push away , frighten away RV. , to remove or heal (diseases) Sus3r. ;) うっぱぐる(h-k-g)
【賛】avakarta (= m. a part cut off , ★strip N.) うっぱぐった
【博多弁・消滅寸前】ヘギ (= ★slice 【折箱】  剥ぎ。へぎいた(杉や竹の薄板)で作った折箱。曲げ物の食器。)
【民】vakir (= 02 1. tearing 引き裂くような; 2. scratch ~を引っかく; 3. ★slice スライス; 4. leather girdle; 5. leather girdle; 6. leather strap; 7. tendon; 8. cf. vaha way, road) へぎ
【民】vakir-tal (= 01 1. cf. bhaj to ★slice; to cut in slips; 2. to split; 3. to cleave; to tear open; to rip up; 4. to disentangle; 5. to divide) へぎ
c. 不明? → 有った。 博多では、剥ぐ(はぐ)や削ぐ(そぐ)の様な薄く切ることを、「へぎ」と言うらしい。ならば、 slice で攻める。
c. 折箱、折り箱は、バカ英辞朗に未登録。 weblio では、box made of thin wood or cardboard
【十津川弁】へぐ  (= はぐ 「皮をへぐ」 平らに薄く削りとる)
【賛】bukk (= cl. %{bukkati} , %{bukkayati} , to ★bark 皮を剥ぐ, yelp , sound , talk Dha1tup. (Kas3. also `" to give pain "').) へぐ、はぐ
【十津川弁】みいみ   (= (童語)果実等の皮をむくこと)
【賛】nirluJcana (= n. ( %{luJc}) pulling out or off , tearing off , ★peeling 皮を剥く) みいみにゃかな (l-m)
【賛】nirvizRR (= Pass. %{-sIryate} , to ★peel or drop off , fall asunder R.) みいみ (v-m)、むく (v-k)
【民】nArkkatuvu-tal (= to ★peel off bark from palmyra leafstalks) むくつぶ
【琉球】■ハジュン   (= 剥ぐ)
【民】paTTaiyuri-ttal (= to ★strip off bark) ハジュン (r-n)
【琉球】■へぐ〔剥ぐ〕 / 関連語彙:ピヂュン
ピヂュン /pizuN/ / (動詞) 規1ガ/ / 意味:/ / 木や竹やかつお節などを薄く削る。へぐ。そぐ。/ / 参考:/ / 全国方言辞典「へぐ 〈1〉剥ぐ。肥後菊池郡(俗言考)・新潟県古志郡・和歌山…」。/ 宮崎県方言辞典「へぐ 木や竹をうすく削りそぐ」/ / 関連標準語:/ / そぐ〔削ぐ〕,へぐ〔剥ぐ〕
【賛】paridRR (= (only 3. sg. Prec. A1. %{-darSISTa}) , to break through (the foe) RV. : Pass. %{-dIryate} , to ★peel or drop off on all sides , to become dropsical TS. ) ピヂュン (R-n, R-n)
【賛】paripuTana (= n. ★peeling , losing the bark or skin ib. ; %{-vat} mfn. ★peeling or dropping off ib.) ピヂュン
--
【民】porukku (= 1. grain of boiled rice; 2. flake, skin, thin layer that ★peels off, scale; 3. brak;) へぐ
【民】cavveTu-ttal (= 1. to ★peel off, as the skin from beans, gristly parts from meat; 2. to humble one's pride, nullify one's influence) そぐダ (v-g)
【民】nArkkatuvu-tal (= to ★peel off bark from palmyra leafstalks) むくダガ (v-g)
【琉球】■むく〔剥く〕 / 関連語彙:ムちュン
c. 今帰仁 DB 、「剥」は、はぐ 剥ぐ、へぐ 剥ぐ、 むく 剥く、で、3つ有る。
【賛】nirvizRR (= Pass. %{-sIryate} , to ★peel or drop off , fall asunder R.) ムちュン (R-n)
【賛】nirluJcana (= n. ( %{luJc}) pulling out or off , tearing off , ★peeling Ka1tyS3r.) ムちュン
【民】porukku (= 1. grain of boiled rice; 2. flake, skin, thin layer that ★peels off, scale; 3. brak;) はぐ、へぐ
【宮古口】ぱがす /pagasɿ/ 多與 新鏡 動詞 皆ぱがす、ぱがし、ぱがさん 〈皆、與、多、新、鏡〉剥がす
【賛】paripuT (= Pass. %{-puTyate} , to ★peel off , lose the bark or skin Sus3r.) ぱがす (p-k-g)
【賛】praccheda (= m. slip, ★strip.) ぱがす (ch-k-g)
【賛】prakRtistha (= mfn. being in the original or natural state , genuine , unaltered , unimpaired , normal , well , healthy Ya1jn5. Ka1v. Var. Sus3r. (also %{-sthita} Var.) ; inherent , innate , incidental to nature Ragh. ; bare 裸, ★stripped of everything 全て剥がした MW. ;) 剥がした
--
【賛】nirvizRR (= Pass. %{-sIryate} , to ★peel or drop off , fall asunder R.) 剥く(むく) (v-k)、ぬがす (v-g)
【賛】moka (= n. (2. %{muc}) the ★stripped-off skin of an animal MBh. (cf. %{nir-m-}) ; a quadruped L. ; a pupil L. ; (%{mo4kI}) f. `" releaser "' , night RV. ) むく(剥く)
【宮古口】ぱぎ /pagi/多ぱぎ乚 /pagiɭ/ 多與 新鏡 動詞 皆ぱぎ、ぱぐん 〈全〉禿げる  (肌などが)剥げる
【賛】vikaca (= a. hairless, ★bald-headed 禿げ頭の; opened, blossomed (flower); shining, radiant, resplendent with (---).) ぱぎ/ぱぎ乚
209pestle
あじむ、かきちち、やんぐい、なきき、いなすき、いなつき、きね(杵)、いなちくし、あいだち --- もう、メチャクチャ。
【趣 シュメール語】
ここは アンカー名 = 633、です。
633. - [ kum4 [UD]: an adjective describing ★flour 粉・小麦粉 [that would be ground in a mortar, kum] and bread. ] 粉(こな)or 粉々(こなごな)の、こな (m-n) ◎
きみ・黄実(きみ)→ キビ・黍(きび) ◎
cf. キビ (wikipedia)  : 実が黄色であることから、「黄実(きみ)」→「きび」となったとするのが有力な語源説である。
c. 小麦粉[乳鉢ですりつぶされた、粉(こな)]およびパンを記述する形容詞。 ---- 形容詞なの?。→ 粉々(こなごな)の、こな、「形容詞」といいたいのカモ?
633-2 - [ kibx[GIG](-ba): ★wheat. ] 黍(きび)
633-3 - [ kum, gum: n., ★mortar すり鉢、乳鉢 (for grinding) [GUM archaic frequency: 47; concatenation of 2 sign variants]. ] 杵(きね) (m-n) ◎
v., to crush, bruise 打撲傷を与える (cf., h̺um; alternation between h̺ and k/g like the alternation between h̺ab, h̺úb and gùb).
633-4 - [ na4kín[H̺AR]: hand mill (saddle quern for grinding); millstone (base/ground + stone) [KIN2 archaic frequency: 11; concatenates 4 sign variants]. ] 杵(きね) ◎
633-5 - [ ĝišgan-na: ★grinding stone (?) ('rack' + nominative). ] 杵(きね) ◎
633-6 - [ [ĝiš]naĝa3,4, naĝX[GAZ, KUM]: to crush; (with nominative -a) ★pestle 乳棒・すりこぎ ]  なが (= 砕く、杵をつく) or 剥く(むく, = 殻をむく)→ 麥(むぎ)・麦(むぎ)、剥く(むく, = 殻をむく) (n-m) ◎
633-7 - [ numun, nuĝunx, niĝunx: n., seed 種; sowing 種蒔き; cornfield トウモロコシ畑; offspring 子孫, progeny 〈文〉子孫 (níĝ, 'thing', + gùn, 'dots, speckles') [NUMUN archaic frequency: 22].
v., to produce. ] 麦(むぎ)、蒔く(まく) (n-m, n 無音) ◎
-----------------
【民】kumai-ttal (= 02 1. to tread down 踏みつぶす, tread out into a mash; 2. to beat or pound [ドスンドスン・バンバンと]打つ強打・連打 in a ★mortar 臼; 3. to over-boil boil soft reduce to a mash by boilling; 4. to annoy, afflict vex; 5. to destroy) くまいッタル → きねッタル → きね  【杵】
【民】taTi (= 02 1. stick, staff, rod, cane; 2. club, cudgel, bludgeon; 3. a piece, as of wood; 4. measuring rod; 5. ★pestle; 6. bow; 7. rice-field; 8. plot of a field; 9. flesh; 10. dried fish; 11. iguana; 12. gfemini in the zodiac; 13. signature-mark) つち(槌)
【博多弁・消滅寸前】キネデハナカム   (= unfriendly 【無愛想】  杵で鼻かむ。木で鼻を括るが変化したものか。どっちやろ。)
【賛】kumudvin (= mfn. ★unfriendly 非好意的、無愛想な、よそよそしい BhP.) きねではん
【賛】paJcapada (= (%{pa4-}) mf(%{A})n. containing 5 Padas S3Br. ; (%{I}) f. taking 5 steps , consisting of 5 feet or steps or parts TS. (fr. %{-pad}?) ; `" only 5 steps "' , a cold or ★unfriendly relationship (opp. to %{sAptapadIna} q.v.) , Ban5c ; ) はなかむ (p-m)
【魚津弁】カッチャ  (= 米のつき屋、水車小屋)
【民】cAntu (= 1. sandal tree; 2. sandal paste; 3. black pigment made of burnt rice or ragi, used as tilka; 4. sacred ashes; 5. paste 杵(きね); 6. ★mortar 臼(うす), plaster; 7. faeces) かっちゃ (n 無音)
【土佐弁】 きの(杵[きね])
【賛】gokIla (= m. a plough L. ; a pestle 乳棒、杵、すりごぎ L.) きの (l-n)、きね (l-n)
c. mallet 木槌は今一であった。 【民】koTTan2 きの (TT 無音)
【琉球】n■アジン   (= 杵)
【民】arApatam (= * ★beetle 大槌、杵、すりこぎ。甲虫◆カブトムシ、クワガタ、ホタルなど) アジン
【民】vicikam (= 01 1. arrow; 2. iron ★pestle, crowbar) アジン
【宮古口】つキ /tsɿkɿ/ 新鏡 動詞 〈全〉搗く
c. 搗く/舂く(つく)とは。意味や解説、類語。[動カ五(四)]《「突く」と同語源》穀物を杵 (きね) や棒の先で強く打って押しつぶしたり、殻を除いたりする。「玄米を—・いて精白する」「餅 (もち) を—・く」
【民】tarukku-tal (= 01 1. to be proud, vain, arrogant; 2. to be eated, intoxicated; to exult; 3. to be zealous, enthusiastic; 1. to enhance, enlarge; 2. to ★pound 何度も強打する、激しく[ドンドン・バンバン]打つ[たたく]、〔もちなどを〕つく; 3. to injure, torment; 4. to break, pierce; 5. to take to, have resort to) つキ、つく(搗く)
210pig
うわ、ぶた
【民】pOttiri (= hog, ★pig) ぽーっちり、ぶーた/ブタ、わンシ (+ン)
【宮古口】【島の散歩】わー  (= 豚)
【民】Uppai (= gluttony, as of a ★pig (TLS)) ゥワー、わー
【賛】varAha (= m. (derivation doubtful) a boar , hog , ★pig , wild boar RV. (ifc. it denotes , `" superiority , pre-eminence "' ;) ゥワー、わー
211pigeon
【十津川弁】あおばと  (= 山鳩)
【賛】pArApata (= m. = (or v.l. for) %{pArAvata} , a ★pigeon 鳩 Ka1d.) あおばと (p 無音)
【民】pOtappuRA (= imperial ★pigeon ミカドバト, carpophaga aenea) はとぽっぽ (R 反復)
【琉球】ホートゥ(ほーとぅ)/ または:ホウトゥ / / ホートゥ/ / 意味/ カワラバト/ ドバト/ 鳩(ハト)/ 解説/ 町中や公園でよく見かける、いわゆる土鳩のこと。
【宮古口】皆新ンーばとぅ /mmbatu/與鏡ンばとぅ /mbatu/多来ぱとぅ /patu/ 多與 新鏡 来 名詞 〈全〉鳩
【賛】pArAvata (= a. remote, coming from afar; m. turtle ★dove 《鳥》キジバト, pl. N. of a people.) ホートゥ、はと、ポッポだ、ンーばとぅ/ンばとぅ (p-n)、ポッポだ、【宮古島キッズネット】んーばとう
【民】puRAttalai (= small head 小さな頭, as of a ★dove) ホートゥらい
【賛】bhISaNa (= ; a ★pigeon , ★dove L. ; ) ホートゥな
【賛】dhUsara (= mf(%{A})n. ( %{dhvaMs} , or %{dhvas} ; cf. %{dhvasira}) dust-coloured 土色の, grey 灰色 Ka1v. (%{-tva} , n. Dhu1rtas.) ; m. grey (the colour) W. ; an ass L. ; an oilman ib. ; a ★pigeon ib. ;) どばと c. 土鳩(どばと)は、灰色のハトだそうです。
212pine, evergreen
松(まつ)、まち、まちぎ、
cf. 教育漢字 松 ショウ、まつ pine tree    f17_1#n.447
213plant, vt.
植える(うえる)、うゆ、うゆる、うゆん、ういる、いび、いびる、いびつ、
cf. 教育漢字 植 う(える)* 植える plant, sow    f17#2.131
【琉球】■ウィーユン   (= 植える)
【賛】Aruh (= ; to cause to grow ; to ★plant Katha1s. ; to place , deposit , fasten MBh. ; to produce , cause , effect Katha1s. ;) ウィーユ
【宮古口】いび /ibi/多うい乚 /uiɭ/ 多與 友新 鏡 動詞 皆いび、いぶん 多うい乚、ういん 〈全〉植える
【賛】vap (= : Caus. %{vApayati} (aor. %{avlvapat} Gr.) to sow ~に種をまく、植え付ける, ★plant 植える, put in the ground MBh.:) いび 、うい乚、うえ
214plow, n
鋤(すき)、...
 3.3 Ancient borrowings from a Proto-Tungusic model
     |--- (3) PLOUGH
215poison
cf. 教育漢字 毒 どく poison   f17_1#n.142
【賛】vAlUka (= m. a kind of ★poison L. (cf. %{vAluka}) ;) ゆうが、有害(ゆうがい)
216pot
瓶・甕(かめ)、かみ、なび・なべ(鍋)
c. 英辞郎はバカだ。 甕(かめ)が未登録。日本人じゃナイ。
(4) METAL COOKING POT  -- カメ
cf. 204⬟pan 鍋(なべ)
    |---  (3) VEGETABLE JAR
217potato
うも、イモ(芋)、うんん、むー
【民】ALvaLLi (= 1. cassava plant, l. sh., manihot utilissima ; 2. wild ★yam ヤム, l. cl., dioceorea daemona) いも (v-m)
【京都弁】ずいき (= 里芋)
【民】tOkai (= ; 9. sheath さや, as of sugarcane サトウキビ, of a plantain 植物の ★stem 茎;) ずいき
【民】tAykkarumpu (= parent sugar-cane ★stem) ずいきイモ
【十津川弁】やつがしら   (= 芋)
【賛】vyAdhihantR (= mfn. = %{-ghna} MW. ; m. yam ヤマイモ L.) やつがしら (h-k-g, n 無音)
【民】valliyam (= 02 1. purple yam; 2. turmeric 《植物》ターメリック、ウコン◆インド原産のショウガ科の多年草。) やまいも (l-m)
【賛】varAhanAman (= m. Mimosa Pudica L. ; an esculent root , yam L. ;) いももん、いも
【民】poTTukkaRivaLLi (= purple yam) ほったかいも、ポテト
c. yam から引っかかった、その他の「いも」
【賛】jAmI (= f. = %{-mi} , a daughter-in-law 義理の娘 MBh.) いも
【賛】ehimAya (= mfn. erroneous for %〔考え方・判断・情報などが〕間違った、誤りのある {a4hi-mAya} [BRD.] , of all-pervading intelligence 社会に浸透している知識の;) いもや
c. やつがしら【八頭】:
サトイモの一品種。親芋はよく肥大し、周囲に生じた芋と密着して直径10センチメートルほどのごつごつとした塊となる。葉は小さく、淡緑色。葉柄は短く、紫褐色。 [季] 秋。
c. purple yam とは、紫色のイモ、で、water yam とも言い、
ダイジョ、ダイショ◆《1》ヤマノイモ属の植物。東南アジア原産。《2》この植物から得られる大型の芋。しばしば中が紫色。◆【学名】Dioscorea alata
cf. 【十】やつめいも 【八つがしらと異るや】
【琉球】ターウム(たーうむ)/ または:ターンム / / ターウム/ / 意味/ タイモ/ 田芋/ 解説/ サトイモ科。/ 沖縄で古くからある野菜で、色々な田芋料理があり、沖縄行事にはかかせません。/ / 02月06日はターウム(田芋)の日です。
【民】teruNai (= ★potato plum of mysore, s. tr., scolopia crenala) ターウム、ターンム (r-n)
【宮古口】ンー /mm/ 多與 新鏡 来 名詞 〈全〉芋
【賛】mAluvA (= f. a kind of sweet ★potato 甘い芋(いも) L.) ンー、【宮古島キッズネット】んむ (v-m) [= おいも]
【宮古口】びゅーがっさ /bʲuugassa/多びっヴぅ乚がっさ /bivvuɭgassa/友鏡びヴがっさ /biʋgassa/新びヴがさ /biʋgasa/来びヴ /biʋ/ 多與 皆友 新鏡 来 名詞 〈全〉クワズイモ
【賛】paGkacchid (= m. `" mud-destroyer "' , Strychnos ★Potatorum (the fruit of which is used for purifying foul water) Ma1lav. (その果実は汚水を浄化するために使用されます)) びゅーがっさ
cf. クワズイモ (wikipedia)  ~クワズイモの名は「食わず芋」で、見た目はサトイモに似ているが、食べられないのでそう呼ばれている。~ ,, 東京都福祉保健局の分類では、クワズイモは毒草に分類されている。
c. 「びゅー」は、「毒」対応。
【賛】kata (= m. Strychnos ★Potatorum (cf. the next) L. ;) がっさ
【民】kOTali (= ★potato plum of Mysore (TLS)) がっさ (l 無音)
218pound, vt
突く、たたく、ちちゅん、ききむ、ぱらし、しさい、なず、ふむ
c. 何なの、コレ。疲れる。パウンドって、パンの生生地を叩く・こねる、の feeling じゃないの?。ドスン、ペタッ、伸ばす、する。
cf. 教育漢字 叩く (たたく) beat, hit   f17#1.158
【民】tarukku-tal (= 01 1. to be proud, vain, arrogant; 2. to be eated, intoxicated; to exult; 3. to be zealous, enthusiastic; 1. to enhance, enlarge; 2. to ★pound; 3. to injure, torment; 4. to break, pierce; 5. to take to, have resort to) 突く
【民】martti-ttal (= 01 1. to knead, rub; 2. to mix, compound, as medicines; 3. to ★pound, grind; 4. to beat soundly, thrash) なぜ、なで、まぜ
【賛】paritud (= P. %{-tudati} , to trample down , ★pound , crush MBh.) ぱらし
219pour, vt
注ぐ(つぐ)、そそぐ
cf. 教育漢字 注ぐ そそぐ、つぐ pour    f17#1.13
220rain
cf. スワデシュ・リスト 207 rain    f20#s.151 あめ、しぐれ
221raise, grow, vt
育つ(そだつ)、こ、かう、しかないん、わじなゆん
cf. 教育漢字 育つ grow up, grow    f17#1.37
【民】kaRu-ttal (= 01 1. to ★grow black, darken; 2. to ★mature, come to a climax; 3. to become impure, polluted; to contract moral defilement; to resent, to get angry) こ、かう
【民】taTTikkiLampu-tal (= 1. to rise, ★grow high, become tall; 2. to rise to position or influence; 3. to be animated with joy, with zeal for an enterprise; to be roused to anger) しかないん
【賛】vardhanazIla (= mfn. having a tendency to increase or ★grow , increasing , growing MW.) わじなジーラ
【琉球】■スダチュン 育つ
【賛】sthA, tiSThati, -te (= ; prepare for, set about, take to, choose, use, employ, practise, execute. {ud} stand up, rise (esp. from a sacrificial acts, i.e. finish, close), awake, appear, sprout, ★grow. M. raise one's self to, prepare for (dat. or loc.). C. cause to stand up, raise, scare up, awaken (from sleep or death); lift up, erect, establish;) スダチュ
【宮古口】そぅだつ /sudatsɿ/多しゅだつ /ɕudatsɿ/ 多與 新鏡 動詞 皆そぅだつ、そぅだち、そぅだたん 〈全〉育つ
【賛】sthA, tiSThati, -te (= , pp. {sthita3} 1 (q.v.) stand, stay, stop, [[-,]] remain, wait; ; fix in. fasten to (loc.). {anvA} enter, ascend, attain (after one another). {upA} go to, have intercourse with (acc.); attend to, observe. {samupA} step near; attend to, practise. {samA} ascend, resort to, enter, stop, stay; prepare for, set about, take to, choose, use, employ, practise, execute. {ud} stand up, rise (esp. from a sacrificial acts, i.e. finish, close), awake, appear, sprout, ★grow. M. raise one's self to, prepare for (dat. or loc.). C. cause to stand up, raise, scare up, awaken (from sleep or death); lift up, erect, establish; pull or draw out; ) そぅだつ/しゅだつ
【賛】sujAta (= (or %{su4-}) mfn. well born or produced or made , of an excellent kind or nature , fine , beautiful RV. ; well ★grown , tall MW. ; ) そぅだつ/しゅだつ
【賛】supravRddha (= mfn. ★full-grown ib. ;) そぅだつ/しゅだつ
222rat
ねずみ、いぇんちゅう、うぇんちゃう、ゆむぬ、うぇーだ、
【賛】vRza (= m. a partic. small animal (L. `" a ★mouse or rat "' ; cf. 1. %{vRSa}) MaitrS. ;) うぇーだ
【民】nacceli (= 01 1. ★mouse; 2. ★shrew-mouse) ネズミ (l-m)
【出雲弁】ねじん  (= 〔動〕鼠 ex. ねじんが 噛んだ = 鼠が 噛んだ)
【民】nacceli (= 01 1. ★mouse ネズミ; 2. shrew-★mouse) ねじん (l-n)
【民】mUjncURu (= 1. ★musk-rat, sorex indicus ; 2. a cattle disease) なにゃすーん (r-n)
【チベ】dri ma can (= rat, ★mouse, filthy 汚い, dirty, sluttish [JV]) たにねずみ (r-n)
c. チベット語辞書を見ていると mouse の項目に、 thief が出てきまして、ネズミと泥棒を同一視しているらしい言語と判明、インド辞書を見たら同じだった。あー面白や。
【賛】mUS (= 2 mf. `" stealer , ★thief 泥棒. "' a ★mouse ネズミ RV. [Cf. Gk. $ ; Lat. {mys8i8} ; Germ. {mu7s} Germ. {mu7s} , {Maus} ; Eng. {mouse}.]) ねず、ぬす
【賛】mUSaka (= m. ★thief 泥棒, robber; ★mouse ネズミ, ★rat.) ネズ公(ねずこう)
c. チベット語には、「たにねずみ」は有ったが 「ねずみ」はなかった。当初、たにねずみ、は、複合語と思っていたが、十津川村にチベット語の血も混じっているとすると、複合語では無い。
c. ねずみ、ぬすみ、ぬすっと、は親戚なんですね。ねずみ小僧次郎吉 は、言語学的に見て、由緒正しい名前と判明。
【琉球】エンチュ(えんちゅ)/ または:ウェンチュ / / 意味/ ネズミ/ 鼠/ ドブネズミ/ 解説/ 那覇などの都市部によくいる。/ 農作物に害を与える事もある。
【賛】unduru (= m. a ★rat , mouse.) エンチュ
c. 「ウェンチュ」の feeling は「マウチュ」 に、似ている。(?)
【宮古口】ゆむぬ  (= ねずみ)
【民】irimAn2 (= species of ★rat) ゆむぬ
【琉球】■ねずみ〔鼠〕
関連語彙:えンちュー
〔鼠とり器〕えンちュヤマー,〔鼠の一種〕あヂー,ミーくンヂャビちャー,ミミくンヂャビちャー
【賛】unduru (= m. a ★rat , ★mouse.) エンチュ
【賛】vRza (= m. a partic. small animal (L. `" a ★mouse or ★rat "' ; cf. 1. %{vRSa}) MaitrS. ;) えンちュー (R-n)、あヂー
【賛】ajita (= mfn. not conquered , unsubdued , unsurpassed , invincible , irresistible ; m. a particular antidote ; a kind of venomous 《生物》〔生物や器官が〕有毒な、毒を持つ[出す] ★rat ; ) あヂー
【民】muLLuccuNTeli (= spiny 棘のある mouse, a kind of field ★mouse 野ネズミ, as having fine spinous fur) ミミくンヂャ (L-m, +ン)
【賛】pAGktra (= m. a kind of ★mouse.) ビちャー
--
【賛】jAla (= 1 n. net, web, springe 〔小動物を捕らえるための〕わな, ★snare 罠(わな), coat or helmet of wire, grate, lattice, (lattice-) window, the membrane between the toes of waterbirds (supposed also to exist between the toes and fingers of godlike personages), mane (of a lion); collection, multitude.) ヤマー (l-m)
【宮古口】みぱぎざか /mipagidzaka/来みぱぎじゃか /mipagidʑaka/ 與新 鏡来 名詞 〈全〉ネズミの一種  〈全〉人を罵る言葉
【賛】mUSikazAvaka (= m. young ★mouse, mousey.) みぱぎざか (S-p)
【魚津弁】ネズミトラズ  (= 役立たず)
【民】muNTam (= ; 10. ★useless 役に立たない、不用 person; ) ねずみ 【賛】nirdharma (= mfn. unrighteous , lawless , impious , Kathss. ; `" unproper. tied "' Kap. (%{-tva} n.) ; m. unrighteousness , in %{-ma-mUrkhatA} f. unrighteousness and foolishness Katha1s. ; %{-mA7rtha} mfn. unjust and ★useless MBh.) ねずみ
c. 「とらず」はインド辞書には見当たらなかった。日本で付け加えた模様。
223raw
生(なま)
【十津川弁】なまはんじゃく   (= 中途半端な)
【賛】nyUna (= a. wanting 欠けている, ★incomplete 不完全な, defective 欠陥的, inferior, smaller, less by (instr. or ---), less than (abl.); low, vile.) なま
【賛】hInAGga (= mf(%{A} or %{I})n. defective in limb, crippled びっこ, lame , mutilated Shad2vBr. ; ★incomplete in parts 部品が不完全, imperfect Ka1tyS3r. ) はんじゃく、はんこ、びっこ、半可(はんか)
【賛】hInAtirikta (= mfn. ★defective 欠陥的 or excessive , too few or too many 短すぎる又は長すぎる; %{-kAle} ind. too late or too soon おそすぎる又は早すぎる VarBr2S. ; %{-gAtra} (Mn.) or %{-tA7Gga} (f. %{I} Ya1jn5.) mfn. having a limb too few or too many.) はんちゃらけだ
【賛】strIdehArdha (= m. `" he who has ★half of (his) body female 体の半分が女性である男性"'N. of S3iva (cf. %{ardha-nArI7za}) L.) どちはんじゃく (r-n)、どっちつかず (h-k)
c. 【魚津弁】ハンコズル 【半ずり、中途半端】、【京都弁】はんちゃらけ 【中途半端】、【出雲弁】 どちはんじゃく 【中途半端、どっちつかず】
【博多弁・消滅寸前】ナマハンジャク   (= incomplete 【中途半端なこと】)
【賛】nyUnIbhAva (= m. state of deficiency , ★incompleteness 不完全 L.) なまはんじゃく (+ん, v-j, + く)、なまはんか (+ん, v-k)
【熊本弁】なましか   (= 生である,枯れていない こん木はナマシカけん燃エン(この木は生だから燃えない) 未熟の意味も。古語「生し」からか)
【趣】úmun, umum (= : mold; raw 生の form or material; idea; knowledge; scholarship [UMUN2 archaic frequency; 114].) なま (u 無音)
【賛】AmamAMsa (= n. raw flesh. %{Ama-mAMsA7zin} m. eater of raw flesh , a cannibal.) なまし(A 無音)
【民】Amam (= * 1. that which is undressed, uncooked or raw; 2. indigestion; 3. dysentery) なま (A 無音)
c. 「生」と言ったら raw 以外無いのに、インド辞書に「なま」は無い。しょうがないので、シュメール・アッカド語を見たら、有った。しかし、先頭に母音が付いていた。インド辞書もそうだった。
【富山弁】こわくさい   (= 生意気で小利口 分からんくせに“こわくさい”こと言われんナ)
【民】kirutukkAran2 (= arrogant 横柄, insolent 生意気 person; self conceited man) こわくさい (t 無音, r-s) な、こりこうな (t 無音)
【民】mElvakkaNai (= 1. insolent or impertinent 〔態度や話が〕尊大な、偉そうな。 生意気な、不作法な talk) なまいきな/なまいきない (l-m)
【魚津弁】ナマンサ  (= 生臭、魚肉料理)
【賛】mAtsya (= a. ★fishy 〔匂い・味などが〕魚のような、魚に似た。魚臭い or fish-like.) なまんさ (+ん)
■amorous 艶めかしい
【賛】manmatha (= m. (either an intens. form fr. %{math} , or fr. %{man} = %{manas} + %{matha} , `" agitating "' ; cf. %{mandeha} and %{mandhAtR}) love or the god of love , ★amorous passion or desire (ifc. f. %{A}) MBh. Ka1v. &c. ; Feronia Elephantum L. ; the 29th (3rd) year in a 60 years "' cycle of Jupiter VarBr2S. ; N. of a physician and various other men Cat. ; (%{A}) f. N. of Da1ksha1yan2i1 ib.) なまだ、なまめかしい、なまめし c. charm ~にも日本語に近いものが有ったが音が今一で没??。 なまめかし 【古語】
224receive, obtain
受け、もらう、ゆゆん、もろうん、うかい、うきる、いるゆん、ゆいる
cf. 教育漢字 受・承 う(ける)* 受ける、承ける receive    f17#2.168
cf. 教育漢字 貰う もらう given, presented, offered, boon    f17#1.185
cf. 教育漢字 得 え(る) 得る get, obtain, receive, gain    f17#2.129
225reed (for a loom)
ほどき、ふつんち、ふづち
c. 【英】reed  6. 〔織機の〕おさ、筬、リード◆縦糸の幅を均等にし、横糸をしっかり密着させるためのくし状の構造物。
c. 筬(おさ)。---- Google 検索したが「ほどき 織機」の解説サイトは、ナイ。
【賛】poTagala (= m. (only L.) a species of ★reed ; Saccharum Spontaneum ; a fish ; = %{paJcajanya}.) ほどきラ
【賛】vATidIrgha (= or m. a sort of grass or ★reed L.) ほどきラ
【賛】vetasavRtti (= mfn. acting or pliant as a ★reed Pan5cat.) ふつんち、ふづち
226rest, v
よく、よくむ、ゆくゆん、やすむ、
cf. 教育漢字 休む rest, sleep, recess, absent,    f17#1.117
【琉球】ユクイ:休憩。一休み。語源は「ゆっくり」と同じ。
【民】ucciviTuti (= * 1. midday ★recess for labourers 労働者のための昼休み, or for children at school) ユクイして (c-k)
c. 『語源は「ゆっくり」と同じ。』は、間違っている、カモ。 ∵ recess 休憩、は、 slowly ゆっくり、とは違う。
【賛】jaDakriya (= mfn. working ★slowly L.) ゆたくりや、ゆっくりや
【賛】riGkh, riGkhati (= , or {riGg, riGgati} creep, crawl, move ★slowly. [[,]]) ゆっく、ゆっくし (r-y)
【民】acai-tal (= 01 1. to move, stir; 2. to walk or ride ★slowly; 3. to go away; 4. to be slender, flexible; 5. to be weary, exhausted, to grow feeble; 6. to be perplexed, disconcerted; 7. to diminish; 8. to rest 休憩; 9. to lodge, stay; 10. to lie in a place; 11. to be idle, inactive, indolent; 12. to dance) あさい、ゆさい (a-y)、ユクイ (a-y, c-k)
c. 【宮古島】ゆくう (= 休む)
【琉球】【宮古口】■ユクル 休む
【民】vEcARu-tal (= 01 1. to be consoled or pacified; 2. to ★rest) ユクル、ゆくう (c-k)
【琉球】■2566. ユフミン (動詞) 休む。憩う。休憩する。
【琉球】■2567. ユフルン (動詞) 〈1〉憩う。休む。〈2〉横になって休む。
【賛】vyuparama (= m. coming to ★rest, cessation, end.) ユフミ、ユフルン
【賛】vizramita (= mfn. made to ★rest , allayed Gi1t.) ユフマス (r 反復)
【賛】vRt, vartate, -ti, vavartti (= 1 ({vartti}), pp. {vRtta3} (q.v.) turn, [[-,]] revolve, roll, run off, pass away (time); ; act, proceed, deal with (loc.); work, be valid, cause, effect; ★rest or be turned upon (loc.); ) ユファース
【宮古口】ゆくー /jukuu/ 與新 鏡 動詞 皆ゆくー、ゆくい、ゆかーん 〈全〉休む
cf. 島の散歩 #162   ゆくう   休む
【民】vEcARu-tal (= 01 1. to be consoled or pacified; 2. to ★rest) ゆくう (c-k)
◇【ウチナーヤマトグチの語彙一覧】名詞
ユクイ:休憩。一休み。語源は「ゆっくり」と同じ。
c. 【ウチナーヤマトグチの語彙一覧】wikipedia の作者は、少しバカ。休憩は、「ゆっくり」とは、無縁。日本人失格。インド弁的にも、rest/recess ≠ slowly。 feeling 的に自明。
むしろ、feeling 的には、憩い(いこい)の親戚。
【民】uykai (= 1. salvation, deliverance; 2. escape from hardship 苦しみからの逃避, ★relief from distress) いこい(憩い)、ゆくい
cf. ゆくー /jukuu/ 新鏡 名詞〈全〉休憩、休み   rest と slow が混在 ???
【宮古口】ゆくー /jukuu/ 新鏡 名詞 〈全〉休憩、休み
【民】acai-tal (= 01 1. to move, stir; 2. to walk or ride slowly ゆっくり; 3. to go away; 4. to be slender, flexible; 5. to be weary, exhausted, to grow feeble; 6. to be perplexed, disconcerted; 7. to diminish; 8. to ★rest 休憩; 9. to lodge, stay; 10. to lie in a place; 11. to be idle, inactive, indolent; 12. to dance) ゆくー(a-y, c-k)、あさい、ゆさい (a-y)、ユクイ (a-y, c-k)
【賛】riGkh, riGkhati (= , or {riGg, riGgati} creep, crawl, move ★slowly ゆっくり. [[,]]) ゆくー、ゆっく、ゆっくし (r-y)
--
【民】nilaippeRu-tal (= to be at ★rest) のんびり (l-n)
【賛】nirvRta (= mfn. satisfied , happy , tranquil , at ease , at ★rest Mn.; extinguished , terminated , ceased , Ven2. ; emancipated W. ; n. a house W.) のんびりダ
【民】kaitUvu-tal (= 01 to have ★rest or leisure, as from one's activities) くつろぐ (+ろ, v-g)
【賛】vizlatha (= mfn. ★relaxed , loose Ragh. ; %{●-thA7Gga} mfn. having languid limbs ; (%{am}) ind. with languid limbs Amar.) くつろぎ (v-k)
【賛】vizrama (= m. ★rest , repose , quiet , ★relaxation Ka1lid. ) 休む(やすむ)
227rice (older word)
米(こめ)
cf. 教育漢字 米 ベイ、マイ、こめ、よね、メートル rice    f17_1#n.375
228rice
米(まい)
cf. 前 # 227
229rice cake
【民】nIraTai (= ★rice-cake 餅 boiled in steam) もち
【賛】vaDA (= f. (cf. = %{vaTa}) a small lump , globule , round mass or ★cake 菓子 L.) もち (v-m)
【民】valci (= 1. food; 2 boiled ★rice; 3. ★rice; 4. paddy) ウルチ、餅 (v-m, l 無音)。
c. valci は、ウルチ、餅、蒸す、にも見える。
cf. 月例卓話 弥生人の原郷と日本語のルーツ:サンスクリット起原説 梶   慶 輔   on 2016
(1)弥生人の第一波
BC1000 年頃アーリヤ人は人口増加による領 土拡大のためチベット・ビルマ民族の定住する ガンガー川上流域に侵略を開始する.このときチベット人はチベット高原にビルマ人(弥生人) は東に移動した.恐らく東南アジアから中国広 東省・福建省を経て台湾に渡り,そこから琉球 列島を北上,日本列島に到達したと思われる. これが弥生人の第一派である.彼らは当時イン ドで盛んであったシヴァ信仰を持っていた.

 ~.因に,「ぼたもち」は「ブー タン餅」のことであり,~
【民】pattAci (= a kind of sweet-cake) ボッターし
cf. 【出雲弁:はんごろし】   ぼた餅
ex. 旅人を泊めて、爺さんと婆さんが「ご馳走はほんごろしかはんごろしか」と相談しました。それを聞いた旅人は驚いて逃げたそうです。 【= 旅人を泊めて、爺さんと婆さんが「ご馳走は餅(本殺し)かぼた餅(半殺し)か」と相談しました。それを聞いた旅人は驚いて逃げたそうです。
【民】kAraTai (= a kind of rice ★cake 餅(モチ)) ころし
【民】pANi (= 06 1. molasses 糖液、糖蜜, treacle 糖蜜、甘ったるさ; 2. toddy; 3. ★sweet juice of fruits; 4. juice of leaves; 5. medicinal preparation of pepper and jaggery; 6. a kind of mineral poison) はん
【賛】pASANacaturdazI (= f. the 14th day in the light half of the month Ma1rgas3i1rsha (on which a festival of Gauri1 is celebrated , when ★cakes made of ★rice and shaped like large pebbles 〔丸くなった〕小石 are eaten) BhavP.) ほんごろし/はんごろし (S 無音, t 無音)

尚、多分、ブータン説は、嘘八百(ウソはっぱゃく)の作り話。
【民】paccaippuLukan2 (= 1. great boaster; 2. veritable, downright ★liar 嘘つき) ウソはっぴゃくの (p 無音, L 無音)

c. 【富山弁】はんごろし (= おはぎ(春の餡餅) 佐賀/宮城/岩手 ぼたもち(秋の餡餅) 佐賀/宮城/岩手)
【富山弁】みなごろし  (= お餅 )
【民】nIraTai (= ★rice-cake 餅 boiled in steam 蒸気) みな (r-n)、むらし
【民】kAraTai (= a kind of ★rice cake) ころし
【熊本弁】しとぎ餅,ひとぎ餅  (= 棟上式に投げる餅 新築の家の棟上げ式の行事「もち投げ」に使う,その「もち投げ」をシトギ。元々は神様に供える餅がシトギ)
【賛】piSTika (= n. a cake made of rice flour L.) ひとぎ、しとぎ (p-s)
cf. 3. Language contact in the Bronze Age
      |-- Ancient borrowings from a Proto-Koreanic model
          |-- (3) RICE CAKE しとぎもち、粢(しとぎ) --- アン入り餅のこと。
【京都弁】おけそくさん  (= 仏に供える小さい餅、仏前に供える物)
【富山弁】おけそく
【賛】AhutIkR (= to offer 提供する as an oblation 奉納物、お供え物, Ratna1v. ) おけそく (h-k)
【賛】karcarikA (= f. a kind of pastry クッキー or ★cake 菓子; (Beng. %{kacurI}.)) けそく (c-s)、かし
230rice, cooked
【十津川弁】あっぽ  (= ②(福井県大野郡-団子)。③(栃木県塩谷郡・飛騨・福井-餅))
②/③:
【民】appam (= 01* 1. round ★cake of rice flour and ssugar fried in ghee 米粉と砂糖を油で揚げた丸い菓子・餅; 2. thin ★cake, wafer, bread) あっぱの
【十津川弁】やや  (= ①(童語)餅、②幼児)
【民】vaRaTTaTai (= a kind of ★rice-cake 餅 baked in iron pan 鉄の鍋の上で焼くお餅) ややったい、やや
【民】vaRcan2 (= child 子供, a term of endearment 愛情を示す専門用語) ややこの (c-k)、やや
c. 【奈良弁・京都弁】やーこ。ややこ。 【赤ちゃん】
【富山弁】かいもち  (= おはぎ “かいもち”作ったガ。一つ食べんケ)
【民】kaivIccan2 (= a sweet 甘い ★cake ケーキ、菓子 (TLS) ) かいもっちノ (v-m)
【民】nIraTai (= ★rice-cake 餅 boiled in steam 蒸気で蒸した) もち (r 無音)、むらし
【岡山弁】ばぶ(名詞)  (= 餅(もち) 「ばぶはなんぼうたべるかのー」祖母が正月の雑煮にいれる餅の数を子どもらに聞いていた。入浴剤のことではない。)
【賛】vrIhyapUpa (= m. ★rice-cake 餅.) ばぶ
【岡山弁】祖母がイ草を結んで作る柏餅(これを「どうばら」といった)も「しろみて」の行事だった。
【賛】dadhipUpaka (= m. N. of a ★cake made of %{da4dhi} Madanav.) どうばら (k-l)
【佐久弁】ぼたもち  (= 大福餅(おはぎではない)   ex. ぼたもちみてーな肌してる)
【賛】paiSTa (= mf(%{I})n. (fr. %{piSTa}) made of flour 粉からできている, ground or made up into a ★cake 臼で挽かれお菓子にする Gr2ihya1s. Hcat. ; m. patr. fr. %{piSTa} g. %{zivA7di} ;) ぼた  多分△
【民】pOTuvAn2 (= mashed black gram used in preparing rice-★cakes 用意された餅の具材として使用される潰された黒いヒヨコ豆) ぼたまめ (v-m)
【民】mOtakam (= 1. ★cake of rice-flour made into a ball and boiled or steamed 米の粉をボールにして煮るか蒸して作ったお菓子; 2. a bolus-like preparation of rice-flour; 3. a kind of pudding, made of flour; 4. a kind of flour-★cake; 5. delight, mirth; 6. agreement, suitability) もちカム
231rice plant
稲(いね)、まい(米)
【賛】vrIhin (= a. planted with ★rice (field).) 稲(イネ)
232rice steamer
こしき、かしき、せいろ
cf. 教育漢字 ◆蒸籠 セイロ、セイロウ steamer, saucepan    f17_1#n.346'
c. 蒸籠(せいろ)じゃないのか?。sjeero あった。
【賛】sabASpaka (= mfn. ★steaming , fuming , emitting vapour Sus3r.) さばーしゅぱか → せいろ △
【賛】[S#2096] kaTAha (= m. (rarely %{I} f. n.) a frying-pan ; a boiler , caldron , ★saucepan ソースパン、片手鍋 (of a semi-spheroidal shape and with handles) MBh. ; a turtle's shell L. ; anything shaped like a caldron (as the temple of an elephant) S3is3. ; a well L. ; a winnowing basket W. ; a mound of earth ; hell , the infernal regions L. ; a cot L. ; a young female buffalo whose horns are just appearing L. ; N. of a Dvi1pa Katha1s.) 籠(かたま) (h-m) ◎、こしき、かしき
【賛】caru (= m. (g. %{bhImA7di}) a kind of vessel (in which a particular oblation is prepared) , ★saucepan , pot RV.; a cloud (cf. RV.) Naigh. ; an oblation (of rice , barley and pulse) boiled with butter and milk for presentation to the gods or manes VS. (pl. Ya1jn5.) セイロ (c-s) ◎

【琉球】n■カシチー 強飯 
c. 強飯(読み)こわめし = おこわ,こわいいともいう。米をせいろうで蒸した飯のこと。赤飯や,豆を入れたものもあり,祝事,慶事の食事として,水に浸して炊く軟らかい飯に対して区別されてきた。
うるち米(粳米)ともち米(糯米)の違いは? 普通のご飯に用いられる米を粳米(うるちまい)といい、おもちやおこわに用いられる米を糯米(もちごめ)といい、粳米は粘り気が少なく、糯米は粘り気がたくさんあります。
【民】kuTalaiyiTTali (= a kind of ★rice-cake baked in ★steam (TLS)) カシチー (l 無音, l 無音)  △
c. 「おこわ」も有る?。
【民】puzugku-tal (= 1. to be ★steamed; to be slightly boiled or steamed; to be parboiled; 2. to boil gently or stew, as rice after the water is poured off; 3. to be sultry, as the weather; 4. a to be hot with anger; 5. to perspire; 6. to be envious; to feel heart-burning; 7. to wither, fade; 8. to be troubled; to be angry 怒る, indignant 立腹した、腹を立てた、憤慨した) おこ (p 無音)

233rice wine
cf. 教育漢字 酒 さけ alcohol, liquor   f17_1#n.54
234rice wine, ceremonial
くし、みき、ぐし
【琉球】■みき〔神酒〕 / [首里・那覇方言] / 関連語彙:うンサグ,ミちー
【賛】AkSakI (= f. a kind of spirituous アルコールを含む、蒸留した、元気のいい ★liquor prepared from the seeds of Terminalia Bellerica 訳[Google]: Terminalia Bellericaの種子から調製された一種の精神的な酒 Car.) うンサグ (+ン)、おさけ
【民】Acavam (= * spirituous ★liquor which is distilled from molasses, toddy) うンサグ (+ン, v-g) の、おさけノ
【賛】madya (= 2 mf(%{A})n. intoxicating. exhilarating , gladdening , lovely RV. ; n. any intoxicating drink , vinous or spiritous ★liquor , wine Mn.) ミちー、蜜(みつ)
--
【賛】mAnaka (= n. measure , weight Hcat. (esp. ifc.) ; m. n. Arum Indicum (cf. %{mANaka} and %{mAna-kanda}) ; (%{ikA}) f. a partic. weight or measure (= 2 An5jalis) Siddh. (cf. %{mAnI}) ; a partic. spirituous ★liquor L.) みき
【民】mAn2ikai (= spirituous ★liquor) みき
【宮古口】んキ /nkɿ/多みす /misɿ/ 多與 新鏡 名詞 〈全〉お神酒
【賛】matta (= ; (%{A}) f. any intoxicating drink , spirituous or vinous ★liquor L. ;) みす
【民】maTTu (= 02 1. honey 蜜; 2. toddy, fermented liquor; 3. sweet juice; 4. drink taken at the time of sexual union; 5. ★liquor jar; 6. fragrant smell) みす、蜜(みつ)
【賛】mAdhvIka (= n. a kind of ★liquor.) んキ、みき、みつき、おみき (m 強無音, v-m)
【賛】mAnaka (= ; a partic. spirituous ★liquor L.) んキ
【民】mAn2ikai (= spirituous ★liquor) んキ
【トカラ語B】mīt (n.) ‘honey’ (= [mit, -, mit//] śuwoy katkemane ālisa weṃṣy=eṃntwe mīt śakk[ar ram no] ‘she may eat joyfully excrement from [her] palm as if it were ★honey or sugar’ (42b5). -- mitäṣṣe ‘prtng to honey’ (W-22b3). ∎From PIE *médhu- (nt.) ‘honey, mead’ [: Sanskrit mádhu- ‘honey, mead,’ Avestan maδu- ‘ ★alcoholic drink,’ Greek méthu ‘wine,’ Old Irish mid ‘mead,’ Old English meodu ‘id.,’ Lithuanian medùs ‘honey,’ OCS medъ ‘mead’ (P:707; MA:271)] (Schrader/Nehring, 1917-23:139, VW:298). See also possibly mot.) 蜜 ---- 水 ?
235ride, vt
乗る(のる)
cf. 教育漢字 乗 の(る) 乗る ride, mount    f17#2.58
236rip, rend
破る(やぶる)、やぶらかす、やゆん、やりん
cf. 教育漢字 破・敗 やぶ(る) 破る、敗る、敗れる break, defeat 負ける    f17#2.64
cf. 【英】rend = 他動 引き裂く、ずたずたに引きちぎる、つんざく
【賛】vikRt (= 2. P. %{-kRntati} , (rare1y %{-kartati}) , to cut into or through , divide by cutting , tear or ★rend asunder RV. , %{-kartayati} id. (see %{-kartita}).) 引き裂いた
【賛】zvas, zvasiti, zvasati, -te (= , pp. {zvasta} 1 & {zvasita} (q.v.) [[-,]] blow, bluster, hiss, whistle, snort, breathe, sigh. I. only {zA3zvasat} snorting.--{abhi} blow hither, hiss, whistle, groan. {A, paryA, pratyA, & samA} get breath, recover, become quiet. C. quiet, comfort. {ud} hiss, pant, gasp, groan, sigh; breathe upwards or out; stop or pause from (abl.), recover; heave (intr.), get loose, open, expand. C. cause to take breath, refresh, lift up; tear, ★rend asunder, interrupt, disturb.) ズタズタ
237ripen, vi
cf. 教育漢字 熟 う(れる)  熟れる ripe, mature  f17#2.
238river
cf. 教育漢字 川、河 かわ river   f17_1#n.229
239road
cf. 教育漢字 道、路 みち path, road, way, street   f17_1#n.226
240root
cf. 教育漢字 根 ね root   f17_1#n.180
241rope
【趣】dim (= : n., bond, tie; ★rope 綱、ロープ (dam, 'spouse', modified by i, 'to sprout', that indicates long and narrow as in si)
     v., to make fast. ) 綱(つな)
【賛】dAman (= 3 n. (m. L.) string , cord , ★rope , fetter RV.) つな
【民】tAmai (= tethering ★rope for fastening cattle) つな
【民】tAmam (= 01 1. ★rope, cord, string; 2. line to tie cattle;) つな
242rot, vi.
腐る(くさる)
【宮古口】ふち /futɕi/多ふてぃ乚 /futiɭ/ 多與 友新 鏡 動詞 皆ふち、ふつぅん 〈全〉朽ちる
【賛】vizRR (= Pass. %{-zIryate} (aor. %{-zAri} RV.) , to be broken or shattered or dissolved , crumble or fall to pieces , waste away , ★decay RV. ; to be scattered or dispersed Hariv. ; to be severed from (abl.) R. ; to be damaged or destroyed , perish Mn. ) ふち/ふてぃ乚、くちる (v-k)、果てる(はてる)、腐る(くさる)
--
【民】keTu-tal (= 01 1. to perish; to be destroyed, annihialted; 2. to ★decay, rot; to beblight worn, out; 3. to fall on evil days, to be in straitened circumstances; 4. to degenerate, deteriorate, change for the worse morally; 5. to be emaciated, reduced deformed, disfigured; 6. to run away defeated; 7. to be elided, dropped) くち(朽ち)る、くさ(腐)
【賛】pAta (= ; ★decay of the body (%{deha-pAta}) , death Katha1s.) 果て(はて)
243row, vt
かんく、こぐ(漕ぐ)、
【民】kagku (= 01 1. ridge to retain water in paddy fields; 2. dam, anicut; 3. side of a bank or ridge; 4. limit, border; 5. ★row, regular order; 6. base of a palmyra stem; 7. cinder, glowing coal; 8. shred, piece) こぐ
244rub, vt
する、しるり、しゆん、しん、しぱぎ、しすんぐ、すすんぐ、そーんぐ、
2.2. Reconstructions for food production and preservation
    |--- (7) Proto-Transeurasian *suru- 'to grind, rub'
245ruler, carpenter square
ものさし、かに、ばんぞーがに、ばんじょうがに、かね、かにぬち、ばんどーがに、しゃく、じょうぎ、むぬぱかず
【十津川弁】さし   (= ①物指し ②さしで売る(入札でなく))
【民】stAti (= stadium スタディオン、スタディア◆古代ギリシャなどで用いられた長さの単位, a linear ★measure 線形の計り、直線定規、ものさし, approximately 600 feet) さし
【賛】seTa (= m. a partic. weight or ★measure はかり Col.) さし
【民】caTTappalakai (= 1. slate or board as enclosed in a frame; 2. flat ★ruler 平らな定規) さしはかり (l 無音)
【賛】saMsthA (= f. (ifc. f. %{A}) staying or abiding with (comp.) MBh. ; shape , form , manifestation , appearance (ifc. `" appearing as "') Up. ; established 指定 ★order 注文, standard , rule , direction (acc. with %{kR} or Caus. of %{sthA} , to establish or fix a rule or obligation for one's self "' ;) さし
【琉球】■ものさし〔物差し〕 / 関連語彙:ムヌサシー
【民】mAnasthiti (= f. `" right ★measure 正しい測定"' or , `" strong sentiment of honour "' (the latter fr. 1. %{mAna}) Sin6ha7s.) ムヌサシー
【民】stAti (= stadium, a linear ★measure, approximately 600 feet) さし【富山弁】
【賛】dezaka (= mfn. (ifc.) showing , pointing out ; m. shower , indicator (%{san-mArga-} Ma1rkP. ; %{dharma-} Pan5c. %{-mA7d-}) ; ★ruler , instructor L.) 定規(じょうぎ)
【賛】zalAkA (= ; a ★ruler W. ; ) しゃく(尺) (l 無音)
246run, v
ふぁしる、とぶ、はゆん、はしるり、はしゆん、ぱゆん、ぱん、ぴら、しけーしむ、ぱる、かけ、ふぁいん、ぱりぱるん、ぴず、まきしゃーり
cf. 教育漢字 走 はし(る) 走る run    f17#2.31
【賛】paripre (= (%{-pra} + %{i} , only pr. p. %{-praya4t}) , to ★run through on all sides RV. ) ぱりぱるん
【賛】visRSTa (= mfn. sent or poured forth , let go , allowed to flow or ★run , discharged , emitted , shed , cast , thrown , hurled RV. ;) ピズ
【民】pAy-tal (= ; 9. to ★run, dart, fly, flit across; 10. to hurry; ) ハユ
【宮古口】★とぅばす   (= 走る)
【宮古口】とぅばす /tubasɿ/ 與新 鏡 動詞 皆とぅばす、とぅばし、とぅばさん 〈皆、與、新、鏡〉 走る   〈全〉 飛ばせる
【賛】samupadru (= P. %{-dravati} (ep. also A1. %{-te}) , to ★run together towards , rush upon (acc.) 大急ぎ、突進 MBh.; to ★run up to , assail , attack) とばとる、とばす
【琉球】■ウーミカースン    (動詞)  一目散に走る。とっとと走る。うーミかースンともいう
c. 「とっとと走る」って、言うか?。「とっとと、うせろ。とっとと逃げた」とは、言うが。
【賛】viniSpat (= P. %{-patati} , to fall out of , fly forth from , rush forth , issue MBh. ; to fly or run away Mn. `" to double or ★flee or move crookedly 2倍の速さで逃げる, as a hare 野うさぎ、みたいに"').) ウーミカース (S-k)
【賛】anavastha (= a. unsteady 不安定な, ★fleeting  いつしか消え[過ぎ]去る、つかの間の、はかない、あっという間に過ぎ去る[◆時間の短さを強調する言葉。].) ウーミカース (v-k)
c. つまり「ウーミカース」とは、「一目散」、「とっとと」、「一瞬にして、即座」の意である。多分。
--
【賛】dru, dravati (= 1 ({-te}), pp. {druta3} (q.v.) run, hasten, ★flee; ; run away, ★flee, escape. {vipra} run asunder, also = {saMpra} run away, ★flee. {vi} run asunder or away, ★flee. C. drive away, chase, put to flight. {sam} run together. -- Cf. {vidruta}.) とっと
【賛】nivRt (= ; to turn away , retreat , ★flee , escape , abstain or desist from , get rid of (abl.) ib. ; to fall back , rebound R. ;) 逃げた (v-g)、逃げる (v-g)
【賛】atijava (= m. extraordinary speed 普通では無いスピード; (mfn.) , very ★fleet.) いちもくさん (v-k, +さん)
247saddle
くら(鞍)、ふら、ふだ
【民】kalai (= ~ 6. ★saddle of a horse ~) くらい → 鞍
【宮古口】ふら /fura/来かきヴら /kakiʋra/ 多與 皆友 新鏡 来 名詞 〈全〉鞍
【民】pallaNam (= ★saddle) ふらむん → ふら、くら (p-k)
【賛】palyANa (= n. a ★saddle L. (also %{-na} Gal.)) ふらナ
【賛】vaGka (= m. tramper 不定期船; f. {A} pommel 〔剣の〕柄頭。鞍頭。〔体操競技で使う〕鞍馬の取っ手 (of a ★saddle).) かき (v-k)
【民】viri (= 03 1. expanse; 2. fullness; 3. pannier for pack-oxen; ★pack-saddle 〔馬などの〕荷鞍 [= packsaddle];) ヴら ?
248salt
しほ、しお、ます
cf. 教育漢字 塩 しお salt   f17_1#n.209
sipu II (a ★salt)? 塩(しお・しほ)
【賛】saha (= kind of ★salt ) しほ
【賛】sevya (= ; ★sea-salt L. ;)
【民】cAriyal (= ★rock-salt) 塩の
【宮古口】まーす  (= 塩)
【民】man2On2maNittAy (= ★rock-salt 岩塩) マース
【賛】mAnasa (= ; (in law) tacit or implied consent W. ; a kind of ★salt Ka1tyS3r. ;) マース
249salty
しおかれ、しをがらか、からさり、から、かれ、しおはい、すからかむ、しぃからむぬ
【民】kAr-ttal (= 03 1. to be ★pungent, acrid, hot to the taste; 2. to be very saltish or brackish) からい(辛い)、かれ、から(辛)
【民】kARal (= 01 1. ★pungency; bitter musty flavour productin a tendency to hawk and spit; an itching sensation in he throat; 2. ★pungent substance, that which cause irritation in the throat) かれー (l 無音)
【賛】khara (= mf(%{A})n. hard , harsh , rough , sharp , ★pungent , acid (opposed to %{mRdu4} and %{zlakSNa4}) MBh. ;) から
250sand
cf. 教育漢字 砂 すな sand   f17_1#n.208
251sandals, straw
さば、ぞうり、しゃば
【賛】zAbara (= mfn. (fr. %{zabara}) wicked , malicious L. ; m. injury , offence L. ; Symplocos Racemosa Bhpr. (cf. %{sAvara}) ; N. of a teacher and of various wks. (cf. below) ; (%{I}) f. the dialect of the S3abaras Sa1h. Mr2icch. , Introd. ; Carpopogon Pruriens L. ; n. copper L. ; darkness L. ; a kind of ★sandal (cf. %{zAmbara}) L.) ぞうり、さば、しゃば
【民】ceruppu (= 1. leather ★sandals 革製サンダル, slippers スリッパ, shoe; 2. a mountain in pu1l6i-na1t2u) さば、しゃば
252sash
帯(おび)、副帯(ふくおび)、すぐうび、ふすうび、きゅううび、すぷうび、
【民】Appu (= 03 1. ★bandage, tie; 2. body) おび、うび
【十津川弁】いわえる   (= 結ぶ)
【賛】apobh (= ( %{ubh}) , (Imper. 2. pl. %{a4po7mbhata}) to ★bind 結ぶ, fetter AV. ) いわえ
【民】Arppu (= 1. loud, tumultuous noise; 2. laughter; 3. joy, exultation; 4. battle; 5. excessive pitch of a lute string; 6. ★tie 結ぶもの、ひも、靴ひも、ネクタイ, bondage; ) いわえ、おび【帯】
【琉球】■ヒチュービ    (= (名詞)  帯。)
【賛】paThitAGga (= m. or n. a kind of ★girdle BhavP.) ヒチューぎ △ --
【民】vampu (= 01 1. newness, novelty; 2. instability; 3. uselessness; worthlessness; 4. idle talk; gossip; 5. scandal; 6. evil word; 7. falsity; 8. base conduct; 9. indecent language; 10. deceit; 11. wanton act; dalliance; 12. quarrel; 13. comparison, similitude; 14. fragrance; 15. ★girdle, ★belt for the waist; ) おび(帯) (m 無音)、おんび
【宮古口】すぷギ /sɿpugɿ/多しゅぷギ /ɕupugɿ/友すぷず /sɿpudzɿ/ 多與 友新 名詞 〈皆、與、新、多〉帯、ベルト 〈鏡〉帯として使われる布
【民】tuvakku (= 03 1. ★tie; 2. chain; 3. connection; 4. attachment, love; 5. entanglement, tangle) すぷギ/しゅぷギ/すぷず、【宮古島キッズネット】そうふぎ
c. belt, band は、ハズレ。
253saw, n
のこぎり、のこ、のこぎー、のくじり、のおぎり、ぬぎり、がかい
【民】vilagkaram (= a ★saw, especially for conch-shells) のこぎりノ (v-n, l 無音)
【出雲弁】だんぎり   (= 大鋸(横引き用) ex. 腰鋸では無理だぁー。だんぎり持ってこい。 【= 腰鋸では無理だ。大鋸を持ってこい。】)
参考    腰鋸:小さな手曲がり鋸は鞘に入れ腰に吊るす
【賛】tAlaGka (= ; %{devI4@sva4dhitiH} , `" heavenly axe "' , thunderbolt) RV. AV. ; a ★saw 鋸(のこぎり) L. ; (according to some) a large tree with hard wood 固い材木の大きな木 RV. ) だんぎり (l-n, +り)
【十津川弁】こが   (= 鋸[のこぎり])
【賛】krakara (= m. id. Sus3r. ; (see also %{-tva}) ; (= %{krakaca}) Ardea virgo L. ; the plant Capparis aphylla L. ; a ★saw のこぎり L. ;) こが
c. この言葉もかなり珍しいと思う。
【魚】ガンド  (= 葉の目の粗い大きな鋸   ---  葉では無くて、刃または歯だと思う。)
【賛】kharadhAra (= mfn. having a harsh edge or one full of notches (like that of a ★saw 鋸(のこぎり)) 鋭いエッジまたはノッチがいっぱいのもの(鋸のようなもの) Sus3r.) がんど (r-n)
【琉球】■のこぎり〔鋸〕/ [首里・那覇方言]
関連語彙:ノーヂリー
〔大鋸〕ガガイ
c. インド弁に「ノーヂリー」似は、無い。 アッカド語、等に有った。
c. しかし、「ノコギリ」は、タミル語に有った。
【アッカド語】massaru (= "★saw" jB; bel m. (epith. of Ninsar); < nasdru ) ノーヂリー
【タガログ語、フィリピン語】maglagari (= ★saw, saw out, saw up) ノーヂリー  【動詞】
【タガログ語、フィリピン語】lagari (= jigsaw, ★saw, handsaw, whipsaw, armsaw) ノーヂリー (l-n)  【名詞】
【アゼルバイジャン語】mişar (= ★saw) ノージリー
【民】vilagkaram (= a ★saw, especially for conch-shells) のこぎりノ (v-n, l 無音)
【民】kIrkIren2al (= onom. expr オノマトペ表現、擬音. signifying creaking sound, as that of a ★saw when cutting timber 木材を切るときのこぎり音のようなきしみ音を示す; squeaking, screaming, squalling sound, as that of an infant) ガガイなの、ギーコギーコなの
【民】karukku (= 02 1. teeth of a ★saw, of a sickle; sharp edge of a newly ground cutting instrument; ) ガガイ、がるっぐ
254scale, measure
はかり、はかい、はかる、ちきり cf. 教育漢字 測・計・図・量  はか(る) 測る、計る、図る、量る measure, weigh   f17#2.14
【民】cagkili (= 01 1. chain, link; 2. land-measuring chain, gunter's chain 22 yards long; 3. a superficial ★measure of dry land==3. 64 acres; 4. a chain-ornament of gold, inset with diamonds; 5. hand-cuffs, fetters) ちきり
255scissors
はさみ
【宮古口】ぱさン /pasam/多ぱしゃン /paɕam/ 多與 新鏡 名詞 〈全〉鋏  〈新、友〉サソリ
【民】poTiveTTi (= goldsmith's shears or ★scissors 金細工の鋏またははさみ) はさみダ (v-m)
【民】poTiyIr (= ★pincers ピンセット) ぱさン/ぱしゃン (r-n)、はさみ (r-m)
【民】puccam (= 1. tail; 2. hinder part; 3. comet; 4. fold of a man's cloth, partly left hanging behind; 5. remainder or unexpired portion of a titi or a naks1atra ; 6. peacock feather; 7. ★scorpion's sting 刺すこと、針、とげ; 8. ★scorpion サソリ) ぱさン/ぱしゃン、はさみ
【出雲弁】ちんちゃくる  (= (ハサミで)切り刻む ex. こめ子にハサミ持たせーと何でもちんちゃくってしまう。 【= 小さい子にハサミを持たせると何でも切り刻んでしまう。】)
【賛】zaGkulA (= f. a kind of lancet ランセット◆外科手術で用いる両刀のメス or knife ナイフ Un2. i , 37 Sch. ; a pair of nippers ニッパー or ★scissors ハサミ (used to ★cut the areca-nut into small pieces) W. (cf. %{danta-zaGku}).) ちんちゃくる (z-ch, +ん)  100 点
【民】cetukku-tal (= 01 1. to ★cut off a surface, as in ★cutting grass; to pare, shave off; 2. to plane, hew with an adze, chisel) ちんちゃくる (c-ch, +ん)
【琉球】■パサーミン    (= (動詞)  挟む。)
【賛】vyavadhAna (= n. lying or stepping ★between, intercession, mediation, separation, distinction, interruption; also = seq.) パサーミ、挟む(はさむ)
--
【民】poTiveTTi (= goldsmith's shears 金細工の鋏(はさみ) or ★scissors ハサミ) ハサミだ (v-m)
【賛】pathin (= m. (strong stem %{pa4nthan} , older %{pa4nthA} ; ★middle 中間 %{pathi4} ;) はざま(間)
256scrape, shave, vt
削る(けずる)、きずん、きずゆん、そぐ、ひぐん、ひぎ
cf. 教育漢字 刊 カン、けずる、きざむ publish, periodical, carve, scrape   f17_1#n.479
【賛】kaS (= cl. %{kaSati} , %{-te} , to rub , scratch , ★scrape Pa1n2. : A1. to rub or scratch one's self ChUp. (pr. %{kaSamANa}) Vait. ; to itch (A1.) BhP. ; to rub with a touchstone , test , try Ka1s3. ; to injure , hurt , destroy , kill Dha1tup. ; to leap ib. : Caus. P. %{kASayati} , to hurt ib.) けず
【民】cetukku-tal (= 01 1. to cut off a surface, as in cutting grass; to pare, ★shave off; 2. to plane, hew with an adze, chisel) そぐ
【賛】vyAlikh (= P. %{-likhati} , to scratch at or upon , ★scrape against , touch , graze Kir. ; to draw lines , write Cat.) ひぐん、ひぎ
【賛】vilikh (= P. %{-likhati} (Ved. inf. %{-likhas} ; cf. Pa1n2.) , to scratch , ★scrape , tear up , lacerate La1t2y. MBh. &c. ; to rub against , reach to , touch Hariv. ; to wound (the heart) i.e. vex , offend S3Br. ; to scratch in or on , make a furrow or mark , write , delineate , paint Gol.;) ひぐん、ひぎ
【秋田弁88】かちゃぐ  (= ひっかく。「ねごからかちゃがえでしまた・・」「へ、ねごでねくてかかだでろ(^m^)」(猫からひっかかれてしまった。)(猫でなくて奥さんでしょ(^m^)))
【賛】kaS, kaSati, -te (= rub, scratch (M. scratch one's self or being [[-,]] scratched), hurt, destroy. -- {apa} scratch off. {ud} rub in, dye. {ni} rub in or ★scrape off.) かちゃぐ (S[=sh]-ch, t-k-g)
【京都弁】かする(掠る)  (= 残りなく取る・鍋や釜の底までこすり取る)
【賛】kaS (= cl. 1. P. A1. %{kaSati} , %{-te} , to rub , scratch , ★scrape こすり取る Pa1n2.: A1. to rub or scratch one's self ChUp. (pr. p. A1. %{kaSamANa}) Vait. ;) かす
257sea shell
あふわく、みゃんこー、ぐる、ぐー、くー
【賛】azvakhura (= m. a horse's hoof. Sus3r. ; a perfume (apparently a dried ★shell-fish) L. ; (i1) f. the plant Clitoria Ternatea L.) あふわく
【賛】mahAzaGkha (= m. a great ★conch-shell.) みゃんこー (+ん)、まはーんざこー (+ん)
【民】kauri (= 02 cowry, small white or yellow ★shell, used as a coin in some parts of India, cypraea mometa) ぐる、ぐー
258sea pig (dugong)
ジュゴン: 「ザン」、「ザンヌイユー」、ザンヴ、
【民】★nIrman2itan2 (= 1. ★dugong, a cetaceous mammal, halicore ★dugong , as having human physiognomy; 2. person who knows nothing of the affairs of the world, as if he lived in the sea) にーるまにざん ×
似ていません。
259season
季節(きせつ)、四季(しき)、節(せつ)
cf. 教育漢字 季 キ、すえ season   f17_1#n.216
cf. 教育漢字 弟 おとうと younger brother   f17_1#n.112
737.】 ★season kašādu (= : to arrive, reach, conquer 1) to reach , to arrive , to accomplish , to conquer (place, level, person, time, day, ★season) , to happen / occur / arrive / take place (event) ; kašādu +) 季節(きせつ)
   ★season - ša šatti (= 1) yearly ; 2) ★seasonal ;) 節(せつ) (sa 無音)
【民】kuRi (= 02 1. mark, sign, stamp, emblem, token, symbol, indication, designation; 2. aim, mark to shoot; 3. secret appointment by lovers, tryst; 4. goal, destination; 5. motive, intention; 6. suggestion, hint, insinuation; 7. doctrine; 8. omen, presage prognostic; 9. assembly, village council; 10. turu, occasion; 11. time, days ★season as in, now-a days; ) き、季、期 260sea urchin
261see, vt
見る
cf. 教育漢字 視・看・見・観 み(る) 視る、看る、見る、観る see, look, , watch, gaze, care,    f17#2.123
262seed, lineage
c. lineage = 血筋、血統。一族、種族。
cf. 教育漢字 種 たね seed   f17_1#n.203
【賛】janana (= mf(%{I})n. ifc. generating , begetting , producing , causing Mn. ; ; race , ★lineage L. ;) たね (j-t)
263seed
さね、さに
【宮古口】さに /sani/多しゃに /ɕani/ 多與 友新 鏡 名詞 〈全〉種 〈全〉 系統
【賛】sabIja (= mf(%{A})n. with ★seed or germ 〔植物の〕胚、芽、胚芽。ゲノム遺伝子 (lit. and fig.) , containing seed or germ (%{-tva} n.) MBh.) さびーじゃ → さに/しゃに (b-n)
264seedling, sapling
苗(なえ)
c. 【英】sapling 【名】 若木、苗木
cf. 上代日本語 (Old Japanese) の代表サンプル from wikipedia nami₂ 苗 不明 napa, nape₂  f17#on.25
【民】nARRu (= 02 ★seedlings reared 育てられた for transplantation 移植) なーっる → なえ
265sew
cf. 2.5. Reconstructions for textile production
      |--- (2) Proto-Transeurasian *nup- ‘to sew'
【民】ney-tal (= 01 1. to ★weave, as clothes; 2. to string; to link together) 縫う、縫い
【琉球】■ノーユン  縫う
【宮古口】ぬー /nuu/ 多與 新鏡 動詞 皆ぬー、ぬい、なーん 〈皆、與、多、新、鏡〉縫う
266sharpen, vt
   cf. 364.⬢whet, vt. と、ほぼ同一。そっちを見て。 --- 〔刃物などを〕研ぐ(とぐ)、磨く、けず る
267shellfish
めな、貝(かい)、みな、ぎーら、あさり、しぃな、ぴし、ぐー、ぐる
cf. 教育漢字 貝 かい shellfish, shell   f17_1#n.12
【賛】khura (= m. a hoof , horse's hoof Ka1tyS3r. Mn. (ifc. f. %{A} [g. %{kroDA7di}] MBh.) ; a particular part of the foot of a bedstead VarBr2S.; a sort of perfume (dried ★shellfish shaped like a hoof) L. ; (for %{kSura4}) a razor L. ; (%{I}) f. g. %{bahv-Adi} (not in Ka1s3. and g. %{zoNA7di}).) ぎーら、ぐる、ぐー
【民】karuviLai (= ★mussel-shell creeper ムール貝の殻のクリーパー) ぎーら
【賛】aNDadala (= n. ★egg-shell.) あさり、あんさり
【民】min2n2i (= 1. ★mussell-shell creeper; 2. a leguminous plant) みな、めな
【民】perugkuRaTTai (= 01 1. ★mussel-shell creeper; 2. indian birthwort) はまぐりダイ
【民】piTittATi (= cowry ★shell タカラガイの殻) ぴし
【宮古口】【島の散歩】しな (= 貝)
【賛】cUrNI (= f. the ★shell Cypraea moneta (one Kaparda 《貝》キイロダカラ◆学名);) しな (c-si)
【琉球】■かいがら〔貝がら〕 / 関連語彙:ナーヌプルナンプル
c. shell, clam, conch 全て ハズレ。  ---- 不明。 -- 有った。
【民】muraL (= a ★shell-fish) ナーヌ、ナン、めな、みな
【民】pIli (= 02 1. gold; 2. toe-ring of a woman; 3. small trumpet; 4. musical instrument; 5. large lance; 6. mountain; 7. fortification, wall of a fort; 8. ★shell of conch) プル
c. 貝と殻を分けている様だ。どちらも、 shell。or 貝殻は conch。  ---  疲れる。
【琉球】■ぬけがら〔脱け殻〕
関連語彙:グループルー, シディグルー
【民】kazaRRu-tal (= 01 1. to unfasten, loosen, unhinge, dislocate, unlock, unhook, unbolt, unscrew, unbutton, disentangle, extricate, disenmber; 2. to strip, take off, divest, dismantle, unrig; to ★slough off, as a snake, its skin; 3. to remove, to be freed, as from sing) グルー (z 無音)
【民】caTTaikazaRRu-tal (= to cast ★slough 抜け殻を投げ捨てる, as a snake 例えば、蛇の様に) シディグルー (z 無音)
【民】pollu (= 02 ★empty 空の glume or husk 殻 of grain) プルー
【民】pIli (= 02 1. gold; 2. toe-ring of a woman; 3. small trumpet; 4. musical instrument; 5. large lance; 6. mountain; 7. fortification, wall of a fort; 8. ★shell 殻、貝殻 of conch) プルー
【民】muktakajncukam (= snake which has cast off its ★slough) ぬけたかにゃすかん、ぬけがらすかん?
【宮古口】てぃらざ /tiradza/多てぃらじゃ /tiradʑa/来てぃらじゃ /tiradʑa/友ちらだ /tɕirada/ 多與 友新 鏡来 名詞 〈全〉巻貝
【賛】jalaja (= mfn. produced or born or living or growing in water , coming from or peculiar to water MBh. ; m. an aquatic animal , fish Gaut. ; Barringtonia acutangula L. ; sea-salt L. ; N. of several signs of the zodiac connected with water Di1p. ; (also n. L.) a ★conch-shell (used as a trumpet Hariv. ) ) てぃらざ/てぃらじゃ/てぃらじゃ/ちらだ
【宮古口】やどぅむや /jadumuja/多やどぅむ乚 /jadumuɭ/新鏡友やどぅむりゃ /jadumurʲa/ 多與 新鏡 名詞 〈全〉水字貝
Harpago chiragra 01.JPG
c. スイジガイ(水字貝) (wikipedia)
~沖縄県の名護市と宮古島市においては、シンボル(市の貝)として採用されている。~
c. Harpago chiragra, common name the Chiragra spider conch, is a species of very large sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Strombidae, the true conchs.    --- なので、conch で攻める。
【賛】vArdara (= n. (only L. ; cf. %{bAdara} ; prob. in some meanings from %{vAr} + %{dara}) the berry of the Abrus Precatorius or the plant itself ; the seed of the Mangifera Indica ; silk ; water ; a ★conch shell ホラ貝(の貝殻) (= %{dakSiNA7varta}) ; a sort of curl on the right side of a horse's neck (regarded as an auspicious mark) ; = %{-vIra} (prob. w.r. for %{vAri} ; cf. above).) やどぅ
【民】maRai (= 06 1. spiral 螺旋(らせん) of ★conch 巻貝の螺旋) むや/む乚/むりゃ
【宮古口】ぶら /bura/ 與皆 友新 鏡来 名詞 〈全〉法螺貝  (アダンの木の根っこみたいに)空っぽになっている細長いもの、筒
【賛】bAdara (= mf(%{I})n. (fr. %{badara}) belonging to or derived from the jujube tree Sus3r. ; made of cotton L. ; coarse (opp. to %{sUkSma}) S3i1l. ; m. or (%{A}) f. the cotton shrub L. ; m.pl. N. of a people Var. ; n. the jujube (= %{badara}) Sus3r. ; the berry of Abrus Precatorius or the plant itself. L. ; silk L. ; water L. ; a ★conch shell ホラ貝 which winds from left to right L. = %{●vAra} (N. of a plant or w.r. for %{vAri}?) L.) ばーだら → ぶら
【賛】vArija (= (water-born); m. ★conch-shell, n. a lotus.) ぶら
【民】purai (= 05 1. tubular hollow; 2. ★tube 筒, pipe パイプ; 3. windpipe; 4. small niche in a wall for a lamp; 5. defect, fault, blemish; 6. deep ulcer, sinus; 7. cataract; 8. falsehood; 9. theft; 10. lightness; 11. division or pouch of a bag; 12. division of a subject) ぶら
【宮古口】くー /kuu/ 多與 新鏡 名詞 〈全〉(卵、貝などの空っぽになった)殻
【賛】kapAla (= (%{as} m. L.) n. (%{kamp} Un2.) , a cup , jar , dish (used especially for the Purod2a1s3a offering) TS. (cf. %{trikapAla} , %{paJca-kapAla} , &c.) ; the alms-bowl of a beggar Mn. ; a fragment of brick (on which the oblation is placed) S3Br. ; a cover , lid A1s3vGr2.; the skull , cranium , skull-bone AV. ; the ★shell of an egg 卵の殻 S3Br. ; the ★shell of a tortoise 亀の甲羅 S3Br. ) くー (l 無音)、から、こうら
【宮古口】ぴしンな /pssimna/鏡ぴしンーな /pssimmna/ 多與 新鏡 名詞 〈全〉サザエ
c. サザエ turban shell ターバン貝、ターバンを頭に巻いた貝。 turban-snail    ハズレ。 なので、巻貝 conch で攻めた。
【賛】veSTana (= n. the act of surrounding or encompassing or enclosing or encircling (%{kRta-veSTana} , `" surrounded "' , `" beset "' ; cf. also %{aGguli-v-}) Gr2S3rS. ; anything that surrounds or wraps &c. , a bandage , band , girdle (%{-naM-kR} , `" to bandage "') MBh. ; a head-band , tiara , diadem MBh.; an enclosure , wall , fence Megh. ; a covering , case MW. ; a span Ma1rkP. ; the outer ear 外耳 (i.e. the meatus auditorius and ★concha 貝形模様の飾り) L. ; a kind of weapon L. ; a partic. attitude in dancing (either a disposition of the hands or crossing of the feet) W. ; a rope round the sacrificial post L. ; Pongamia Glabra L. ; bdellium L. ; = %{gati} (?) L.) ぴしンな/ぴしンーな
【賛】pAvanadhvani (= m. a ★conch-shell ホラ貝・巻き貝(の貝殻) L.) ぴしンな/ぴしンーな (n 無音)
【民】pAvan2attuvan2i (= ★conch) ぴしンな/ぴしンーな (n 無音)
--
【賛】susva (= ; m. a ★conch L. ; ) サザエ
【民】nIgkAtavOcaiyOn2 (= ★conch) 巻貝の

【宮古口】あまン /amam/ 多與 皆友 新鏡 来 名詞 〈全〉ヤドカリ  〈多〉蟹の総称
【民】alavan2 (= 01 1. ★crab 蟹(カニ)、ヤドカリ; 2. male crab; 3. cancer of the zodiac; 4. cat) あまン (l 無音, v-m)、【宮古島キッズネット】あまん
【宮古口】あまンぶに /amambuni/多ぎだ /gida/ 多與 皆友 新鏡 来 名詞 〈全〉踝骨、距骨(くるぶし)
【民】karaTu (= 01 1. roughness, ruggedness, unevenness; 2. churlish temper; 3. hillock, low hill; 4. ★ankle; 5. knot in wood; 6. turf; 7. that which is stunted in growth; 8. a variety of pearl) ぎだ
c. 「あまンぶに」は、不明 → 有った。  オバア さん、 thank you!
c. 【宮古島キッズネット】足首    あまんぶに
c. Google 検索「あまンぶに 沖縄弁」で、答え、を見つけた。  in 【宮古島キッズネット】 「方言おもしろ話」
cf. 「先生、ヤドカリ骨が痛いんです」   ~宮古島の方言でくるぶしの骨のことを、ヤドカリの貝殻の部分に似ているのでアマンブニと言いますが、アマンだけを訳してあげても、先生にはくるぶしをイメージすることができなかったようです。~
オバア、かなりいい線いってたけど、チョット ザンネン!
--
【賛】kulpha (= m. ★ankle.) くるぶ

268shoot, vt
うつ(撃つ)、い、いゆん、いる(射る)
【民】untu-tal (= 01 1. to push out, thrust forward; 2. to cast away; 3. to ★shoot, shy, discharge 排出する、放出する、送り出す、発射する, as an arrow 矢、矢を放つ; to fling, as a spear; 4. to drive, as a spear;) うんつ、うつ (n 無音)
【民】azuttu-tal (= 01 1. to press down, press hard, impress; 2. to encase, inlay; 3. to make firm, compact; 4. to insist on, affirm; 5. to plunge, immerse down; 6. to ★shoot) うつ
【賛】AvyAdhin (= mfn. ★shooting , attacking , wounding VS. ; (%{inyas}) f. pl. a band of robbers MaitrS.) いゆん (d 無音)、うつ
cf. 教育漢字 居・射 い(る) 居る、射る    f17#2.105
【民】iRu-ttal (= 03 1. to pay, as a tax, a debt; 2. to throw, as a spear; to fling; 3. to answer in reply; 4. to question, enquire; 5. to strain; to percolate, as a liquid; 1. to tarry, stay; 2. to pierce through 貫通, as an ★arrow; to gore, stab) いる(射る)
269shout, scream, yell
おらぶ、わめく、怒号(どごう)
cf. 教育漢字 鳴・泣く cry, weep, sing 叫ぶ shout   f17#1.161
c. 古語・動詞: おらぶ【叫ぶ, 哭ぶ】(古語・西日本特に九州地方の方言)さけぶ、大声を出すこと。
【趣】ér...pàd/pà (= : to burst into tears; to ★cry, weep ('tears' + 'to show').) おらぶ
【賛】Arava (= m. (Pa1n2.) ★cry , ★crying , howling ; crash , sound R. &c. ; noise ; thundering S3is3. ; (%{As}) m. pl.N. of a people VarBr2S.) おらぶ
【民】Arpparavam (= * roar, ★shout) わめくノ (r-m, v-k)
--
【賛】TaMkArarava (= m. ★cry , sound Ka1d.) さけぶ
270shrimp
不明 shrimp, prawn, lobster
【民】aripiLavai (= * ★cancer) いび、えび
【民】veLippuRRu (= ★cancer) いび、えび
271sickle
いらら、かま、はまー、いざら、いあら、がき、がっきぃえ、ずぁっら、いるーな、がっけ
【趣266.】sickle - kin [SICKLE] (140x: Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. urudkin; gin; kinx(|ŠE.KIN|); urudŠU.KIN "sickle" Akk. niggallu 鎌(かま) ◎ [= 金(かね)も兼務]
  - [ gàm: n., ★sickle; handle (like a circle + to be). v., to shine 輝く, glitter キラキラ (like a crown, aga(3), + to be). ] 鎌(かま)◎
c. これは、すごいことを言っています。 knife の kni の謎がと解けました。湾曲していて、光っている物。、ナイフです。
c. kn の「クネクネ」説にも当てはまる。 ex. knee /ニー/ 膝, kneel /ニール/ ひざまづく、= 屈む(かがむ)、湾曲・くねる。
cf. Canif, KNIJPEN, KNIPPEN --- オランダでは、 to cut は、 knippen と言う。
【民】arivAL (= 1. bill-hook; 2. ★sickle, garden knife) いらら
【民】kumal (= ★sickle 鎌) かま (l 無音)
【民】pan2n2arivAL (= ★sickle) はまーリヴァル
【民】pan2n2u-tal (= 01 1. to touse with the fingers, as cotton; 2. to do anything with consideration or skill; 3. to praise; 4. to speak, say, talk, declare; 5. to read; 6. to speak, talk or read haltingly, as a learner, a parrot; 7. to sing; 8. to play on stringed instruments; 9. to weave; 10. to cut 切る, reap 刈り取る; 11. to sharpen 鋭利にする, as ★sickle; to be close, thick, crowded) はまー
【民】vaTTattiruppi (= 1. velvet leaf, kidney-leaved bracteate moonseed, m. cl., cissampelos pareira ; 2. ★sickle-leaf; 3. worm-killer) イザラッピ
【民】karukku (= 02 1. teeth of a saw, of a ★sickle; sharp edge of a newly ground cutting instrument; 2. jagged edge of the palmyra leaf stalk;) がき、がっけ
【民】urOmi (= * ★sickle leaf) うろーみ → いるーな
【賛】dAtra (= 2 n. ★sickle, scythe 〔草刈りや刈り入れ用の〕大鎌◆長くて湾曲した片刃に、長い柄の付いた鎌。.) だーとら → ずぁっら
c. 素直に、全部有りました。 ワン。
272sieve, strainer
ゆる、とーし、ゆり、ゆい、しーな、ゆらし、ふり、ふるい、おろし、すいの
【民】vAru-tal (= 1. to take by handfuls; to take in a sweep; to scoop; 2. to take in or grasp with avidity; 3. to gather; 4. to remove, carry off in great numbers, as plague, flood, etc.; 5. to snatch away; 6. to rob, steal; 7. to dig and take up; 8. to winnow もみ殻を吹き分ける; 9. to ★sift, as with a ★sieve or by immersing in water; 10. to comb 櫛で梳(と)かす・梳(す)く, as the hair; 11. to play upon, as the strings of a lute; 12. to trim, as a palmyra leaf to write on; 13. to plaster, smear) ゆる、ふるい、ゆい
【民】pIrAy-tal (= 1. to scrape together; to gather together little by little; 2. to pick out, ★sift 〔小麦粉などを〕ふるいにかける, as stones from grain) ふるい
【賛】pavana (= m. wind (often personif.), N. of a man; n. instrument for purifying, ★sieve, ★strainer, etc.) ふぁヴぁな → ふるい
c. 英語の pure ピュア 、は、フルイ【篩】、だったんですね。勉強になりました。
【賛】cAlana (= n. shaking, wagging, loosening, pushing away; f. {I} ★sieve, ★strainer.) しーな (l 無音)、すいの、シーノー
【賛】titau (= s. ★sieve, cribble.) とーし
c. cribble アホ英辞郎に未登録。The meaning of CRIBBLE is sieve, strainer. ( by www.merriam-webster.com)
【民】arippeTTi (= * ★sieve) おろし
【琉球】■ふるい〔篩〕/ [首里・那覇方言]
関連語彙:シーノー,ユイ
◇シーノー /siinoo/ / (名詞)/ / 意味:/ / 篩(ふるい)。粉類をこすに用いる道具。/ / 参考:/ / 全国方言辞典「すいの 〈1〉目の細かい篩。粉ふるい。大阪・徳島・愛媛…。すいのー 対馬・熊本」/ / 関連標準語:/ / ふるい〔篩〕
◇ユイ /'ju'i/ / (名詞)/ / 意味:/ / 篩(ふるい)。穀物のあらをより分ける道具。/ ⇒ユンふるいでより分ける。/ / 関連標準語:/ / ふるい〔篩〕
【宮古口】てぃイ /tiɿ/多てぃ乚 /tiɭ/ 多鏡 来 名詞 〈多、鏡〉笊
【賛】titau (= s. ★sieve 笊(ざる), cribble.) てぃイ/てぃ乚
--
【賛】zarya (= m. arrow, dart; f. {A} reed, arrow, p matting of reed (on the Soma-★strainer).) ザルや
【民】callaTai (= ★sieve) ざるタイ
【秋田弁287】ぶごこ  (= ザルです。)
【民】pIrkku (= sponge gourd, ★strainer-vine (ざる、ろ過器)-(ブドウ、つる), s. cl., luffa acutangula) ぶごこ
273skein
c. skeinとは。意味や和訳。[名]1 かせ(◇糸巻きに巻き取った糸(束));かせ状のもの2 (飛んでいる野鳥の)群れ3 もつれ,混乱
【民】cITu (= ★skein of thread=8 kun1cam) かせ (c-k)
274sky
そら、てん
cf. 教育漢字 空 そら sky   f17_1#n.154
cf. 教育漢字 天 テン、あめ、あま、そら heaven, celestial, sky   f17_1#n.332
275slaughter, vt.
殺す、くもんはら、てんつお、「とさつ」の親戚?、
【賛】kharadUSaNa (= m. `" killing asses "' , the thorn-apple L. ; m. du. the two demons Khara and Du1shan2a R. ; %{-vadha} m. ★slaughter of those demonsN. of PadmaP.) ころしシャナ
【賛】ghanAghana (= mfn. (Pa1n2. ) fond of ★slaughter 大虐殺、大量殺りく, easily striking down , fond of 大好き strife RV.) くもんガナ (+ん)、がなーがな
【賛】zas, zasati, zasti (= , & {zAsti}, pp. {zasta} cut to pieces, ★slaughter.) とさつ
276slow
ねぶ、おせ、おすか、おしー、おすうぃー、おひか、にいいさん、ぬるさん、【名瀬】よでさり/ぬるさり jodesari / nurusari、どゅんなーはん、ねんさん、にいいせん、にう、にぶかる、にーばーんぐ、ぬびしゃる、ぬる、にぶ。
--- → コノ辞書、オカシイ。もう一回「slow」に関しては、調査し直し必要。
c. 素直に「おそい」「のろい」「ゆっくり」は無いのか。 「ねぶ」って何だ。「ニブイ」系か。
maru(m) I 199 maru(m) I, Ass. mar'u(m) (= "fattened, fat" [NIGA(=SE)]; "★slow", jB gramm. of Sum. verbal forms (opp. — » hamtu); < maru II) のろ
【賛】atUtuji (= mfn. not quick , ★slow RV.) 遅し(おそし)
【民】ozuka (= ★slowly) 遅か(おそか)
【民】mella (= softly; ★slowly; gently; quietly) のろい
【賛】mRdu (= mf(%{u4} or %{vI4})n. soft , delicate , tender , pliant , mild , gentle VS. ; weak , feeble AV. ; slight , moderate Sus3r. ; ★slow (gait 歩き方、足取り。進み方、進度) MBh.) ぬるし
【賛】cirakAra, -kAri, & -kArin (= a. acting ★slowly, delaying 遅延.) くらりくらり、のらりくらり、ぐずぐず (r-t, r-t)、ぐずの (r-z)
【琉球】ニーサン(にーさん)/ または:ニッサン ドゥンサン / / 意味/ 遅い/ 鈍いのろい/ とろい/ 解説/ 車の日産は速いですが、沖縄方言でニッサンは遅いという意味です。
【民】mantam (= 01 1. ★slowness, tardiness 遅延、遅刻; 2. dullness とろい, stupidity アホ, ignorance; 3. indolence, laziness; 4. meanness, worthlessness, smallness; 5. softness; freshness; 6. medium note, one of eight pa1t2ar6-payan6 , q.v.; 7. lowness of tone; 8. gentle wind, southern wind; 9. anomaly; 10. a pace of horse; 12. reciting a mantra in a tone audible to the reciter alone; 13. indigestion; 14. drunkenness) ニーサン
c. 「ニーサン」は、①遅い・のろい ②不味い(まずい)の二様ある。
①首里 DB: ニーサン   (形容詞) 遅い。のろい。速度がのろい。時間が遅い意味では、ウシサン uSisaN ともいう。また、ニンク niNku の項参照。
②首里 DB: ニーサン   (形容詞) まずい。食べ物がおいしくない。マコーネーン maakooneeNともいう。
【民】nIracam (= 01 1. anything insipid 〔飲食物が〕風味のない、味気ない、まずい, ★tasteless; 2. pomegranate) ニーサン
【宮古口】にヴ /niʋ/多にに乚 /niniɭ/ 多鏡 名詞 〈全〉寝ること
にヴ /niʋ/多にふ /nifu/ 多與 新鏡 形容詞 〈全〉遅い
c. 「遅い」は、多義語である。 slow 動作がのろい, delayed 遅刻する、遅れる、もう夜も遅い, late 後で。
【民】nin2RuvA-tal(nin2Ruvarutal) (= 1. to ★delay 遅延状態 in coming; 2. to come intermitently) にヴ/にふ
【琉球】ヨンナー(よんなー)/ または:ヨーンナー / / 意味/ ゆっくり/ 解説/ 慌てないでねというニュアンスで使う方言。/ 2回繰り返し「ヨンナーヨンナーしなさいよー(ゆっくりしてよー)」と使う事が多いと思います。
【民】oyyen2a (= 1. quickly; 2. slowly) おヨンナー、ヨンナー (o 無音)
c. steady は、ハズレだった。
【琉球】o■ヨンナー or ヨーンナーゆっくり [解説/ 慌てないでねというニュアンスで使う方言。/ 2回繰り返し「ヨンナーヨンナーしなさいよー(ゆっくりしてよー)」と使う事が多いと思います。]
【賛】jihmaga (= mfn. = %{-gati} , i ; moving ★slowly L. ; a snake , Sa1rn3gP.; cf. %{a-}.) ヨンナー (j-y, g-n) 【副詞】
【民】oyyen2a (= 1. quickly; 2. ★slowly) おヨンナー、ヨンナー (o 無音)
【チベ】yun ring /yün ring/ (= long [period of] time/ term, ★slowly, prolonged, protracted [IW] ) ゆん りんぐ
c. タミル語は、イイカゲン。 quickly 素早く、の、逆の意味も有る。タミル語の辞書は馬鹿辞書なので、信用出来ない。
--
■ニブイ dull/ stupid (鈍感・マヌケ) 系
【民】mappu (= 1. being overcast or cloudy; 2. indigestion; 3. bewilderment; beclouded state of the intellect, as by intoxication; 4. ★dullness; 5. arrogance) にぶ
【賛】nirbuddhi (= a. senseless, ★stupid, ignorant.) にぶし
277smell, vt.
かむく、かずん、かずむ、かざむ、かざすん、かび、かぶ、かぐ、におう、はばすん、かぶん
【民】kamakamaven2al (= an expr. signifying fragrant ★smell) かまかまべなる → かむく
【民】kuzainARRam (= unpleasant ★smell of rotten leaf or grass) くざいなーラム
【民】kavul (= 01 fetid odour; bad ★smell) かぶる、かぶん
【賛】kapUya (= a. ★smelling badly, stinking.) かぶーや、かび
【賛】kaTutA (= f. sharpness , pungency , S3a1rn3g. ; strong scent or ★smell Bha1m. ; harshness , coarseness Hariv.) かつたー
278smoke
【趣】gíbil: (= to ★burn; burning (gu7, 'to consume', + bil, 'to burn').) けぶる・いぶる
【賛】karamAla (= m. ★smoke (probably a corruption of %{khatamAla}).) けむり、からまーら
【民】karamAlam (= ★smoke (TLS)) けむり。からまーらム
【民】kumpu-tal (= 01 to become overburnt, charred smoked, as food when boiled with insufficient water) 煙(けぶり)
万10-1879 春日野に煙(けぶり)立つ見ゆ娘子をとめらし春野のうはぎ摘みて煮らしも
c. けぶり、は、有る。タミル系。
c. けむり、と、くもり、親戚ですね。
●102. 「火のないところに煙は立たぬ」 --- いろはカルタ
   [pAcaka, pAgku, pukai, pAyccal] 同音群 or [puRajncol/ kacapucal / tuzAvAram] 多音語
【賛】pAcaka (= mf(%{ikA})n. cooking , roasting , baking ベイク MBh.; causing digestion , digestive Sus3r. ; bringing to maturity Tattvas. ; m. a cook Gr2ihya1s. , (%{ikA} f. a female cook ; see below) ; fire L. ;) はーか
【民】pAgku (= 01 1. side, neighbourhood; 2. place, location; 3. equality, likeness; 4. goodness; 5. beauty, fairness;) はーく
【民】pukai (= 01 1. smoke, fume; 2. mist, haze; 3. vapour, steam; 4. sign of the guardian of the south east; 5. distance of a yo1jana ; 6. cataract of the eye; 7. distress; 8. flaw in a ruby; 9. incense; 10. gong struck while incense is burnt; 11. a hell) ふかい
【民】pAyccal (= 1. bounding, galloping, rushing; 2. jump, leap, spring, start, bound, prance; 3. springing forth; 4. current, stream, torrent; 5. issue, discharge, gush, as of tears; 6. overflowing; 7. irrigation; 8. butting; 9. disobedience; 10. piercing; 11. sheathing, as a sword; 12. rudeness; 13. an inauspicious position of a house) はーいかる (c-k)
---
【民】karamAlam (= smoke (TLS)) けまーらむ、けむり
c. [別解] ウワサ gossip で引いてみる。
【民】puRajncol (= gossip about the intrigues 〈文〉密通する of lovers; 2. slander) ひがにゃところ (R-g)
【民】kacapucal (= gossip about a secret, tittle-tattle) けむり、けぶり、けぶかる
【民】tuzAvAram (= malicious gossip, slander) たたねーの (V-n)
【津軽弁029】えぶて  (= 煙たい)
【民】Avi-ttal (= 01* 1. to open the mouth so as to express loudly; 2. to sigh, as expressing grief; 3. to gape, yawn; to let out, as ★smoke) えぶ
【津】えんぷて      煙い
【賛】ambhaHsU (= m. ★smoke L.) えんぶて
【秋田弁146】ししぶしで  (= 煙たい、細かい、きぶっせいな感じ・・ とりあえず、うるさ型の姑の存在??(;^◇^A)
【賛】sphIta (= mfn. swollen , enlarged Bhpr. ; thriving , flourishing , successful , prosperous , rich , well off , abounding in , full of (instr. or comp.) MBh. ; heavy (with rain , as a cloud) Mr2icch. ; dense 濃い (as ★smoke) 煙が濃い Ma1lati1m. ; much , abundant , many , numerous MBh. ; cold L. ; affected by hereditary disease W.) ししぶしで
【出雲弁】しぼる  煙ってよく燃えない、くすぶる ex. 炬燵の中でなんだいしぼっちょーぞ。はぐってみいや。【 = 炬燵の中でなんだかくすぶっているよ。はぐってみなさいよ。】
【賛】sphIta (= mfn. swollen , enlarged Bhpr. ; thriving , flourishing , successful , prosperous , rich , well off , abounding in , full of (instr. or comp.) MBh. ; heavy (with rain , as a cloud) Mr2icch. ; dense 濃い (as ★smoke 煙) Ma1lati1m. ; much , abundant , many , numerous MBh. ; cold L. ; affected by hereditary disease W.) しぼっちょ
【賛】vicchad (= 1 (1. %{chad}) , Caus. %{-cchAdayati} , to uncover カバーをとる、剥がす(はがす), unclothe (only ChUp. , as v.l. for %{-cchAyayati}).) はぐって (ch-k-g)
c. 秋田の「ししぶしで」と出雲の「しぼる」は、【賛】の sphIta つながり、と、判明しました。つまり、秋田弁と出雲弁は、言語的には近い関係。
c. インドのオリジナル音は、「しぼる」では無く、「しぼっちょ」似である。
【出雲弁】すもる  けむる(煙る) ex. くどがすもってけんたてえけん 【= かまどが煙って煙たくていけない】
【賛】sovAla (= mfn. blackish or ★smokecoloured , ★smoky L. ; m. ★smokiness ib.) すもる (v-m)
【糸島弁】すぼる  (= 火がくすぶる)
【熊本弁】すぼる  くすぶる,焦げる タキモンノ スボレヨル(焚き木がくすぶっている) スボラカス(焦がしてしまう) 名詞形がスボレ
【賛】sovAla (= mfn. blackish or ★smokecoloured , ★smoky 煙い L. ; m. ★smokiness ib.) すぼる
【土佐弁】 きりめくさい (煙臭い、煙たい)
【賛】karamAla (= m. ★smoke 煙 (probably a corruption of %{khatamAla}).) きりめ (l 無音)、けむり (r 無音)
【民】kuTi-ttal (= 01 to drink, as from a cup, from the breast; 2. to inhale, absorb, imbibe, as air, tobacco, ★smoke) くさい
c. この土佐弁は、「けむり」を「きりめ」とも発音する生きた化石。そして、当然インド弁に有る。
279snake
蛇(ヘビ)、ハブ、くちなわ、ながむい
cf. スワデシュ・リスト 207 蛇 へび   f20#s.49
【賛】haribhuj (= m. `" frog-eater 蛙喰い"' , a ★snake L.) ヘビ
【民】maNNAntai (= ★python (TLS)) まんなーんたい → まなたい → まむし
【民】pAmpu (= 1. ★snake, serpent; 2. ascending or descending node of the moon; 3. the ninth naks2atra ; 4. a muku1rttam of the day-time; 5. ropes of twisted reeds and straw with earth inside; 6. bank of a river or tank; 7. a kind of cymbals) ぱーむぷ → へぷ → へび
【賛】nAga (= m. (prob. neither fr. %{na-ga} nor fr. %{nagna}) a ★snake , (esp.) Coluber Naga S3Br. MBh. &c. ; (f. %{I4} Suparn2.) a Na1ga or serpent-demon (the race of Kadru or Su-rasa1 inhabiting the waters or the city Bhoga-vati1 under the earth ;~) 長(なが)、縄(なわ)
【宮城弁ミヤ77】くつはび  (= マムシ 蛇の「マムシ」のことです。)
【賛】gUdhapad (= nom. %{-pAd} m. `" hidden-footed "' , a ★snake L.) くつはび
【出雲弁】なふさ  (= 〔動〕アオダイショウ ex. 何と縁の下にがいななふさがおったわ。あーがこないだ、おしにわの上のツバメのヒナを食ったもんだわ。おおかた。 【= 何と縁の下にでかいアオダイショウがいたよ。あれがこないだ、玄関の土間の上(に吊るしてあったツバメの巣から)のツバメのヒナを食ったものだよ。おおかた。】)
【賛】mahAsarpa (= m. `" great ★serpent 大蛇"'N. of the Darvi1-kara ★snake ヘビ; n. N. of sev. Sa1mans A1rshBr.) なふさ
【出雲弁】はみ  (= 〔動〕蝮(まむし) ex. はみは 毒をもっちょー = 蝮は 毒を持っている)
【民】viri (= 03 1. expanse; 2. fullness; 3. pannier for pack-oxen; pack-saddle; 4. curtain; 5. ★viper マムシ; 6. malabar poon) はみ (r-m)
【民】viriyan2 (= 1. ★viper, daboia elegans ; 2. common sebesten) はみ (r-m)
【賛】bhujyu (= 2 f. (for 2. see col. 3) a snake or ★viper (cf. %{bhujaMga-ga} 1. %{bhoga} &c.) RV. (others `" a doe "') VS. ) はみ (j-m)
【民】peruviriyan2 (= russell's ★viper, ★vipera russelli) へみ、はんび、はぶ、はび
【出雲弁】ながもん  (= 蛇 ex. 畑でてご しちょったら、ながもんが出てきてぞんぞがはしった。 【= 畑で手伝いをしていたら、蛇が出てきて身震いがした。】)
同義語  【くちなわ】
【民】mAcuNam (= 1. ★rock-snake, pythonidae ; 2. ★snake 蛇) ながもん (c-k-g)
【博多弁・消滅寸前】ヤジラミ  (= snake 【青大将】)
【賛】azvalAlA (= f. a kind of ★snake L.) やじらみ (v 無音, l-m)
【民】vazalai (= 1. ground ★snake, lycodontidae ;) やじらみ (v-y, + み)
280snake, black
がらしへぶ、
【出雲弁】からすぐち, からすぐちなわ  (= 〔動〕クロヘビ(烏蛇) ex. からすぐちが日向ぼっこしちょった。 【= クロヘビが日向ぼっこしていた。】)
【民】karujncArai (= black ★rat-snake 蛇, zaoccys mucosus) からすくぢライ
【熊本弁】くちなわ  (= 蛇(へび) 「口の下が縄?」それとも「朽ちた縄か?」それとも? マムシはヒラクチと)
【民】kAttiravEyam (= ★serpent) くちなわ (r-n)
【民】kAttiram (= ★snake (TLS)) くちなわ
c. 出雲弁と同じ。【十津川弁】ぐちなわ  (= 朽縄 蛇) と同じ。
c. 【民】kAttiram 01 (= mungoose), 【民】kAttiram (= 02 displeasure, anger) と言うのもあるので、「くち」は、くって掛かる、怒る、かも知れません。
【十津川弁】ながむし  (= 蛇)
【民】makAviTam (= a small ★snake supposed to have heads at both ends 両端に頭があると想像されている小さな蛇) ながむしの (v-m)
【賛】mRgavyAdha (= m. a huntsman MBh. ; the dog-star , Sirius AitBr. ; N. of S3iva MBh. ; of one of the 11: Rudras MBh. ; %{-kathAnaka} n. N. of ch. of the Na1rada-puran2a (called also %{mRgo4pA7khyAna}) ; %{-sarpa-sUkara} m. pl. a deer 鹿, hunter 狩人, ★snake 蛇 and boar イノシシ MW.) ながむし(v-m)
【賛】nAgabhRt (= m. a species of ★snake 蛇の一種, Amphisbaena L. (cf. %{-bhid}).) ながむし (b-m)
【十津川弁】わぎたまる  (= とぐろをまく)
【賛】vyAvartana (= mf(%{I})n. averting , removing (cf. %{vigraha-vyAvartanI}) ; excluding Sam2k. ; n. turn (of a road) AV. ChUp. ; ★coil コイルを巻く、とぐろを巻く(of a ★snake ヘビ) Kir. ; turning away Sa1h. ; turning round , revolving , encompassing 取り囲む, surrounding W.) わぎたま る (v-g)  100 点 ◎
【民】takai-ttal (= 02 1. to check, resist, stop, deter; 2. to bind, fasten; 3. to wind round 輪を描く, ★coil;) とぐ
【宮古口】ぱヴ /paʋ/ 多與 新鏡 名詞 〈全〉蛇
【賛】pApAhi (= m. a ★snake , serpent MW.) ぱヴ、へび、【宮古島キッズネット】ぱぅ
【宮古口】すでぃぐる /sɿdiguru/ 多與 新鏡 名詞 〈全〉抜け殻
【民】caTTaikazaRRu-tal (= to cast 捨てる ★slough 抜け皮、抜け殻[◆特にヘビの], as a ★snake 例えば、蛇の) すでぃぐる (zz 無音)
281snake, blue-green
青大将(あおだいしょう)、
【賛】dvijarAja (= m.= %{-pati}. Hcat. ; the moon ; N. of a Bra1hman , S3rikan2t2h. ; N. nf Garud2a (king of birds) L. ; of Ananta (★serpent-king 蛇の王様) L. ; camphor L. ; %{-jo4daya} m. N. of wk.) 大将(たいしょう)
【奈良弁】かいとまーり。かいとまわり。  (= 青大将(蛇) 青大将のなかでも、特に、街中に出没するもののみを言う)
【賛】kasarNIra (= or %{kasarNI4la} m. a kind of ★snake AV.) かいとまーり (S-t)
【民】katam (= 01 1. anger; 2. scarcity, famine; 3. ★snake) かいとま
【十津川弁】あをなめっそう  (= 青大将)
【民】majncaTcArai (= 1. yellow rat-snake 青大将, zaolys mucosus ; 2. rock snake, bungarus fasciatus , as having yellow marks on the sides of its head) まにゃさとさーらい → なめっそう
【民】malaiccArai (= hill ★rat-snake) まらっそうらい → なめっそう
【民】nIrccArai (= a kind of ★rat-snake) なめっそう (r-m)
【十津川弁】のどひかり  (= 蛇の一種)
【民】neTujncArai (= ★rat-snake 《動物》アオダイショウ, ptyas mucosus) のどにゃかり (c-k) → のどひかり
cf. Rat snake (wikipedia)
c. 「のどひかり」とアオダイショウ (or Japanese ratsnake 《動物》アオダイショウ◆有鱗目ヘビ亜目。Japanese four-lined ratsnake 《動物》シマヘビ◆有鱗目ヘビ亜目) ---- 十津川村の皆さん、イメージ合っていますか?。確認して下さい。
282snake, grass
やわたろう、赤つから、赤パブ、赤トカラ、赤つから、たこーら、つけり、たこーら、とーらハブ、とかうら、つがら、とかをら、やじらみ、いーぐちなわ、ながむい
【民】pAmpu (= 1. ★snake, serpent;) はーんぶ、ハブ
【民】viTataram (= 1. ★snake, serpent, as poisonous) やじらみ
【賛】nAga (= m. (prob. neither fr. %{na-ga} nor fr. %{nagna}) a ★snake , (esp.) Coluber Naga S3Br. ;) なーが
【民】tirukkaraNam (= snake) ちるっからナム → とから、つがら △
【賛】darvIkara (= m. a kind of ★snake with an expanded hood.) たこーら
283soot
すす(煤煙)、ふぃしー、ふぃきちち、ふぶき
【賛】dIpocchiSTa (= n. `"lamp-sediment , ★soot.) すす
【民】pukaippaTai (= ★soot) ふかいぱったい
【宮古口】皆来っふてぃんく /ffutinku/多ふきつつ /fukitsɿtsɿ/友っふっす /ffussɿ/新っふつつ /ffutsɿtsɿ/鏡なびてぃんく /nabitinku/ 多皆 友新 鏡来 名詞 〈皆、多、友、新、鏡、来〉煤
【民】pukaippaTai (= ★soot 煤(すす)) ふきつつ
【賛】dIpasikhA (= f. the flame of a lamp-foe Katha1s. ; the point of a shining body , Lil. ; lamp-black , ★soot L. ; %{-kho7paniSad} f. N. of an Up.) っふてぃんく (s-t, +ん)
【賛】dIpocchiSTa (= n. `" lamp-sediment 堆積物、沈殿物、おり, ★soot.) っふっす/っふつつ、チンキだ (+ン)
c. 「なびてぃんく」は、不明。
c. 宮古在住の しもじよしお 氏からのコメント。
鳩摩羅童子さんが挙げている例に宮古口の「フフティンク」[ffutinku]があります。これについて一言。
 私が子供の頃、これを平良方言では「ナビピング」と言っていたように記憶しています。鍋底につく黒い煤です。カードゲームで負けた方にこれを塗って笑い合ったものです。「フフ」は「クロ(黒)」、「ナビ」は「ナベ(鍋)」から派生しています。両者の音形(発音)の違いは規則によって説明されます。「ティンク」や「ピング」については杳として分かりません。
c. コメントをもらい、さらに調べた。
【民】pukaikkUr (= ★soot 煤) ビング (+ン)
【民】picagku-tal (= to become ★dirty; to be soiled) ビング (+ン)
【民】tIpakkiTTam (= ★lamp-black ランプの黒) ちーぱっきタム → ちぃんくタム (+ん)
【賛】saMmagna (= a. immersed, ★sunk into (---). 没頭、沈没) チンキの
【民】tagku-tal (= 01 1. to stay, sojourn, abide, remain; 2. to be stable, to be firmly established; to be retained in the mind; 3. to exist; 4. to be under control; to be obedient; 5. to be diminished, abated, quenched, as thirst; 6. to halt; to wait; to delay; 7. to cease to flow, as the menses; to be obstructed, as water; to be stopped; to be fixed, as substance between the teeth; to adhere; 8. to be reserved or kept back; to remain due; 9. to settle at the bottom 底に落ち着く, as ★sediment 堆積物、沈殿物、おり; 10. to rely, depend; to be dependent) 付く(つく)、チンキ (+ン)
c. つまり、「てぃんく」、「チンキ」とは、「ヨードチンキ」「赤チン」のチンキ 、沈殿、である。多分。
--
【民】pukaikkUr (= ★soot) まっくろ (p-m)

Re to Re to Re 投稿者:しもじよしお 投稿日:2022年 3月 5日(土)17時43分0秒 編集済
 宮古・皆愛方言「フフティンク」や私の幼少時の記憶にある「ナビピング」はそれぞれ「フフ+ティンク」、「ナビ+ピング」と分析されますが、第二要素の「ティンク」(皆愛)と「ピング」(平良)についてはその由来を私は杳として分からないと述べました。
これについて、鳩摩羅童子さんから早速、投稿がありました。ありがたいことです。ただ、私には未だ分からないことが沢山あります。
 何故、平良方言の「ピング」がタミル語のpicagku-talやtIpakkiTTamに似ていると言えるのか。また、皆愛方言の第二要素「ティンク」がサンスクリット語のsaMmagna やタミル語のtagku-talに似ていると言えるのか。
「ティンク」を「ヨードチンキ」の「チンキ」ではないかと言うのは面白い指摘です。この語はオランダ語のJoodtinctuur、あるいは、ドイツ語 のJodtinkturが語源のようです。要するに、「チンキ」と「ティンク」は皮膚に付ける点(前者は怪我治療のため、後者は悪戯のため)で共通性があります。 だが、もしそうだとすると、「ティンク」は非常に新しい借用語で、本来、宮古・皆愛方言にはなかったと言うことになります。これを一部根拠に日印語同系論を主張することはできないと思います。

c. 【追伸】「煤(すす)」という単語を昔の資料に検索を掛けていたら、下記が見つかった。
ふせやたき ḫa-ḫa-a ša diqāri 鍋のスス ;枕詞語源
ふせやたき→「すす」
 ・「伏せ屋で火を焚く」時の様子から。
シカゴ大・アッカド語辞典 【ḫuḫû s.; ★slag; OB*; cf. ḫaḫû A.
[an].zaḫ.lû = ḫu-ḫu-[u] , ḫu-ḫi-a-a-am ša pa-ḫa-ri = ★slag of potter's (kiln)

ḫaḫû A. 用例 alaqqakkimma ḫa-ḫa-a ša utūni um-mi-nu ša diqāri = I shall take against you slag from a kiln, ★soot スス from a cooking pot.

Black コンサイス辞書
hahu I, huhu(m) (= "★slag, clinker 溶けて塊となった燃え残り" O/jB, of potter; from oven) ふふ
「ふふ」という単語がそのまんま東で、アッカド語にあることが分かる。
また、
tldiglkimu, MB also dikenu (= "★ashes" M/jB, NA [DE] NA ;. Sa uhulu "potash"; jB ;. Sa diqdri "ceramic ★slag"?; jB also (a plant)) ティンクきむ
【英】slag = スラグ。《鉱物》スラグ、鉱滓。[スラグ(slag)あるいは鉱滓(こうさい)は、鉱石から金属を製錬する際などに、冶金対象である金属から溶融によって分離した鉱石母岩の鉱物成分などを含む物質をいう。]
【英】clinker = クリンカー。クリンカー、溶滓◆石炭などを燃焼した後で、溶けて塊となった燃え残り。
c. slag は、インド辞書に未登録。しかし、 ash 灰は、調べたら、「ティンカ」似があった。
【民】tirunIRRukkAppu (= 1. sacred ★ashes rubbed on one's forehead by a great person, as a charm; 1.魅力として、偉大な人が額にこすりつけた神聖な灰。 2. sacred ashes 2.神聖な灰) てぃんかーっぷ、ちぃるにーるかっぷ
【民】tirunARu (= sacred ★ashes (TLS)) チィルナールー、ちぃむにー?(煙突)
c. 宮古・皆愛方言「フフティンク」は、「フフ」はアッカド語、そのまんま東。「ティンク」は、タミル語の灰。で、男の勇者がおでこにこすり付ける聖なる灰の事であった。
なので、宮古の子供たちが、煤を顔に塗る行為を、「フフティンク」と呼ぶ慣習は、インドの由緒正しい、勇者のおでこに灰をこすり付ける儀式行為を継承している、と言える。--- みたいです。
c. やはり、沖縄県あるいは、宮古島として、サンスクリット語とタミル語に長けたインド人学生を雇って、宮古弁を総チェック掛けてもらうと良いと思います。
284soup, broth
汁(しる)
2.2. Reconstructions for food production and preservation  in 補足資料 5
    |-- (5) Proto-Transeurasian *silɔ ‘broth, soup, juice; liquid food extracted from vegetables, fruit or meat’
285sour
すい、しーか、すっぱか、しーせん
cf. 1⬟acidic
cf. 教育漢字 酸 サン、すい、す、つらい sour, acid, vinegar, tart    f17_1#n.493
(3) Proto-Transeurasian *sü:- ‘to reduce/preserve food by fermentation’  -- 酢、系。
赤 Akkadiansappatu, sabbatu, NB also sappatu (= (a pottery vessel) OB(Alal.), M/NA, j/NB for wine, ★vinegar; NB also of bronze ?; < sappu) すっぺーダ、スッペー
【賛】sauvIraka (= m. = %{sauvIra} MBh. ; a contemptible Sauvi1ra MW. ; N. of Jayad-ratha ib. ; the jujube tree L. ; (%{ikA}) f. id. L. ; (%{am}) n. ★sour gruel MBh.) しーか
286south
はえ、はい、みなみ
cf. 教育漢字 南 ナン、ナ、ダン、みなみ south, southern    f17_#n.364
【宮古口】ぱいかじ   (= 南風)
【賛】puras (= ind. in front 前, in advance , forward ; (as prep.) before (of place and time) , in the presence or before the eyes of (gen. abl. acc. or comp.) RV. ; in comparison with (gen.) Vcar. ; in or from or towards the east , eastward VS. (%{dakSimataHpuraH} , towards the ★south-east MBh.) ; previously , first , first of all Ratna7v. [Cf. %{pra@purA} , %{pUrva} ; Gk. , $ "' , before. "']) プレ、ぱい (r-y)、まえ (p-m)
287sow seed, vt
蒔く(まく)--- 種をまく。
cf. (5) Proto-Transeurasian *pisi- ‘sprinkle with the hands, sow’
288spade
さぷ、すき、スコップ、ショベル、ばふやま、うしぬやま、ばく、ぶこち、さぴ、ぴら、うしやま、おこし
3. Language contact in the Bronze Age (in 補足資料 5)
  |--- Ancient borrowings from a Proto-Tungusic model
    |--- (3) PLOUGH  鋤(すき)と 鍬(くわ)
【賛】sAbhri (= mfn. together with a hoe or ★spade Ka1tyS3r.) さぷ、さぴ
【民】veTTuvAyan2 (= ★spade (TLS)) うしのやま (v-n)
【民】uzavan2 (= 1. ★ploughman, agriculturist; 2. member of the ★ploughing class in an agricultural tract; 3. member of the su1dra caste; 4. member of the cultivating division of the Vaisya caste; 5. ★ploughing ox) うしやま
【賛】phAla (= m. (*n.) ★ploughshare or a kind of shovel;) ぴら
【賛】uSTa (= or {u3STTa} m. ★plough-bull.) うし(牛)
【民】uzavukaTTi (= clods 塊、土、土壌 in a ★ploughed field) うしぶこち
289sparrow
すんすむれ、スズメ(雀)、ゆみんどり、くらあ、はどぅい、ゆんどぅい、かーらは、ぬむらーま
【賛】kAlapucchaka (= m. a species of animal living in marshes Sus3r. (cf. %{asita-pucchaka}) ; a kind of ★sparrow Npr.) かーらはチカ、くらあチカ
【賛】sunAra (= m. the milk of a female dog L. ; the egg of a snake L. ; a ★sparrow 雀 L.) すずめ (n-z, r-m)
290spear
【チベ】ral gri (= sword, ★spear, rapier, hunting knife, dagger [JV]) やり、やじり
【民】veLLilai (= 02 sharp edge, as of a ★spear) やり
291spider
【賛】kRmi (= or %{kri4mi} m. (fr. %{kram} Un2.) , a worm , insect VS. ; `" a ★spider "' (see %{-tantu-jAla}) ;) クモ、蜘蛛
---
【賛】kaMda (= m. `" water giver "' , a ★cloud L.) 雲ダ
---
■ささがね 【枕詞】 【趣】■シュメール語
sa-šú-uš-gal (= : huge net ('cord, ★net' + šúš/šú, 'to cover' + 'big').) さ・しゅしゅがる → ささがね (l-n) ◎ [= 巨大な網]
【趣】sa (= : n., sinew, tendon; cord; ★net; mat; bundle; string of a musical instrument [SA archaic frequency: 54; concatenates 2 sign variants].
v., to roast (barley) (cf., si; sa).) ささ
】■ささがね・ささがに saskallu(m) (= ★net) @アッカド語 from シュメール語 意味 = (捕獲用)網、蜘蛛の巣、網を使う人
【民】calakam (= spider 蜘蛛(TLS)) さらかむ
【賛】jAlakAra (= m. `" webmaker 蜘蛛の巣メーカー"' , a spider Katha1s. lxx , ci.) ちゃらから
c. 「蜘蛛」の枕詞「ささがね」はタミル語からのみでなく、サンスクリット語からも容 易に導出可能である。
c. タミル語の「ca サ」も、サンスクリット語の「ja チャ・ジャ」も、空耳アワー的には同音である。 R/L のラ行は 反復記号。
ex. カーカーカー 、は、カ ラ(反復の R)ス(複数の S)に、化けます。
c. 「ささがね」、は、「さかな」と親戚です。 net 網(あみ)のことを、指すんです。魚(さかな)は、網で漁をして取るんです。 net は web(クモの巣、網)を指します。
【大分弁】えばり (= <名>[意] 蜘蛛の巣)
【賛】ve (= 1 (cf. %{Uy}) cl. 1. P. A1. (Dha1tup. xxiii , 37) %{va4yati} , %{-te} (pf. p. %{vavau} or %{uvAya} ; 2. sg. %{uvayitha} Gr. ; 3. pl. %{vavuH} ib. ; %{UvuH} RV. ; %{UyuH} Bhat2t2. ; A1. %{vave} , %{Uve} , %{Uye} Gr. ; aor. %{avAsIt} , %{avAsta} Gr. ; Prec. %{UyAt} , %{vAsISTa} ib. ; fut. %{vAtA} ib. ; %{vAsyati} , %{-te} ib. ; %{vayiSya4ti} RV. ; inf. %{o4tum} , %{o4tave} , %{o4tavai4} ib. ; %{vA4tave} AV.) , to weave , interweave , braid , plait (fig. to string or join together artificially , make , compose e.g. speeches , hymns) RV. &c. &c. ; to make into a cover , into a ★web or ★web-like covering , overspread as with a ★web (said of a cloud-like mass of arrows filling the air) Bhat2t2.: Pass. %{Uyate} (aor. %{avAyi}) Gr.: Caus. %{vAyayati} ib.: Desid. %{vivAsati} , %{-te} ib.: Intens. %{vAvAyate} , %{vAveti} , %{vAvAti} ib.) avAyi あヴぁーい → あヴぁり → えばり
【出雲弁】えぎ  (= 《名》くもの巣 ex. けー、蜘蛛がえぎ張っちょー さがって、顔ね ふっついた がの。 【= もー、蜘蛛が巣を張ってい やがって、顔に ひっついた よー。】)
【賛】vAgurA (= f. snare わな, ★net 網, trap.) えぎ
【出雲弁】いぎーはー(えぎはー),いぎを引く   (= (蜘蛛や納豆などの)糸を引く ex. 野焼きがいたんで、いぎーはーちょーよ。 【= 野焼きが腐って、糸を引いているよ。】)
【民】accuppUTTiyizu-ttal (= to pass the ★thread 糸 through the loom) いぎーはーちょー (c-k-g)
【民】ekkiyOpavItam (= sacred ★thread worn over the shoulder by men of the twice-born castes) いぎーはータム
【熊本弁】こぶ  (= くも(蜘蛛)/昆布 kumoがkobuのように,uとo,bとmの音変化は多い。朝鮮語ではkom,関連は? 黄白の横縞入りをシマコブと)
【民】kAvan2 (= ★spider スパイダー、蜘蛛) こぶ
【民】kampi (= 01 wire of gold, silver, iron or other metal; 2. kind of ear-ing; 3. bit of a horse's bridle; 4. narrow ★stripe 縞模様 along the border of a cloth;) コブ
【民】tAraikavaNi (= a fine variety of ★striped muslin) シマコブの (r-m)
【民】civval (= ★sea-weed 昆布) こぶの (c-k)
【熊本弁】やね  (= くもの巣/やに(脂) 屋根(?) 頭にコブのヤネんヒッツイトルばい(頭に蜘蛛の巣が引っ付いてるよ)/松ヤネ(松やに)) 【賛】jAla (= 1 n. net, ★web 蜘蛛の巣, springe, snare, coat or helmet of wire, grate, lattice, (lattice-) window, the membrane between the toes of waterbirds (supposed also to exist between the toes and fingers of godlike personages), mane (of a lion); collection, multitude.) やね (j-y, l-n)
【民】kAvan2 (= ★spider スパイダー、蜘蛛) コブ
c. 英語で、蜘蛛の巣は、 cobweb, web と言う。
【博多弁消】エンバリ  (= web, spider, weave 【蜘蛛の巣】)
【賛】avaprajjana (= %{am} n. ( %{pRj}) , the end of the warp of a ★web 蜘蛛の巣 (opposed to 2. %{pra-vayaNa} q.v.) AitBr.) えんばり (+ん) じゃね
【賛】UrNavAbhi (= m. ★spider 蜘蛛 (wool-weaver).) えんばり (h-r)
【十津川弁】あば  (= 蜘蛛の巣 流材を捕捉する設備)
【賛】Ave (= 1 P. %{-vayati} , to ★weave 〔織機で布を〕織る、作る。〔クモの巣などを〕かける、張る、作る on to ; to interweave , string ; to sew loosely AV.) あば、えば
【賛】avaprajjana (= %{am} n. ( %{pRj}) , the end of the warp of a ★web 蜘蛛の巣 (opposed to 2. %{pra-vayaNa} q.v.) AitBr.) あば..、えんばり (+ん) じゃね
c. 【大分弁】えば【蜘蛛の巣】、【博多弁】エンバリ 【蜘蛛の巣】
【十津川弁】たんじょうろ  (= (虫)蜘蛛 田女郎蜘蛛)
【賛】trimaNDalA (= f. (scil. %{lUtA})N. of a venomous ★spider 毒グモ Sus3r.) たんじょうろ (r 無音)
【十津川弁】はいとりぐも  (= 表面格好ばかりで実力ないこと 剣道の下手なものも称す)
【民】paTTAgku (= 1. changeless, natural state; 2. truth; 3. scriptural text; 4. jest, farce, waggery; ★specious うわべはよく見える、見掛け倒しの falsehood 偽り, sophistry 〔人を欺くための〕詭弁、屁理屈; 5. printed cloth worn by women) はいとりぐも (+り, +も)
【民】pEtakamaNi (= ★borax 見掛け倒しの安物商品◆特に家具の) はいとりぐもの (+り)
c. 「蝿取り蜘蛛」か?。
c. 「インチキ」も有った。
【民】intirajnAlam (= * 1. magic art; 2. specious doctrines 教義, such as those of heretics 異教徒; 3. name of the chariot of Su1ra-Padma) いんちらにゃーらん、いんちきじゃな
【民】iTagkaNam (= * ★borax) いんちきもん (+ん) 【十津川弁】みすじ  (= 女郎蜘蛛の一種 三本の白黒線あるによりかくいえり)
【民】nIrccilanti (= a kind of ★spider クモ (TLS)) みすじ (l 無音) 【魚津弁】クボノヨズ  (= 蜘蛛の巣)
【民】kAvan2 (= ★spider クモ) くぼの
【賛】vayas (= 1 n. a ★web (?) 蜘蛛の巣 RV.) よず
【琉球】■フブ    (名詞)  蜘蛛(くも)。 【民】paRaippUcci (= a kind of ★spider) フブぷっし (R 反復)、フブむし (R 反復, p-m)
【民】valaippUcci (= ★spider) フブっち (l 無音)
【宮古口】ふむ /fumu/皆くむ /kumu/多くヴぅ /kuvu/與くン来 /kum/ 多與 友新 来 名詞 〈全〉蜘蛛
【民】paraNi (= 1. the second naks2atra , part of aries; 2. a poem about a hero who destroyed 1000 elephants in war; 3. the sixth of the 15 divisions of the night; 4. oven, fireplace; 5. jewel casket, small box; 6. a kind of jar; 7. a ★spider's web 蜘蛛の巣; 8. sluice of a tank; 9. dance) ふむ
【賛】kRmi (= m. worm, esp. silk-worm, mite, ★spider, insect i.g.; a man's name; f. a woman's name (also {kRmI}), N. of a river.) くむ/くン
【民】kAvan2 (= ★spider) ふむ/くむ/くヴぅ/くン
292spin (thread), tv
紡ぐ(つむぐ)、うむゆん、むー、よる
'spindle' (5) proto-Transeurasian *tɔmʊ- 'to spin’
Proto-Japonic *tumu 'spindle'

【民】uruL(Lu)-tal (= 01 1. to turn about, as dice; to roll, tumble over and over, revolve on a plane, as a wheel; to ★spin, whirl round, as a discus; 2. to become round, to grow globular; 3. to perish, die, as in battle or by an epidemic, to become extinct; 4. to go, proceed) うむ (L-m)
【民】nUl-tal(nURRal) (= 01 1. to ★spin; 2. to compose, as a poem; to make a plot) むー (l 無音)
【民】vala-ttal (= 01 1. to encircle, surround; 2. to ★spin, as a spider its thread; to plait; to weave; 3. to string in a series; 4. to tie, bind; 5. to bend) よる
293(be) split
われ、ばれ、うがれ、つっがる
cf. 教育漢字 割 わ(る) 割る split    f17#2.89
【賛】vikRR (= P. %{-kirati} , to scatter , throw or toss about , disperse Mn. ; to dishevel BhP. ; to pour out , utter , heave (sighs) Gi1t. ; to tear asunder , cleave , ★split , rend , burst Mun2d2Up.) うがれ (v-w)
【賛】dvedhAkriyA (= f. breaking or ★splitting in two Mcar.) つっがれ
c. two vai , duai double, だって。 divide だって。
294split open, vt
割る(わる)、割り、わゆん、ばる、ばり
cf. 教育漢字 割 わ(る) 割る split    f17#2.89
c. 「bar」 ばる、わる  「vil」 ばる、わる の両刀使い。 (p-b|w) の音通。
295spoon
匙(さじ)、かい、あっかいな、しっかい
cf. ナッシーの語源帳 【日】匙 (さじ) を投げる   f21#573
【民】akappai (= ladle, large ★spoon with long handle, usu. of coconut shell) あっかい
【賛】Ayavana (= n. a ★spoon (or similar instrument) for stirring AV.) あっかいな (y-ki)
【賛】khaja (= m. stirring , agitating , churning Car. ; contest , war (cf. %{-kR4t} , &c.) Naigh.; a churning stick MBh. ; a ★ladle , ★spoon L. Sch. ; (%{A}) f. a churning stick (`" a poker "' Sch.) MBh. ; a ladle L. ; the hand with the fingers extended L. ; churning , stirring W. ; killing L.) かい(櫂)
c. 【英】ladle レイドル、おたま、ひしゃく
【民】cavaL (= ★oar オール (TLS)) かい (c-k)
【民】tAzajncagku (= 1. conch having a wide mouth; 2. a conch used as ★spoon in feeding children 子供を養う際にスプーンとして使用される巻き貝) しっかい
296spring, n
うる、はい、はる(春)、うるじむ、
【民】URRu (= 02 1. flowing, gushing forth, as blood from an artery, milk from the udder; pouring of rut from a must elephant; 2. ★spring 泉, fountain; 3. moisture oozing from the ground) うる
【民】URu-tal (= 01 1. to ★spring, flow 流れる、湧き出る, as water in a well to issue;) うる
【賛】phalgu (= mf(%{U84} , or %{vI})n. reddish , red TS. ; small , minute , feeble , weak , pithless , unsubstantial , insignificant , worthless , unprofitable , useless VS.; f. Ficus Oppositifolia L. ; a red powder usually of the root of wild ginger (coloured with sappan wood and thrown over one another by the Hindu1s at the Holi1 festival ; cf. %{phalgU7tsava}) W. ; the ★spring season 春の季節 L. ; ) はるく、はる (g 無音)
【民】pAy-tal (= 01 1. to ★spring, leap 跳ねる, bound, gallop, prance; ) はい
c. 「うるじむ」 系は無い。
297sprout, bud, vi
萌える(もへる、もえる)
【民】muRi-tal (= 04 to ★sprout) 萌え
【賛】muJjavalza (= m. a shoot or ★sprout of Munja-grass S3Br.) むにゃじゃヴぁぁるしゃ、もへる
298squid
c. イカ squid で「イカ」似は無かった。 octopus も調べようとしたら、有った。
【民】cAkkukkaNavAy (= species of ★squid イカ, ★octopus タコ vulgaris) タコイカナヴァーイ (c-t)
c. 尚、NavAy は下記である。
【民】nAvAy (= 01 blighted 荒廃した grain) なーヴぁーい
【民】nAvAy (= 02 1. vessel 容器, ship 船; 2. the 27th naks2atra) なーヴぁーい
299staff
ぐさみ、杖(つえ)、ぐさん、ぐしゃん、ぐすやん、せぼ   --- つえ、以外、聞いたことが無い。何なのコレ。
c. staff は多義語。職員と杖。作者はどっちの積りでこの辞書整理したの。?。しかし、杖だと、stick, bar があるので、職員・部員・社員のつもり、だろう。多分。
不明  ---- pending 扱い。--- 判明。
【趣】ĝišĝidru, ĝidri[PA](= : stick; ★staff; scepter; stick used to measure the height of a pile of grain (ĝiš,    'wood', + dúru, 'low end, base' where stick was thrust to the base of a grain pile; cf., duru6 reading of PA    and še ĝiš-è-a).) ぐさみ (r-m)
hutaru, NB also huturu (= "branch, stick; ★staff j/NB, NA [GlS.GIDRU] NA in sa h. (an official 公僕、官吏); NB (a type of soldier 軍人); NB also d H., deified in cult; > hutartu) ぐさみ (r-m)、はたらく (+く)
【趣】ĝiššibir, sibir(= : n., shepherd's ★staff ending in a curved end, i.e., a crook; also such a ★staff used by a    god or king as a scepter (sipad; šuba, 'shepherd', + re7, 'to lead; to bear').    adj., slanted, crooked.) せぼ、スバル(昴)
sibirru(m), sipirru, occas. sibirru(= "shepherd's staff; sceptre" Bab., M/NA [GlS.SIBIR] "staff' carried by shepherds (as weapon); of gods, kings "(ceremonial) staff, sceptre", with crown or mace (hattu); of ivory, among booty; < Sum.) せぼ、スバル(昴)
【民】koTijnci (= 1. ornamental ★staff in theform of a lotus, fixed in front of the seat in a chariot and held by the hand as support; 2. car, chariot) ぐさんシ、ぐさみ
c. staff の原意はやはり、杖、職員は二義的意味。一義は、杖となり働く人の意。
c. 「せぼ」と「スバル」は、同源です。
300steal, rob, st.
盗む(ぬすむ)、ぬすむん、とる、おっと、おっとる
【賛】moSa (= m. (2. %{muS}) a robber , thief , plunderer BhP. Gi1t. ; robbery , theft , ★stealing , plundering Mn. Var. &c. (also %{A} f. L.) ; anything robbed or stolen , stolen property Mn.) ぬす
【賛】moSaNa (= a. (---) & n. robbing, ★stealing.) ぬすみ
【賛】cUr, cUrayati (= ★steal 盗む(ぬすむ)、奪い取る.) 取る、盗る(とる)、とりよった
cf. アルタイ諸語 語彙対応比較表 #106 【英】 to get (取)     f17_1#al.106
【民】vETTuviTu-tal (= to ★steal, rob; 2. to fib 小さな[罪のない・軽い]うそをつく) おっとおつ
301steam, n
けぶし、えき、ゆげ(湯気)、あちき/あちーき、ほけ、きふし、いっき
【賛】kuzaRpiTTu (= a kind of soft pastry ★steamed in the hollow of a bamboo-piece) けぶし (z 無音)
【民】Avi (= 02 1. breath; 2. sigh; 3. yawn; 4. soul; 5. mind; 6. strength, power; 7. vowel; 8. ★steam, vapour; 9. kind of meal cake, a prepared in steam; 10. smoke; 11. tobacco, as the leaf smoking; 12. fragrance, odour) えき/いっき (v-k)、ゆげ (v-k-g)
【賛】holAka (= m. a kind of ★vapour-bath (induced over hot ashes for the cure of partic. diseases , by sweating ; also with %{sveda}) Car. ; (%{A}) f. see next. [1306,3]) ほけ (l 無音)
【民】pukai (= 01 1. smoke, fume; 2. mist, haze; 3. vapour, ★steam; 4. sign of the guardian of the south east; 5. distance of a yo1jana ; 6. cataract of the eye; 7. distress; 8. flaw in a ruby; 9. incense; 10. gong struck while incense is burnt; 11. a hell) ほけ
【民】vEtukuLi-ttal (= to use ★steam as a sudorific 発汗させる、発汗を促す、発汗作用のある) あちきり → あちき
302steam, vt.
蒸す(むす)、蒸かす(ふかす)、うむす、うぶすん、かしくゅん
cf. 教育漢字 蒸す steam   f17#1.31
【民】veLLAvikaTTu-tal (= to treat clothes with ★steam, in bleaching) ふかす
【民】pukaippaTalam (= expanse or volume of smoke, ★vapour, fog, cloud) ふかふすラム
【民】AvipiTi-ttal (= to take a ★vapour bath) うぶす、うむす (v-m)
【民】cantakam (= 01 a kind of pastry cooked in ★steam and forced like vermicelli through a mould) かんたかむ → かしくゅん (c-k)
【民】cuTu-tal (= 01 to be hot; to burn; 1. to warm heat; 2. to burn up; 3. to roast, toast, bake, fry, cook in ★steam;) かす (c-k)
303stick
棒(ぼう)、ぶんぎり
cf. 教育漢字 棒 ボウ、ホウ pole, bar, stick, staff, rod, cane    f17_1#n.563
【民】paRRukkOl (= 1. walking ★stick; 2. iron-rod used to brand oxen; 3. soldering iron; 4. blacksmith's pole) ぼうぎり、ぼうぎれ、ぶんぎり (RR-n)
304stink, smell bad
臭い(くさい)、ふさ
【賛】kaTu (= mf(%{vI} and %{us})n. (Un2. ; cf. %{kRt}) pungent , acrid , sharp (one of the six kinds of flavour , %{rasa} q.v.) MBh. ; pungent , stimulating (as ★smell) , strong-scented , ill-★smelling MBh.) くさい
【宮城弁ミヤ56】かっしゃう  (= 臭いがつく 「なんだけ・とーふさ・きむつのぬおい・かっしゃってだ」:なんだよ,豆腐にキムチの臭いがついてるよ。)
【民】kanti-ttal (= to waft 漂う、浮動する、フワフワと飛ぶ a fragrant ★smell) かっしゃう
【賛】kaTu (= mf(%{vI} and %{us})n. (Un2. i , 9 ; cf. 2. %{kRt}) pungent , acrid , sharp (one of the six kinds of flavour , %{rasa} q.v.) MBh. Sus3r. Bhag. &c. ; pungent ピリ辛, stimulating (as ★smell) 刺激臭 , strong-scented , ill-★smelling ) かっしゃう、くせー 【民】kuzainARRam (= unpleasant ★smell of rotten leaf or grass) くせーな
【宮古口】ふさ /fusa/多ふしゃ /fuɕa/ 多與 友新 鏡 形容詞 〈全〉臭い
【賛】pUta (= 2 mfn. (for 1. see %{pU} , p. 640) putrid , ★foul-smelling , stinking L.) ふさ/ふしゃ
305stone
いし(石)
cf. 教育漢字 石 stone    f17_1#n.206
306storehouse
くら(蔵、倉、庫)、たかぐら(高椋)、ふふぁ、こや、どぞう(土蔵)
cf. 教育漢字 倉、蔵 くら warehouse, granary 穀物倉, storehouse 庫 コ、ク、くら    f17_1#n.31
【民】tayAkaran2 (= ★storehouse of mercy) たかぐらノ (y-ki)
【賛】khalya (= a. being in the ★granary.) こや
307straw
【出雲弁】わらしび, わらしぶ  (= 藁しべ ex. わらしびで草鞋を作る 【= 藁しべで草鞋を作る】)
【賛】pala (= m. (scarcely to be connected with prec.) ★straw 藁(ワラ) L. ; = %{pAla} g. %{jvalA7di} ; ) わら(藁)
【賛】palada (= m. `" ★straw-giver (?) "' , a partic. material for building , (prob.) bundles of ★straw or reeds 藁または葦の束 used for roofing and wainscoting AV. ;) わらし
【十津川弁】わらすべ  (= 稲の茎 藁)
【民】variccampA (= a kind of striped ★paddy 稲穂, sown in Cittirai and maturing in five months) わらすべ (m 無音)
【民】vari (= 07 ★paddy) わら
c. 出雲の「わらしぶ」と、十津川の「わらすべ」は、同じ。
【博多弁、消】エグリ  (= straw 【ワラ製保温用飯櫃入れ】)
【民】vaikkOl (= ★straw of paddy 稲穂の藁(ワラ)) えぐり
【佐久弁】うばぐつ  (= わら靴(雪山用)   ex. うば靴はいて味噌豆踏んだ)
【民】aravu (= 02 1. snake; 2. twisted rope of ★straw entwined about stakes for stopping a breach in a bund; 3. the ninth naks2atra -> Ayiliyam) うば (r 無音)
【魚津弁】ケラバ  ワラを円錐形に多角積上げたにお   ※ニユウとも言う
【民】kaRRai (= 1. collection, as of hair, rays of the sun; 2. bundle 束, as of 例えば straw 藁(ワラ), grass, paddy seedlings; 3. coconut leaves braided like ropes, as bands 縛る for hedging ~を生け垣で囲う) けら
【民】karuvai (= 01 millet 《植物》キビ、アワ。雑穀 straw) けらばい
【民】nari (= 04 1. jackal; 2. tiger; 3. a contrivance made of straw with a fox-like tail キツネの尻尾の様な形のワラから作った工夫, for draining off water 〔耕作のために沼地などを〕水はけを良くする、水を抜く in a field after transplantation 移植後の畑の水切りの為の) にお、にゆう
【民】kalavaTai (= 1. plaited coil of straw or coir used for resting water-vessels 水路を停止させるために使用されるワラやコイヤ(ココナツの外皮の繊維。敷物やロープを作るのに用いられる。)の編んだコイル; month of a broken pot ポットの壊れた口, also used as a resut, as above; 2. circular piece of stone 石の円環部品, of iron 鉄, of earth-fitted to the mouth of a mortar モルタルの口に合った to keep the grain within 中の穀物を保存するため) けらばたい
c. 「にお」って何?。
ブリタニカ国際大百科事典 小項目事典:稲積(にお)
刈取った稲束を円錐形に積上げたもの。異名が多くイナムラ,イネコズミ,ニュウ,ニョウ,スズキなどともいう。今日では脱穀したのちわら束を積上げるワラニオが普通であるが,昔は穂のついたままの穂稲を積み,必要に応じて脱穀したものである。ニオの頂上にはわら帽子をつくっておおう習慣があり,本来ここが稲の収穫を祝う祭場であったらしい。沖縄ではニオをシラといい,それがまた産屋 (うぶや) をも意味している。このニオによって翌年の穀種が生育するという信仰があったらしい。
c. インド辞書の言っている意味、不明瞭。 要するに、ワラを束ねた水に濡れないようにする、雨合羽...。ワラ、束、水抜き、がキーワード。
308straw bag
俵(たわら)、かまぎ、かまげ、かまじ、かます
c. 【英】bale = 俵、梱、圧縮梱包した大型荷物
cf. 教育漢字 俵 たわら pack   f17_1#n.42
【賛】khaNDapattra (= n. a ★bundle of various leaves W.) かます
【民】curuNaikaTTu-tal (= tostore誤字 To store in straw ★bundles, as paddy seeds) かまげす
【賛】guJja (= m. humming S3a1rn3gP. ; (= %{guccha}) a ★bunch , bundle , cluster of blossoms , nosegay L. ; ) かにゃじゃ → かまげ、かます
【宮古口】たーら /taara/ 多與 友新 鏡 名詞 〈全〉俵
cf. 教育漢字  俵 たわら pack  f17_1#n.42
【シュメール語】dára, dár (= : n., belt, sash (compare dur, 'bond, tie').
   v., to bind, ★pack. ) たーら、たわら
【民】toppAram (= 03 a large bundle of things tied in a cloth, as carried over the shoulders; ★pack; 2. a large truss 束、包み、梱包物。干草[わら]の束 of grass; 3. boil; 4. a kind of spurge) たわらの、たーらノ
309straw mat
【十津川弁】みしろ  (= むしろ)
【民】neTTOlai (= ★mat 〔床に敷く〕マット of plaited palmyra-leaf パルミラヤシの葉で編んだマット (TLS)) みしろ/むしろ
【賛】mAtra (= ; Possessing (only) as much as or no more ★than (cf. %{prA7Na-yAsrika-m-}) ; ) みしろ/むしろ
【賛】mAtratA (= f. (ifc.) the being as much as , no more nor less ★than anything S3am2kar.) むしろだ
c. 解説が不親切。ゴザ mat の「むしろ」、 rather than の「むしろ~だ(接続詞)」なのか不明。なので、両方チェック。
【民】kOTTai (= 01 1. measure of capacity=21 marakka1l; 2. a land measure; 3. a straw-covering with paddy stored in; 4. stack of straw or hay; 5. bundle, as of tamarind, plantain leaves, etc., enclosed in ★matting or other covering; 6. abundance, plenty) ござ
310strength
ちから、つよ、
【賛】zAka (= 1 m. (fr. %{zak}) ★power , might , help , aid RV. ; (%{zAka4}) m. helpful , a helper , friend ib.) 力 (+ら)
【賛】tavasya (= n. ★strength , ii ,) 強さ
【賛】tavya (= or {tavya3} a. strong, ★powerful.) つよ、たや
【民】tAvu (= 03 1. jumping, leaping; 2. moving, going; 3. galloping, a pace of horse; 4. hostility, hostile attack; 5. ★strength, valour, power) つよ、たや
311string
紐(ひも)、ひぼ、うー、ぶー、よま joma
【賛】yUna (= n. band, cord, ★string.) よま、ゆーま
【琉球】■ひも〔紐〕 / [首里・那覇方言]
関連語彙:うイルー,ウー 〔革の紐〕カーウー,〔もとどりを結ぶ細い紐〕ムてィー
【賛】vArdhra (= mf(%{I})n. (fr. %{vardhra}) fit for straps (as a hide) Pa1n2. ; consisting of leather , leathern 革製 Pa1n2. ; n. and (%{I}) f. a leather ★thong ひも) うイルー(d-y),ウー、カーウー (v-k)、ムてィー (v-m)、ひも (r-m)
【賛】ve (= ; %{vA4tave} AV.) , to weave , interweave , braid , plait (fig. to ★string or join together artificially , make , compose e.g. speeches , hymns) RV.;) うー、ぶー
【民】vAr (= 06 1. ★strap of leather; 2. skin; 3. bodice) うー、ぶー
312sugar
【賛】sita (= ; m. white白 (the colour) L. ; the light half of the month from new to full moon VarBr2S. ; the planet Venus or its regent (= %{zukra}) ib. ; ★sugar ib. ; Bauhinia Candida L. ; N. of one of Skanda's attendants MBh. ; (%{A}) f. white ★sugar , refined精錬された ★sugar Sus3r.:) 砂糖
【十津川弁】きざら  (= 褐色固形の砂糖 黄色の粗目糖)
【魚津弁】キザラ  (= ざらめ糖)
【賛】kaThina (= mfn. (Comm. on Un2.) hard 硬い, firm , stiff (opposed to %{mRdu}) ; difficult Megh. ; harsh , inflexible , cruel Kum. ; violent (as pain) Vikr. ; (%{A}) f. crystallized ★sugar 結晶化した砂糖, a sweetmeat made with refined 精製した ★sugar L. ;) きざら (n-r)、かたいな
c. かなり珍しい言葉。関東では、大きい結晶は、「氷砂糖」、小さい結晶のは「ざらめ(粗目)」と言うが (?)。 【民】kaTTi (= 1. cold, lump, concretion; anything hardened 硬いもの, coagulated 凝固物、凝塊; 2. jaggery, coarse ★palm-sugar 粗目砂糖; 3. rockcandy 岩キャンデー;) きざ
【琉球】クルザーター(くるざーたー)/ クルザーター/ / 意味/ 黒糖/ 黒砂糖
【宮古口】さた /sata/多しゃた /ɕata/ 多與 友新 鏡 名詞 〈全〉砂糖
【賛】sita (= ; ★sugar ib. ; Bauhinia Candida L. ; N. of one of Skanda's attendants MBh. ; (%{A}) f. white ★sugar , refined ★sugar Sus3r.;) ザーター
【賛】sasita (= mfn. with ★sugar Sus3r. ; %{-to7pala} mfn. id. Pan5car. ; %{-to7pala-mAlin} mfn. wreathed with white lotus flowers VarBr2S.) しゃた、ざた/じゃた/さた、ザーター
【賛】svAdu (= mf(%{vI4})n. sweet , savoury , palatable , dainty , delicate , pleasant to the taste , agreeable , chirming (also as compar. `" sweeter than &c. "' , with abl.) RV. ; m. sweet flavour , sweetness L. ; ★sugar 砂糖, molasses L. ; ) サーター、ザーター
【賛】kAla (= ; (%{I}) f. ★black colour , ink インキ、墨 or blacking L. ; ) クル、クリ、黒(クロ)
313sugar cane
【民】pOttukkAl (= ★sugar-cane) ぶつぎー、ぶーぎ
【賛】aparvadaNDa (= m. a kind of ★sugar-cane.) あまだ、あまざ
【賛】cASa (= m. the blue jay RV. ; ★sugar-cane L. ; ) しーじゃ
【民】citaicuRRu (= 1. oil press; 2. ★sugar-cane press; 3. wheel) しーざー
【民】karuppuvilli (= ka1ma, the god of love, whose bot is made of ★sugare-cane) きび
【琉球】ウージ(うーじ)/ ウージ/ / 意味/ さとうきび/ 砂糖きび/ 解説/ 収穫時期は1月~3月頃。/ 沖縄では助け合いで親戚みんなでサトウキビを収穫したりします。/ アルバイトを雇うと安くて割りにあわないそうです。
【賛】vAMza (= mf(%{I})n. (fr. %{vaMza}) relating or belonging to ★sugar-cane Car. ; made of bamboo W. ; (%{I}) f. bamboo-manna Car. ) ウージ
【賛】vaMza (= m. (derivation doubtful) the bamboo cane or any cane (accord. to L. also `" ★sugarcane "' and `" Shorea Robusta "') RV. ;) ウージ
【民】iTcu (= sugar-cane (TLS)) イージ
314summer
cf. 教育漢字 夏 なつ summer   f17_1#n.183
315sun
おひさま、陽(ひ)、おひさん、てぃだ/ちだ/てだ、にってんさま、太陽(たいよう)
【賛】aMzubhartR (= m. `" lord of rays 光線の主"' , the ★sun L.) 天照ヤ(あまてらすヤ)
【賛】sUrya (= m. the ★sun or its deity その神聖さ; f. {sUryA3} the ★sun personified as a female, a cert. hymn of the Rigveda.) 太陽(たいよう)(s-t)
【賛】abhISumat (= mfn. `" having rays of light "' , radiant , bright S3is3. ; (%{An}) m. the ★sun S3is3.) おひさまダ
【民】AtittapuTam (= longitude 〔地球の〕経度 of the ★sun (TLS)) おてんとさん
【民】Atittan2 (= * ★sun) おてんとさん
【民】mirutaNTan2 (= ★Sun) 日天様(にってんさま)
【賛】mIDhuStama (= (%{-Dhu4S-}). mfn. 最も豊かまたはリベラル(さまざまな神に適用される) RV. ; m. the ★sun W. ; a thief ib.) 日天様(にってんさま) (+ん)
【宮古口】てぃだ /tida/友ちだ /tɕida/ 多與 友新 鏡来 名詞 〈全〉太陽
【賛】todra (= m. instigator, exciter; the ★sun (as pricking or driving horses) 扇動者、興奮者; 太陽(刺す又は馬を運転する、の事例); also = seq.) てぃだ/ちだ、【あじま】ティーラ、【首里/今帰仁】ティーダ、とっどら、てーよー (r-y)
sltu(m), setu(m) ; pi. -* sidtu (= "exit; (★sun-)rise 日の出; issue" [e] 1. "exit, issuance" of abscess, spring- water, "place of origin" 2. "(new) growth" of plant; 'that originating from': trees from mountain, person from womb {uru); sit libbi "offspring"; word from mouth sit pi "utterance" 3. "(★sun-)rise" [ d UTU.E(.A); E] (-* si samsi), also as time of day; "the east" 4. "issue" of commodities, "debit, loss" [ZI.GA]; "departure" of person; 5. rasu(m) "to make off, decamp" 5. OB "exit tax"? [BA.ZI]; jB lex. sit kisddi "neck opening"; < wasum; > sitan, sitis; sidtu, sidtis) てぃだ (s-t)
【民】tuvaTTan2 (= a deity representing the ★sun, one of the tuva1laca1tittar , q.v.) てぃだノ/ちだノ、てんとさん (v-n)
c. ex. 梅雨が明け、毎日のように、てぃだかんかんとしています。
【賛】ghRNIvant (= a. glowing 白熱[赤熱]光を放つ, ★shining.) かんかんと (v-k)
316sweat
【賛】Asvid (= A1. (p. pf. %{-siSvidAna4} RV.) to sweat , ★perspire.) あせダ
【賛】upasvid (= Caus. %{-svedayati} , (in med.) to cause to ★sweat (by applying sudorifics) Sus3r.) 汗ダ
317swell, vi
膨らむ(ふくらむ)、むくむ、腫れる(はれる)
【民】puTaikkoL(Lu)-tal (= to pat, as one's shoulders in defiance; to ★swell, increase in size) ふくれる (t 無音)
【民】pakkavAyu (= 1. cirrhosis of liver; 2. sarcocele with ★swelling in the side) ふくゆん (+ん)
【民】pali-ttal (= 01 1. to happen; 2. to take effect, yield results, produce good or evil; 3. to thrive, as a crop; 4. to increase, ★swell; to give) 腫れ(はれる)
【賛】pRSThagranthi (= m. `" back-knot "' , a hump on she back L. ; a kind of ★swelling L. ; mfn. hump-backed A.) ふくらんだ
【賛】parivRddha (= mfn. grown , increased by (comp.) , strong , powerful Hariv. Ka1v. &c. ; %{-tA} f. increase , extension , the ★swelling and becoming sour of food (in the stomach) Sus3r.) 腫れた(はれた)、膨張(ぼうちょう)
【民】muculi (= a disease of ★swelling in the ankles of horse which makes it limp 足を引きずる。〔物が〕柔軟な、グニャッとした、だらりとした) むくみ (c-k, l-m)
【賛】mUrchana (= a. stunning; strengthening (---). n. increase, growth; f. {A} fainting, swooning; ★swelling or rising of sounds, intonation, note, tone or semitone (in the scale), melody.) むくみ
318swim
cf. 教育漢字 泳ぐ swim, float   f17#1.87
【琉球】■ウイージュン  (= 泳ぐ)
【賛】vah, vahati, -te (= , pp. {UDha3} 1 (q.v.) conduct, carry (esp. the [[-,]] oblation), draw (waggon), guide (the horses); bring near, procure, cause, effect; offer, present (a sacrifice); carry off, rob; take to wife, marry; bear, support, feel, suffer; indulge, pardon; wear, have; undergo, incur; pass. spend; intr. travel, go (in or by any vehicle), drive, ride, run, ★swim, flow, blow (wind), pass away (time); ) ウイージュン (+ン)
【宮古口】うーギ /uugɿ/多ういギ /uigɿ/ 多與 新鏡 動詞 皆うーギ、うーぎ、うーがん 多ういギ、ういぎー、ういがん 〈全〉泳ぐ
【賛】udraGka (= and %{udraGga} m. a town L. ; N. of Haris3candra's city (★floating in the air) L.) およぐ (d 無音)、うーギ/ういギ
【賛】vAlAgra (= ; %{-potikA} f. a kind of pleasure-house ★floating on a lake L.) うらぐ、およぐ (l-y)、うーギ/ういギ
319sword
cf. 教育漢字 刀 トウ、かたな、つるぎ sword   f17_1#n.369
【賛】khaDgapANi (= a. ★sword in hand.) かたはーな、かたな
【民】kaTuttalai (= ★sword) かたらい、かたな (l-n)
【民】tATi (= 02 hilt 〔道具・武器などの〕柄, as of a ★sword) トウ、太刀(タチ)
【民】tArAgkam (= ★sword) つるぎの
320tail
を(尾)、しーぼ、しりっぽ、しっぽ、ずぶ、ずー、つー、ゆー、おっぽ、
660.】 ★tail - kun [TAIL] (225x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian, 1st millennium) wr. kun "tail; canal outlet" Akk. zibbatu 尻尾(しっぽ・おっぽ) (z-s or W, bb-pp, t 無音) 〇
】zibbatu(m), sibbatu(m), zlsimbatu; du. zibbd "tail" [KUN] of animal etc.; transf. "tail-end" of army, canal etc.; astr. "tail" of heavenly body, pi. "Pisces"; OB lex. sa z. (a prof.)?; > zibbanu; zipu 1 尻尾(しっぽ)
zibbu - > zipu
】zlpu (or zHw, zibbu) (desig. of sheep, phps.) "fat-tailed" (i.e. < zibbatu) MA ://?≪ ? > also zibum III; z/'pu しっぽ
【賛】cheppa (= (fr. %{se4pa}) ★tail Ha1l. ) 尻尾(しっぽ)、尾(お) ◎ 【富山県の高岡弁】げんのべ  (= 尾。しっぽ。(犬、猫等の尾))
【趣】kun (= : ★tail 尻尾; reservoir, storage basin, outlet (of a canal); grasp (base/seat + high) [KUN archaic frequency; 2]. ) げん
【悪】kantappu ~ (= "fish's ★tail 魚の尻尾"? jB, part of a figurine 〔金属や陶器の〕小さな像) げんのべ (t-n)
【賛】gaupuccha (= mf(%{I})n. (fr. %{go-p-}) , resembling a cow's ★tail g. %{zarkarA7di}.) げんのべ (+んの, ccha 無音)
【賛】kalAvam (= peacock's ★tail) げんのべ (l-n) の
【魚津弁】オッポ (= 尾、しっぽ)
【賛】zepa (= m. penis or ★tail 尾、尻尾.) おっぽ、しっぽ
【土佐弁】 をば、をばち、をばて  (= (鳥や獣の尾))
【賛】vAravat (= (%{vA4ra-}) mfn. ★long-tailed (as a horse) 長い尻尾の RV.) をばち (r 無音)、をばて (r 無音)
【琉球】たーいゆぬ頭や ならわん くーいゆぬ尾や なゆな/ 読み方/ ターイヌユチブルヤ ナラワン クーイユヌジューヤ ナユナ/ 解説/ 【訳】フナの頭にはなっても 鯉の尾にはなるな/ / 大きな集団のケツになるよりは、小さな集団でもトップになる方がよいという例え。/ 似たような日本のことわざ/ 鶏口となるも牛後となるなかれ
【賛】zaphara (= m., {I} f. a small kind of ★carp コイ。 → 小さいコイ、フナ.) ターイユ
【民】kayal (= ★carp, a tank fish, cyprinus fimbriatus) くーやる、クーイユ、こい
【賛】mInapuccha (= m. or n. (?) a fish-★tail 魚の尾 ; %{-nibha} mfn. resembling a fish-★tail) ヌジュー
【民】mARu-tal (= 01 1. to ★become changed ~に変わる、~に成る, exchanged, altered, reversed; 2. to be cured; 3. to be corrected in state, place, form or appearance; ) ナユ、なる(成る)
【民】varaikkeNTai (= ★carp (TLS)) ふなっこだい (r-n)、ふな(鮒)
【琉球】n■ジュー  (= 尾、尻尾)
【賛】Dha (= 2 mfn. = %{nir-guNa} L. ; m. an imitative sound L. ; a large drum L. ; a dog L. ; a dog's ★tail 犬の尻尾 L. ; a serpent W.) ジュー
【賛】gopuccha (= n. cow's ★tail 牛の尾; m. a kind of monkey.) ジュー
【賛】sapuccha (= mfn. with the ★tail 尾 or extreme end 長い終わり Ka1tyS3r. ) ジュー
【民】tUvi (= 01 1. feather or down of birds 鳥の尾の羽; 2. peacock's ★tail クジャクの尾; ) ジュー
【琉球】ポーチブシー    (= (名詞)  ほうき星。)
【民】puccam (= 1. ★tail 尻尾; 2. hinder part 後ろの部分; 3. ★comet 彗星、コメット; 4. fold of a man's cloth, partly left hanging behind; 5. remainder or unexpired portion of a titi or a naks1atra ; 6. peacock feather; 7. scorpion's sting; 8. scorpion) ポーチの
☑【民】pATu (= ; 26. setting, as of a planet, sun or ★star 星; ) ブシ、ほし
c. 尻尾(シッポ)の有る星、の意。「(掃除の)ほうき」は、インド弁発音への当て字。多分。
321taste
cf. 教育漢字 味わう taste   f17#1.157
【賛】AsvAdya (= mfn. to be eaten ; to be ★tasted or enjoyed MBh. ; having a good ★taste , palatable delicious.) 味(あじ)
【民】uruci (= 01* 1. ★taste; 2. good ★taste, relish, flavour; 3. pleasantness, agreeableness; 4. wish, desire) 味(あじ)
322thief
盗人(ぬすっと)、泥棒(ドロボウ)
〒liar
■「ウソつきはドロボーの始まり」のインド弁検証。 (「嘘」のオマケ 記事)
c. ウソつき liar ( lier は、ミススペル)、泥棒(どろぼう) thief, robber で攻める。 --- 古代人の言葉のお遊び。教育的ことわざ。
-- liar --
【民】mittiyAvAti (= ★liar) ぬすっと
【賛】mRSodya (= mfn. speaking untruthfully , a ★liar L. ; to be spoken falsely , uttered untruthfully S3is3. ; n. untrue speech , lying , a lie A1past.) ぬすっとヤ、うそつき (m 無音, y-ki)
【民】talaippuraTTan2 (= audacious 大胆な、恐れを知らない。厚かましい、勝手な ★liar) トロボーだったん
【民】paccaippuLukan2 (= 1. great boaster; 2. veritable, downright ★liar) はじまりカモ (p-m)、ウソはっぴゃくの (p 無音, L 無音)
【民】paTAntarakkAran2 (= a gross ★liar) うそつきラン (p 無音, n 無音)
【賛】asadvAc (= mfn. whose speech is untrue , a ★liar BhP.) うそつきダ (v-k, c-t-d)
-- thief / robber --
【賛】tRpu (= m. a ★thief 泥棒 (cf. %{asu-} and %{pazu-tR4p}) Naigh. (v.l. %{●tripu4}).) ドロボー/泥棒(どろぼう)
【賛】moSTR (= m. a robber , ★thief L.) 盗人(ぬすっと、ぬすとー)
【賛】pAripanthika (= m. (fr. %{pari-pantham}) a highwayman 追いはぎ, ★robber , thief. L. ) おいはぎ (c 無音, n 無音)
【賛】kArucaura (= m. `" mechanical ★thief "' , burglar バーグラー、住居[建物]侵入窃盗、押し込み強盗犯 L.) 強盗(ごうとう) (c-t)
【賛】apahAraka (= mfn. one who takes away , seizes , steals , &c. ; a plunderer 略奪者, a ★thief (cf. %{AtmA7pahAraka} , %{●vAg@apahAraka}.)) 置き引き(おきびき)
【民】capaiyERu-tal (= 1. to appear before an assembly; to appear, as a performer; 2. to be presented before a learned body for approval; 3. to gain noitoriety誤字 notoriety 悪評、悪名(の高い人)[◆通例、軽蔑的に使われる], as a ★thief or a habitual offender 常習犯) かっぱらい (c-k)
【民】pativiru-ttal (= to lie in wait, as a ★thief or an enemy; to lurk 待ち伏せする、隠れて待つ。潜む(ひそむ), as a beast ready to spring Google のバカ訳 = 泥棒または敵として、待機する; 潜む(弾む/ 跳ぶ ?)準備ができた獣として潜む) はじまり (v-m)、潜める(ひそめる) (v-m)
【民】mOTacakan2 (= ★thief) うそつきノ (m 強無音, c-t)
-- begin, start --
【賛】vyAsaJj (= (only 3. du. impf. A1. %{vy-A7-sajetAm} ; and ind. p. %{-sajya}) , to adhere separately or severally (see comp.) ; to ★begin to fight hand to hand S3is3. ) はじにゃ る、はじむ
【賛】parisaMhA (= 2. (only pr. p. %{-ji4hAna}) , to ★start or spring from (abl.) RV.) はじま

c. 【英】begin ビギン、はじめ (b-h, g-j, n-m)   そのまんま東、でオマス。
【博多弁】ゴットン  (= theft 【盗む】 『あにきの たばこば ごっとんしてきたけん よろこびやい』 「兄貴のタバコば盗んできたから喜びな」  ガタツクやゴトツクという言葉がありますが、泥棒がごそごそして音をたてている状況でしょうか。)
【民】kaTTal (= 1. theft 盗み, robbery, plundering; 2. plucking off 摘み取る, pulling out; 3. weeding 除草) ごっとん (l-n)
c. 岡山弁の「ごっとん【ドロボウ】」、富山弁の「ごっとん (盗み、万引き。)」と同じ。
【岡山弁】ごっとん  (= ドロボウ 「最近,ちょこちょこごっとんに入らりょうるようで」と友人が言っていた。泥棒に変わりはないが懐かしい言い方と思った。もっとも友人も被害に遭ったからことは深刻である。)
323thin (weak)
ぴす、うすか、うすい、ぴしか、ぴさん、ひししゃん、しがしゃん(薄味)、あふぁっしぇん、いくやらかつ(薄味)
【民】Uci (= ; 10. slenderness, very slightthickness, lightness 軽さ) 薄い
【賛】asthUla (= a. not big or coarse; slender, ★thin.) 薄い
【民】pattai (= 1. ★thin piece, as of bamboo; slice, as of cocoanut;) ぴす
【民】takaTu (= 1. quality of being ★thin and flat, as plate of metal; 2. metal plate; 3. foil set below a precious stone to enhance its lustre; 4. leafblade; 5. black betel-leaf; 6. outer petal; 7. layer of earth; 8. closeness, thickness, as of hair) しがしゃん (+ん)
【民】ilaikkozukkaTTai (= kind of ★thin pastry ペ(ー)ストリー生地◆小麦粉、砂糖、牛乳、バター、ショートニング、ベーキング・パウダーから作るが、卵を加える場合もある。) いかやっかす
【賛】apacita (= 1 a. emaciated, ★thin, slender.) あふぁっしぇん (+ん)
324thing
もの(物、者)、むん
cf. 教育漢字 物 ブツ、モツ、もの material, substance, object, affair, thing, matter  person   f17_1#n.259
cf. 教育漢字 者 シャ、もの person    f17_1#n.391
325thorn
棘(とげ)、イゲ、にぎ、さるか、つげ、うんぎ、くうぃー、いじゃ
c. にぎ、うんぎ、は、「ウニ」かも?。くうぃーは、栗(クリ)。
【趣悪967】ĝiš-ab-ba(-k)(= : a type of ★thorn tree; a wood used to make boats and sickle hafts ('wood' + 'sea' + genitive).) 茨(うまら・いばら)、いばらき △
【アッカド語】 abulilu, bulilu (the berry of the box-thorn 《植物》クコ (?)) jB lex. 茨(うまら・いばら) ◎
万20-4352; 道の辺(べ)の茨(うまら)の末(うれ)に延(は)ほ豆のからまる君を離(はか)れか行かむ
c. インド#6-1011 には、棘(いばら、おどろ、トゲ)もある 【賛】tarunakha (= m. `" tree-nail "' , a ★thorn L.) とげ (n 無音)、さるか (n 無音)
【賛】zaGkAzaGku (= m. the ★thorn トゲ or sting トゲ・刺す of doubt 怪しい or fear 恐怖 Ra1jat.) イゲイゲ、トゲトゲ、つげつげ、突起(とっき)
【民】izuvai (= 1. procrastination, dilatoriness; 2. inextircable difficulty; 3. a ★thorny shrub 低木・潅木(かんぼく) (TLS)) いじゃ、イバラ
【賛】vaGkila (= m. a ★thorn 棘(とげ) L.) いげ (l 無音)、いが (l 無音)、 ---- 実は、いがぐりも隠れていた。
【賛】khara (= ; a ★thorny plant (sort of prickly nightshade or perhaps Alhagi Maurorum) L. ; ) くり(栗)、くうぃー
【博多弁消】イゲ  (= thorn 【トゲ】)
【熊本弁】いげ  (= とげ(刺),いが,小骨 栗ン イゲンヌカッテ イタカッタイ(栗のとげが刺さって痛いんだよ) 魚の小骨も  ---- 博多弁と同じ。) 【賛】vaGkila (= m. a ★thorn 棘(とげ) L.) いげ、いが
【熊】ぬかる(貫かる)  (= 突き刺さる,刺さる イゲんヌカッて イタか(とげが刺さって痛い) 雨で地面がドロドロになることやそれに入り込むことも「ヌカル」)
【民】muLku-tal (= 1. to embrace; 2. to enter, ★pierce ピアス、突き通す) ぬかる (L 無音)
【和歌山弁(176)】ぬわる  (= ささる)
【民】neRi-ttal (= 02 1. to strip a flower of its calyx; 2. to contract, as the brow in anger; 3. to ★prick up 刺さる, as the ears; 4. to press firmly with the hand; 1. to be stiff; 2. to curl in ringlets, as hair) ねり、ぬわる
【民】muL (= 1. ★thorn 棘(とげ), brier, thistle, bristle, spine 小骨; 2. anything sharp or pointed 鋭く尖っている物, as fish-bone 魚の骨, porcupine's quill, etc.;) ぬる
【十津川弁】いがぐり   小さな栗(愛媛県宇和島)-海栗・うに
【民】AkAyamaun2i (= white species of Indian bur 《植物》いが、とげ◆クリやゴボウ(burdock)などの種や果実の外皮、またはいがやとげを持つ植物自身を指す。 (TLS)) いが...
【賛】vaGkila (= m. a thorn 棘(とげ) L.) いげ (l 無音)、いが (l 無音)
【賛】kiyAha (= m. a chestnut-coloured 栗色の horse 馬 L.) くり (y-r)
【賛】vollAha (= m. a chestnut-coloured horse (with a light mane 〔馬・ライオン・オオカミなどの動物の〕たてがみ and tail) L.) ぐり (v-g)
【民】nAkaravaNTu (= 1. green beetle, chrysochfoa chinesis ; 2. snail; 3. urchin ウニ, a term of contempt) なくり...、にぎ
c. ウニにも、いが栗と同じトゲの山がある。
c. 【博多弁】イゲ 【トゲ】
【十津川弁】さんきら  (= (武蔵)サルトリイバラ)
【賛】sitAgra (= m. or n. a ★thorn 棘(とげ) (for %{zil-}) ib.) さんきら (+ん)、とげ
【賛】sRgAlakaNTaka (= m. `" jackal's ★thorn ジャッカルの棘"' , a kind of plant 植物の一種 (Zizyphus Scandens or Argemone Mexicana) L.) さんきらかんたか (R-n) → さんきら
c. サルトリイバラ (wikipedia)   草丈70~350cmほどで、這うように伸び、茎は硬く緑色で、棘が所々に生える。
【十津川弁】ひいらぎ  (= (植物)節分に鬼を追払う為とて竹に魚の頭とひいらぎの葉をさして家の入り口に さす、おにのめつつきともいう 葉にとげあり)
【民】pillipiccu (= fetid 悪臭[強烈な匂い]のする[を放つ] ★holly ヒイラギ, s. tr., mappia foetida-oblonga 《解剖》延髄) ひいらぎ (p 無音, c-g)
【民】ARRumuLLi (= 1. a very prickly とげだらけの、針のある plant with diffuse 広がった、拡散した、普及した branches; 2. ★holly-leaved bear's breech) おにのめ (R-n, L-m)
【民】uppukkarinIrmuLLi (= ★holly-leaved bears-breech) ふんぐりのめ (u 無音, +ん, L-m)
【民】coRilai (= medium hairy-nerved oblong acute-leaved fetid ★holly, s.tr., Mappiya oblonga) つつらい → つつき (c-t, R 反復, l-k)
cf. 【十】ふんぐりつつき 【ひいらぎ 植物学名?】、【十】おにのめつつき 【柊[ひいらぎ]】
c. 3種類の名前は全てインド弁由来でした。
【名古屋弁】ときとき  (= 尖った様。とげとげ、つんつん)
【賛】tigita (= a. ★sharp 鋭利, pointed 尖った.) ときと、とがった
【名古屋弁】ときんときん  (= 尖った様。とげとげ、つんつん)
【民】Tokken2al (= expr. signifying ★sharp 鋭い sound, as of falling articles, of hitting against an obstacle) ときん (l 無音)
【諏訪方言】[くすげる]  (= 突き刺す、差し込む という意    「トゲ、くすげた!!」)
【民】kazikkArai (= a ★thorny 棘の shrub 低木, canthium) くすげ
【賛】kaNTaka (= m. ★thorn, prickle, point, ★sting 刺すこと、針、とげ, fish-bone;) くすげ (N 無音)
【民】koTukku (= 01 1, ★sting of wasp 狩蜂, hornet 《昆虫》スズメバチ, scorpion 蠍;) くすげ
【魚津弁】インガラ  (= 栗のいが、野犬捕りの人)
【賛】veNukarkara (= m. Capparis Aphylla (a species of thorny plant = とげの多い植物 %{karIra} , commonly called Karir or Karil) L.) いんがら
【賛】vaGkila (= m. a thorn L.) いが、いがら
【民】aRRam (= 02 dog 犬 (TLS)) いん
【民】kULiyar (= 1. soldiers, warrios; 2. hunters ハンター, those who live by chase; 3. highway robbers, plunderers; 5. attendants; 6. friends) がら
c. バカ英辞朗。いが bur は、インド辞書ハズレ。棘に切り替えたが、英辞朗は、棘、とげ、トゲ、で全て結果が違う。アホ。通常の thorn は、とげ、にしか無かった。非常識。
【琉球】アバサー   (= :ハリセンボン。)
【賛】ApIta (= 2 a. turgid 膨らんだ、腫れ上がった。 〔言葉・文体などが〕大げさな、仰々しい, ★swelled 膨れた(ふくれた), full.) アバサー、【宮古弁】あばさ/あばしゃ
c. 「ハリセンボン」とは、棘のあるフグ、の魚の名前。別名、トゲフグ[1]、ハリフグ、バラフグ、イラフグ、カゼフグなど。沖縄方言ではアバサーという。 wikipedia
フグ balloon fish, blowfish, globefish, puffer, swellfish 等、皆ハズレ。抽象度を上げて、 swell 膨張、で攻めたら、アタリ。--- 宮古語電子辞書の解説を読んだら、ひらめいた。 2020/05/31

 ← ふぐの仲間! 鋭いトゲを持つハリセンボン
   © 2020 ふぐマガ

【琉球】タッチュー:尖ったもの、あるいは尖っていること。塔頭に由来。伊江島にある城山(グスクヤマ)の代名詞でもある。
【民】taTTu-tal (= ; 12. to sharpen by beating, as with hammer; ) タッチュー
【賛】tejiSTha (= mf(%{A})n. (Superl. of %{tigma4}) very sharp RV. ;) タッチュー
【賛】sudhAra (= 2 a. sharp-edged or pointed (arrow).) タッチュー
【チベ】tseb tseb /tsep tsep/ (= sharp-pointed [IW] ) タッチュー
【チベ】dus tshod tag tag /du tso tak tak/ (= sharp [JV] ) タッチュー とげ とげ
c. 「トンガリ」も当然有る。
【賛】sumukhIkRta (= mfn. well tipped or pointed (as an arrow) MBh.) トンガリだ
【琉球】■とげ〔刺〕 / [首里・那覇方言]/ 関連語彙:ヂー
◇ヂー /zii/  / (名詞)/ 意味:/ <のぎ。とげ。阿旦(あだん)や薔薇(ばら)のとげ。指先にささったとげ。
参考:
全国方言辞典「のげ 長崎県五島」「いぎ 〈1〉とげ。棘。近畿(日葡辞書)・石見。〈2〉野ばら。茨。石見・山口。〈3〉さかなの骨。広島・山口」「いげ 〈1〉棘。とげ。九州(日葡辞典)・九州」。 鹿児島方言辞典「イゲ 刺」。 壱岐島方言集「イゲ 刺」。
【賛】zalya (= m. n. the point of a spear or an arrow, i.g. ★thorn, sting (lit. & fig.); blemish, fault, obstacle; m. also = seq.) ヂー (l 無音)
【賛】sitAgra (= m. or n. a ★thorn (for %{zil-}) ib.) ヂー、ぢぢぢー
【賛】sazalya (= mf(%{A})n. pierced by an arrow or dart , stung , wounded (also fig.= `" pained , afflicted "') R. Ka1lid. Katha1s. ; ★thorny  棘っぽい, connected with pain or sorrow , troublesome , difficult HParis3. ; m. a bear L.) ヂー (l 無音)、ヂーるや
--
【賛】zalyaka (= m. an arrow , dart , spear , ★thorn &c. (= %{zalya}) ; a porcupine VS. ; a scaly fish Vajras. (cf. %{sa-zalka}) ; Vanguieria Spinosa L.) とげ、いげ
【琉球】■ヒチークヂルン    (動詞)  突き刺す。
【賛】viSazRGgin (= (L.) m. `" having a poisonous ★sting 毒のトゲ(棘)をもつ、棘を刺す"' , a wasp.) ヒチークヂルン (+ル)
【宮古口】んギ /ngɿ/多んぎ /ngi/ 新鏡 名詞 〈新、鏡、友〉(皮膚に刺さって食い込んだ)棘  〈多〉棘
【民】nIrccagku (= mistletoe berry ★thorn ヤドリギのとげ, m. sh., azima tetracantha) んギ/んぎ
--
【賛】sitAgra (= m. or n. a ★thorn (for %{zil-}) ib.) とげ(棘)
【宮古口】とぅぎゃ /tugʲa/多とぅげ /tuge/ 多友 新鏡 来 名詞 〈多〉矢  〈皆、友、新〉(木の)棘
【賛】sitAgra (= m. or n. a ★thorn 棘(とげ) (for %{zil-}) ib.) とぅぎゃ/とぅげ
【賛】sRga (= m. = %{sRka} , an ★arrow 矢, spear 槍(やり) L.) とぅぎゃ/とぅげ
【賛】tIrikA (= f. a sort of ★arrow.) トゲ
326thread
糸(いと)、いちゅ、ぬいちゅ、ぬいみ、ぬっずー
cf. 教育漢字 糸 いと thread   f17_1#n.8
【民】iraTTu (= 02 1. doubleness; 2. dungaree, as double-★threaded cloth; sackcloth; 3. noise, vibrating sound) いと、いちゅ
【民】nUlizai (= 02 single ★thread) ぬいちゅ、ぬっずー
【賛】nivIta (= mfn. ; the ★thread so worn TS. Ka1tyS3r. ;) ぬいちゅ
【民】nUlENi (= 1. ladder made of ★threads; 2. shrouds of a vessel; 3. sea-fish, purplish, lutijanus lineolatus) ぬいみ
327thresh (rice)
c. 脱穀機、千歯扱き、千把扱き(せんばこき、せんばごき、せんばこぎ、せんばすごき)
いねこ、いねこぎ、くるまぼー、しらぎん、しさび、せんば、こんの、まい さうん、かし
せんばこき☜ 図 in 広辞苑無料検索
【民】taTTuNTupO-tal (= 1. to be beaten off, scattered; 2. to be ★threshed out, as rape seed; 3. to be thwarted; to fail, as an expected good; 4. to be upset; 5. to be exchanged clandestinely and fraudulently, as commodities;) せんつば → せんば ◎
【民】cUTucuLLAppi-ttal (= to loosen and spread sheaves on the ★threshing-floor preparatory to treading out the grain) しさび、しさぶ
【民】karukkAy (= 1. dry stalk, as of sesame, gram, etc., after ★threshing out the grains (TLS)) こぎ
【民】kaTTaTi-ttal (= to ★thresh or beat out the grain from sheaves of paddy (TLS)) かし
【民】kaLappERu (= grain distributed on the ★threshing-floor at different fixed rates to religious mendicants, washermen, barbers, and other dependents) くるまぼー (p-m, p-b)
【賛】kaNDana (= n. the act of ★threshing , separating the chaff from the grain in a mortar Hcat. ; that which is separated from the grain , chaff Sus3r. ; (%{I}) f. a wooden bowl or mortar (in which the cleaning or ★threshing of grain is performed) Mn.) かんだな → こんの △
328throw cf. 教育漢字 放つ(はなつ) shot, shoot, throw 放る(ほうる) 投げる   f17#1.124
【宮古口】てぃっぶ  (= 投げる)
【賛】div (= 9) to cast , ★throw , esp. dice i.e. play , gamble (%{akSais} RV. ; ) てぃぶ
c. 「てぃっぶ」の表記は、曖昧で良くない。 宮古語電子辞書で確認した。/tiʋ/ だって。
【宮古口】やイ /jaɿ/多や乚 /jaɭ/ 新 動詞 〈多、新〉投げる
【賛】vevI (= (cf. Intens. of 1. %{vI}) cl. 2. A1. %{vevIte} (3. pl. %{vevyate} Pa1n2. ) , to go ; to pervade ; to conceive ; to desire ; to ★throw ; to eat Dha1tup. ) やイ
【賛】vil (= cl. %{vilati} , to cover , conceal , clothe Dha1tup. ; cl. %{velayati} , to ★throw , cast , send ib. (cf. %{pil}) ; to break or divide (cf. %{bil}).) や乚
329thunder
雷(かみなり)、かんなり、かんなりどん、かんない、ならかみ、かみじん、エレキ、ごろごろさま
c. かみなり、いかづち、はたかみ、 霹礰(かむとけ) [= 落雷、雷解け]紀27 - thunderbolt
cf. 教育漢字 電 デン、テン、いなずま lightning, thunder   f17_1#n.368
cf. チベット語検証 thunder    f20_Tibet#g.359  【羌 チャン語】məi gu mə dʐəi (= ★thunder) 恵みじゃい
【趣40.】 ★thunder - gu'anesi [★THUNDER] wr. gu3-an-ne2-si "★thunder" 雷(かみなり), 霹礰(かむとけ) [= 落雷、雷解け] 〇 or 流電(いなびかり) (g-y, n-n + 光)  〇 or 雷電(いなつるび) (いな + つるむ)
c. my 予言: 日本語似のヘブライ語の中に、農業系は多分出てこない。 on 2013/10/21 記。
理由:from my 経験則。thunder のヘブライ語は、ゴロゴロ系しかなかった。かみなり・かむとけ・いかづち・はたかみ・いなびかり・いなつるび等洒落た名前は皆無であった。つまりヘブライの農業系は低レベルであり、無視された。従って、農業や自然に関する用語は将来も登場しないだろう。
【露 ロシア語】7. thunder - греметь /gremet'/ かみなり, докатиться /dokatit's'a/ いかづち, стучать /stuchat'/, метать громы и молнии /metat' gromy i molnii/ はたかみなり, грозить /grozit'/ いかづち・かんだち・ごろつき #
c. はたかみ[丹後方言]。ヘブライ語は、名詞= raam, gilgul raam, kol, 動詞= raam, hir'iym, lir'om, l'har'iym で、ゴロゴロ系、のみであった。
【賛】ghanagarjita (= n. the roar of ★thunder , deep loud) かんなー、ゴロゴロだ【出雲弁】
【賛】dambholi (= m. Indra's ★thunderbolt 雷、稲光.) どんぶろ、どんどろ (b-d)【讃岐弁】
【賛】akSaja (= m. a diamond ; a ★thunderbolt ; N. of Vishn2u.) いかずち/いかづち
【民】irAtin2i (= 1. a tree; 2. a river; 3. Indra's ★thunderbolt; 4. lightning; 5. ★thunder (TLS)) 稲妻 (r-n)
【民】kamaRu-tal (= 1. to roar, as ★thunder; 2. to weep bitterly, cry very loud; 3. to be excessively heated, to become dry and hard;) 雷、雷を落とす、大声で泣く (雲鳴り→雷)、がなる 【琉球】■かみなり〔雷〕 / [首里・那覇方言]
関連語彙:カンナミー
〔初雷〕パちーガンナミ,〔雷が鳴ったときのまじないのことば〕くヮーギヌヒちャードー(→くヮーギ)
【賛】pAta (= 2 m. (for 1. see under 3. %{pA}) flying , mode of flying , flight MBh. ; throwing one's self or falling into (loc.) or from (abl.) , fall , downfall ; ; alighting , descending or causing to descend , casting or throwing upon , cast , fall 落ちた (of a ★thunderbolt) , throw , shot MBh.) パちー
【民】kaRumoRen2al (= onom. expr. オノマトペ表現 signifying (a) rumbling sound as a ★thunder cloud; crisp or crackling sound; (b) signs of anger) カンナミー (R-n)、ごろごろ
【賛】kapAlavajrin (= mfn. bearing 耐える a skull and a ★thunderbolt 頭蓋骨と落雷 Hcat.) くヮーギヌ (v-g)、くヮーギヌヒちャー
【賛】pratibaddha (= ; %{-prasara} mfn. hindered 妨げる、妨害する、邪魔する、遅らせる、された。 or blunted 刃がとがっていない in its course (as a ★thunderbolt) , Mallin.) ヒちャードー
c. 「くヮーギヌヒちャードー」の解釈は、インド人に聞いて欲しい。
【琉球】■グヮラーミカースン    (動詞)  雷などが鳴りとどろく。
【賛】karmavajra (= mfn. `" whose power (★thunderbolt 稲妻) is work 誰かさんの力が作用する"' (said of S3u1dras) MBh.) グヮラーミカースン (v-k, j-s, r-n)、かみなり (v-n)、ゴロゴロ (m 無音, v-g)
【宮古口】かンなイ /kamnaɿ/多かンな乚 /kamnaɭ/ 多友 鏡 名詞 〈多、友、鏡〉雷
【民】kamaRu-tal (= 1. to roar 〔怒りや苦しみなどで〕大声で叫ぶ、(泣き)わめく、怒鳴る, as ★thunder; 2. to weep bitterly, cry very loud; 3. to be excessively heated, to become dry and hard; 4. to feel a pungent sensation as that produced by chillies on the fire) かンなイ/かンな乚 (R-n)
【民】kaRumoRen2al (= onom. expr. signifying (a) rumbling sound as a ★thunder cloud; crisp or crackling sound; (b) signs of anger) かンなイなる (R-n, R-y)、ごろもろなる → ごろごろ
【出雲弁】かんなー  雷 ex. かんなーさんが 鳴った 【= 雷さんが 鳴った】
【賛】ghanagarjita (= n. the roar of ★thunder , deep loud) かんなー、ゴロゴロ
【出雲弁】あまる  (= (雷が)落ちる ex. 電柱ね雷があまった 【= 電柱に雷が落ちた】)
【民】an2al (= 01* 1. fire; 2. heat, as of fever, warmth, glow; 3. ★thunder-bolt 稲光、稲妻、落雷; 4. ceylon leadwort) あまる
c. 雷が落ちる、以外で、「あまる」が「落ちる」の意で用いるケースがあるのか?。インド辞書によると、あまる、は、落ちる、では無く、「雷」自身である。
【讃岐弁】 どんどろさん (= 【名】雷。「どんどろはん」)
【賛】dambholi (= m. Indra's ★thunderbolt 雷、稲光.) どんぶろ、どんどろ (b-d)
【ナッシーの語源帳】【日】くわばら くわばら   cf. 語源 【くわばら くわばら】
【賛】kapAlavajrin (= mfn. bearing a skull and a ★thunderbolt 稲妻・稲光 Hcat. 頭蓋骨と落雷を持っている) かぱらヴぁじゅりん → くわばらノ
【民】kaRumoRen2al (= onom. expr. オノマトペ表現 signifying (a) rumbling sound as a ★thunder cloud 雷雲が轟く様子; crisp or crackling sound; (b) signs of anger 怒りの印) くわもらナル →  くわばら鳴る (m-b) → くわばらくわばら、ゴロコロ鳴る、雲鳴る
【賛】karmavajra (= mfn. `" whose power (★thunderbolt) is work "' (said of S3u1dras) MBh.) くわばら (m-b)
--
【賛】rava (= m. roar, howl, ★thunder, yell, cry; sound or noise i.g.) らヴぁ → らい
330tide
しほ、しお、すー、しゅー
cf. 教育漢字 潮 うしを、しを tide   f17_1#n.46
【宮古口】そぅー /suu/多しゅー /ɕuu/ 多與 友新 鏡 名詞 〈全〉潮
【賛】sarira (= n. (cf. %{salila}) the heaving sea , flood , ★tide VS. TBr. ; = %{bahu} Naigh. iii , 1 ; the universe (= %{loka} or %{tri-loka}) VS.) そぅー/しゅー
331tie, bind together
むすぶ(結ぶ)、くびる、ゆう(結う) cf. 教育漢字 結ぶ tie つなぐ 繋ぐ (つなぐ)、繋がる   f17#1.105
c. 「くびる」系は、次の 332 tie down と兼務。
332tie down
しばる(縛る)、きびる、くびる、まるくし、ふんじばる、さまる、まくゆん
【賛】sambAdh (= A1. %{-bAdhate} , to press together , compress , press down AV. ; to ★bind firmly together Sa1n3khS3r. ; to oppress , afflict , torment R.) しばった
【賛】murv (= cl. 1. P. %{murvati} , to ★bind , tie Dha1tup. (cf. %{mUrvA}).) まるくし (v-k)
【賛】saMnah (= p. A1. %{-nahyati} , %{-te} , to ★bind or tie together , ★bind or fasten on , put or gird on (acc.) , clothe or furnish with (instr.) AV. ;) さま
【民】pin2n2u-tal (= 1. to plait, braid, lace, knit, weave, entwine, interweave; 2. to ★bind, hold fast; 3. to embrace; to say, tell; 1. to become united; 2. to stumble) ふん   --- ふんじぱる、の、「ふん」
【民】kaRRaipiTi-ttal (= 1. to braid coconut bands; 2. to ★fasten with kar6r6ai a hedge, the thatch on a house) カラッピチ → きびる △
【賛】karmabandha (= m. the ★tie or fetter of actions. 行動の結びつきまたは束縛。) かーまばんだ →くびる/きびる △
333time
とき、じかん
【宮古口】とぅキ /tukɿ/来友とぅつ /tutsɿ/ 多與 友新 鏡来 名詞 〈全〉時
cf. 教育漢字 時 とき time   f17_1#n.92file2#toki
【賛】tarhi (= adv. at that ★time その時, in that case, then (often correl. w. {yarhi, yad, yadA, yatra, yadi, ced}); therefore, then, now, well (esp. w. imper. or interr.).) とき (h-k)、とぅキ (h-k)
【賛】dhUka (= m. wind L. 風; rogue いたずらっ子、わんぱく小僧 L. ; ★time L. ; Mimusops Elengi Car.) とき
【民】tikku (= 03 1. cardinal and intermediate points 時刻, eight quarters; 2. protection, shelter, aid, asylum, refuge; 3. ★season 季節. opportunity) とき
【民】tEcakAlam (= hour, ★time (TLS)) 時間(じかん)
【賛】zaka (= ; an ★era 時代, epoch (cf. %{-kAla}) ; a year (of any era) Inscr. ; ) とき
334toilet
便所、ふる、ふい、ふり、ふるや、かばや、せっちん、はばかり、おんけ、くそごや、ちょうずば、ちょうずどころ、かんぜ
【賛】bhaGga (= mfn. breaking , bursting (said of the Soma) RV. ; m. breaking , splitting , dividing , shattering , breaking down or up VS. ; ; ★toilet , fashion (for %{bhaGgi}?) Var. ; ) べんしょ (+ん, G-j)
【秋田弁300】へんち (死語かも)  (= 大便所のことですが、「雪隠」の変形でしょうか。今は使いませんね。)
【賛】pITha (= n. seat, ★stool お丸・便器, bench ベンチ, pedestal.) へんち (+ ん)、べんじょ
c. 便所は、bench。雪隠は、 sitting。 臭い?。
【賛】praticAra (= m. personal adornment , ★toilet , S3i1l.) ふじょう
【民】kaLLavaRai (= 1. concealed 隠れた、隠し持っている room 隠し部屋 or ★closet whose existence no one would suspect; 2. a secret case or cell 〔分割された〕小部屋、個室。細胞 within a box or a cart) かわや (LL 無音)、かばや?
c. これによると、「かわや」は「川屋・河屋」系ではない模様。
【賛】saMveza (= m. approaching near to , entrance TS. Br. ; lying down , sleeping Ragh. ; dreaming , a dream W. ; a kind of sexual union L. ; a bedchamber BhP. ; a chair 椅子, seat , ★stool おまる〈俗〉トイレ、便所、便座、雪隠 L. ;) せんち、せっちん (+ん)、せんちゃ (v-n)、ちょうず
c. 【魚津弁】センチャ 【雪隠、大便所】、【大分弁】せんちん【便所】、【上方いろはカルタ】「せんちで饅頭」、【秋田弁】へんち (死語かも) 【大便所】
【賛】saMskAra (= m. (ifc. f. %{A}) putting together , forming well , making perfect , accomplishment , embellishment adornment , purification , cleansing , making ready , preparation , dressing (of food) , refining (of metals) , polishing (of gems) , rearing (of animals or plants) Gr2S3rS. ; cleansing the body , ★toilet , attire Hariv. ;) せんち、せっちん (r-n)
【京都弁】はばかりさん  (= ご苦労様、ありがとう。または便所のこと)
【民】pUmElvaittukkoTu-ttal (= lit., to give by placing on flowers. to pay back with grateful thanks) ぷーめるヴァイっこつ → はばかっ、+さん
【賛】svastyakSara (= n. expressing thanks for anything Hcat.) すヴァすてやくしゃーら → はヴァかりしゃん
【賛】praticAra (= m. personal adornment 装飾品, toilet 便所, S3i1l.) はばかり (r 反復)
【民】puRavAli (= latrine 便所, privy) はばかり (R 反復, v-k)、ふる、ふるい、ふい
c. 京言葉の語彙、から追加した。
c. 空耳アワー、の世界でおます。
【富山県・高岡弁】おんこば  (= 大便所。)
【民】veLikkuvA-tal(veLikkuvarutal) (= 1. to become public; 2. to fell urged to ★stool 排せつする、排便する 。トイレ、お丸・便器) おんこば (L-n)
c. うんこ、の、ルーツみたい。  ---- ちがった、ウンコのルーツは、下記。
【賛】uccAra (= mfn. rising TS. ; m. ★feces 糞、胎便, excrement 排泄物、糞便; discharge 〔液体や気体の〕放出、排出 Sus3r. ; pronunciation , utterance.) おんこ (+ん)、うんこ (+ん)、おんけ?
【富山県・高岡弁】かんしょば  (= 便所。)
【賛】guhyaniSyanda (= m. ★urine 小便、尿 L) かんしょ (先頭部)
【賛】gomUtra (= n. a cow's ★urine 牛の小便.) かんしょ (r 無音)、かんぜ?
c. 「ば」は「場」 place。
【佐久弁】ちょうつば  (= 手水場(便所)   ex. ちょうつばばっちょ )
不明 → 有った。
【賛】dehAsava (= m. `" body-liquid "' , ★urine 尿 Gal.) ちょうつば (s-t)
c. toilet, latrine, restroom, lavatory 等全てハズレた。
c. 「ちょうつば」とは、「小便」自身のこと。
c. 手水場(ちょうずば):1 便所のそばの手水を使う所。手洗い。 2 便所。かわや。
c. 手水舎(ちょうずや・ちょうずしゃ・てみずや・てみずしゃ)、も有るか? → 有る。
【賛】dhauta (= mfn. (2. %{dhAv}) washed , cleansed , ★purified 清める、浄化 Ta1n2d2Br. Sus3r.. ; washed off , removed , destroyed Ka1lid. S3is3. Bhat2t2. (cf. %{dhUta4}) [520,3] ; polished , bright , white , shining MBh. Ka1; (%{I}) f. washing ) ちょうず
【賛】dAta (= 3 mfn. cleansed , ★purified Pa1n2. 7-4 , 46 (cf. %{ava-} , %{vyava-}).) ちょうず
【魚津弁】ションベ  (= 小便、小便所    投げ出す)
【賛】srava (= m. flowing , streaming , a flow of (comp.) MBh. ; a waterfall L. ; ★urine 小便 L. ;) しょんべ (r-n)
【賛】sravaNa (= n. streaming , flowing , flowing off (also pl. ; cf. %{azva-sr-}) R. ; premature abortion VarBr2S. ; sweat , perspiration L. ; ★urine 小便、尿 L.) しょんべ (N 無音)、しょっぺん、しょうべん、しょんべん
c. 【博多弁消】ショッペン 【小便】
【魚津弁】ションベッカ  (= 小便専門の男便所の事。立派な漁村語です。  (情報提供:ハマ秀さん))
【賛】samprameha (= m. morbid 〔人や性格などが〕病的な flow 流れ of ★urine 尿  ---放尿 Car.) しょんべっか (m 無音, h-k)
【琉球】フール:便所。伝統的な沖縄家屋では、豚便所(ゥワーフール)と呼ばれる屋外に設けられた便所で、排泄物を飼料として豚を飼育していた。
【民】puRavAli (= ★latrine 〔キャンプ地などの公衆の〕仮設[野外]トイレ, privy) フール、ゥワーフール
335tomorrow
【賛】adyAzva (= n. the present and the ★following day 翌日 TS.) あした(明日)
【賛】zvas (= 2 adv. to-★morrow, next day; {zvaH zvas} from day to day, daily.)  --- あす、付ぶ明日
【賛】aparazvas (= ind. the day after to-★morrow Gobh.)  --- 発音は、 as + apa と、逆転特質?? アパラ明日→あさって
c. 100 年前のインドの英語辞書では、tomorrow より、to-morrow が主流。
【賛】auSasa (= mf(%{I})n. (fr. %{uSas}) , relating to dawn , early , matutinal TBr. ; (%{I4}) f. daybreak , ★morning S3Br. vi ; (%{am}) n. N. of several Sa1mans.) 朝、明日(あす)
【熊本弁】あすなさ  明日の朝 あすのあさ(ASUNOASA)が長ったらしいので,連続母音を詰めて(Oが抜け)ASUNASA(あすなさ)に
【賛】zvastana (= a. of to-morrow; n. & f. {I} the ★tomorrow 明日 or next day.) あすたな
【賛】uSA (= f. dawn, ★morning 朝.) あさ
【十津川弁】あけのあさ  (= 明けの朝 翌朝)
【賛】AkAlam (= adv. until the same hour (of the ★next day 明日、翌日、次の日).) あけの
【民】maikkAnAL (= next day, ★morrow) まけの、あけの (m 強無音)
【魚津弁】アスタアツラ  (= 明日あたり  ※アスタトとも言う)
【賛】uttaredyus (= ind. on a subsequent day , on the day following , ★to-morrow 明日 TS. ) あすたあつら (t-s)、あすたとや (t-s)
【土佐弁】 あいた(明日)
【賛】vastu (= 1 f. brightening, dawning; gen. {va3stos} in the ★morning 朝(あした), {prati vastos} towards ★morning.) あいた、、明日(あす) c. インド辞書の tomorrow に「あした」は無い。あしたは、朝(あした)である。
【琉球】アチャー(あちゃー)/ または:アチァー / / 意味/ 明日/ 解説/ よく使われる方言だと思います。
【賛】paredyavi (= ind. ★to-morrow Naish. ) アチャー、アチァー
【賛】uttaredyus (= ind. on a subsequent day , on the day following , ★to-morrow TS.) あちゃードユス、あした
【琉球】n■ナーチャ 翌日 [解説/ 明日とは少しニュアンスが違います。/ そんなに聞かない方言ではあります。]
【賛】nizitha (= m. (m. c.) = ★next 次; N. of one of the 3 sons of Dosha1 (night) BhP. (v.l. %{-zItha}).) ナーチャ
c. 単なる「次」の意。 day が省略された、と解釈。
【宮古口】あっぁ  明日
【宮古口】あつぁ /atsa/来あちゃ /atɕa/多友あた /ata/ 多與 皆友 新鏡 来 名詞 〈全〉明日
【民】maRRAnAL (= 1. next day, ★morrow; 2. day after the next) あっらノ (m 強無音)
336tool
【八重山】■【八】明日もお手伝いをお願いします。  あっつぁん てぃがない しー ひょーりよー。
【賛】zvastana (= a. of ★to-morrow; n. & f. {I} the ★tomorrow or next day.) あっつぁん
【民】tAgkinaTa-ttal (= to walk limpingly, hobble; to be lending ★support 支援) てぃがない し
【賛】prArthya (= mfn. to be desired or wished for by (instr. , gen. or comp.) , desirable Hariv. ; n. (impers.) one should ★request BhP.) ひょーりよー (th 無音)
【趣200.】 ★instrument - sa'eš (= [★INSTRUMENT] wr. ĝešsa-eš; sa-eš; ĝešsa-eš5 "a type of musical ★instrument" ) 幸/利(さち) (š-ch) [= 道具(どうぐ)]
【宮古口】どーヴ /dooʋ/多どー /doo/ 多與 皆友 新鏡 来 名詞 〈全〉道具
【民】taLavATam (= ★tools, materials, requisites, tackle, furniture) どーヴたむ → どーヴ
【民】turappaNam (= auger, drill, ★tool for boring holes 穴あけ道具) どーヴもん
【賛】zastra (= ; any instrument or ★tool (see comp.) ; iron , steel L. ; a razor L.) どー
337tooth
cf. 教育漢字 歯 シ、は、よわい tooth, teeth, blade   f17_1#n.301
338trap
わな
【賛】vAgurA (= f. a net (for catching deer or wild animals) , trap , toils , ★snare , noose MBh. and c.) わーぐらー → わな (g-n, r-n)
339trip wire, trap
やーま、やま
【賛】jAla (= 2 n. a net (for catching birds , fish &c.) ; a hairnet A1p. ; a net (fig.) , ★snare Ya1jn5.) じゃーら → やーま (j-y, l-m)  △
c. trip wire = 仕掛け線  contraption 〔機械の〕新案、工夫。珍妙な仕掛け、奇妙な機械装置
340tree
き(き)
cf. 教育漢字 木 き tree   f17_1#n.4
【趣】ĝiš, ĝeš (= : n., ★tree; wood; wooden implement; scepter; tool; organ; plow; natural phenomenon    (describes a trunk that goes out into many branches and leaves) [GIŠ archaic frequency; 381].    adj., describes an animal assigned to the plow (sometimes ĝiš-šè).) ぎしゅ、きぎ (g-k, s-k)
341tub
【趣】aga (= [★VESSEL] (5x: Old Babylonian) wr. zabaraga "a type of vessel") 桶(おけ)
【宮城弁ミヤ90】こえたご  (= 肥桶。 「こえ(肥)たご(桶)」というわけで,”肥桶”のこと。)
【賛】udaGka (= m. a ★bucket 桶(オケ)or vessel 器 (for oil &c. but not for water) Pa1n2. ; (%{a4s}) m. N. of a man S3Br. ; m. pl. the descendants of Udan3ka g. %{upakA7di} Pa1n2. ; (%{I}) f. a ★bucket Ma1nS3r. ) たご (語頭 u 無音) or おけ (d 無音)
c. 関東では、肥桶(こいおけ)と言う。東北は、桶を「たご」と呼ぶんですね。
【民】kuppal (= 1. heap 堆積, as of ★manure 堆肥(たいひ); 2. high ground, mound; 3. multitude, company) こえ・こひ
c. heap ヒープ、という英語は、「こひ・こえ」(h-k) そのものです。  ex. heap memory
c. 肥溜(こいだめ)に落ちる。汲み取り便所。天秤棒。もう無いね。 富士山の山小屋にあるかな (?)。
【出雲弁】はんぎり (= (家畜の餌などを入れる)背の低い大きな桶 ex. 押し切りで藁をきって、はんぎりに入れてごせ。 【= 押し切り(道具で)で藁を切って、(家畜の餌を入れる)背の低い大きな桶に入れてくれ。】)
【博多弁・消滅寸前】ハンギリ  (= tub 【鮨桶】  底の浅いたらい状の桶。ハンは盤。皿状のものの意。盤切桶。半桶ともいう。)
【民】pakkAyam (= ★tub タブ、桶 (TLS)) はんぎり (+ん, y-ri)
【出雲弁】だおけ  (= (馬草など家畜の)餌桶 ex. 夏だけんたんびにだおけを洗って馬草をやれよ。 【= 夏だからたんびに餌桶を洗って馬草をやれよ。】)
【民】tozuku (= cattle-stall, ★manger 飼い葉桶) だおけ (z-w)
【博多弁・消滅寸前】コガイ  (= pot, kettle 【手桶】)
【民】kAcaNTi (= a kind of ★pot with a wide mouth 広口ポット) こがい (NTi-i)
【民】kukaiccaTTi (= ★kettle ケトル) こがい (先頭部)
c. 手桶 pail には近いものが無かった。pot, vessel も check した。
【魚津弁】オッキヤーサ  (= 桶屋、桶職人)
【民】akalavAycci (= * howel, ★cooper's 桶屋の tool for smoothing work, as in the inside of a cask) おっきやーさ
c. 魚津弁は、まるで、「シーラカンス(生きた化石)」の様。
c. 桶もある。
【魚津弁】テジョケ  (= 手桶)
【民】vakku (= 03 1. skin; 2. contused wound; 3. ★water-trough 洗いおけ) おけ
【賛】viveka (= ; a ★water trough (= %{jala-droNI}) ) おけ
【民】toTTi (= 01 1. ★water-trough, tub タブ, cistern, reservoir; 2. manger 飼い葉桶, crib; 3. refuse bin; 4. howdah; 5. toddy; 6. a prepared arsenic) てじょ
【民】pakkAyam (= ★tub 桶 (TLS)) おけやの
【琉球】n■ウーキ
【民】pakkAyam (= ★tub (TLS)) ウーキの (p 無音)
342turn about
回る(まわる)
cf. 教育漢字 回 まわ(る) 回る spin   p17#2.101
【民】nUl-tal(nURRal) (= 01 1. to ★spin; 2. to compose, as a poem; to make a plot) まーる、まわる
【民】maRi-ttal (= 02 1. to stop, detain, arrest, check; 2. to ★turn about; to return; 3. to turn upside down, upset; 4. to destroy; 5. to wave the hand, as an indication of disapproval; 6. to repeat, double) まーい、まーる
【チベ】rmel ba /mel ba/ (= (tha dad pa),, [R] pluck out, ★spin, sort [IW]) まーる べ   バカ文字システムの権化。(r 無音)
343turtle
【熊本弁】がめ  (= 亀(かめ) 亀だけでなく,スッポンも言う場合も。八代妙見祭りに登場する想像上の動物「亀蛇(きだ)」の愛称がガメ)
【賛】kUrma (= m. a ★tortoise , ★turtle 亀) がめ、カメ
【民】kamaTam (= ★turtle, ★tortoise) がめ、かめさん
【賛】kamaTha (= m. ★tortoise.) 亀ダ
【博多弁・消滅】ゴーズ  (= turtle, tortoise 【石亀】 --- コウズやクウズともいう。ゴウは甲羅のことやろばってん、...)
【賛】kaTAha (= m. (rarely %{I} f. n.) a frying-pan ; a boiler , caldron , saucepan (of a semi-spheroidal shape and with handles) MBh. ; a ★turtle's shell 亀の甲羅 L. ;) ごーず、こうず、くうず
【賛】karpara (= m. cup コップ, pot; a ★turtle's shell.) こうら (p 無音)、かっぱ (r 無音)
c. すっぽんのルーツは、下記カモ。
但し、スッポン = 【英】a Chinese soft-shell [soft-shelled] turtle《動物》、の定義は、当たらない。
【賛】stUpapRSTha (= m. `" hard-backed 固い背中の"' , a ★turtle , tortoise L.) すっぽん (R-n) だ
344umbrella
cf. アルタイ諸語 語彙対応比較表 cap (冠)   f17_1#al.69
【民】kUrccukkullA (= conical shaped ★cap 円錐形の帽子) かさっから、かさ
【民】catti (= 06 ★umbrella) かさ (c-k)
【宮古口】さな /sana/多しゃな /ɕana/ 多友 新鏡 名詞 〈全〉傘
【民】caNNAram (= ★umbrella-making (TLS)) さなラム/しゃなラム
【民】taNal (= 02 ★shade 〔ランプなどの〕シェード、傘, shady spot) さな (t-s, l 無音)
【魚津弁】コンモルガサ   (= こうもり傘、洋傘)
【賛】kAvAra (= n. the aquatic plant Vallisneria L. ; (%{I}) f. `" keeping off the water "' , an ★umbrella 雨傘 (esp. one without a stick 特に、枝の無いもの ? ) L.) こんもる (+ん, v-m)、かーさ (r-s)
【民】kuTai (= 02 1. ★umbrella 雨傘, parasol パラソル、日傘, canopy 天蓋(のように覆うもの)、張り出し屋根。〔落下傘の〕傘。〔パラグライダーの〕翼;) かさ
345urinate
まる、ばる、しばり しゅり、しーべん する、たたる、たれ、ふる、ひる、ゆまる、しばい
【民】malanIr (= ★urine) まらにーる、→ まる
【糸島弁】まる   (= 小便をする)
【民】nIr (= ; 6. ★urine 尿;) まる (n-m)、尿(にょう)
【民】uvari (= 1. brackish water; 2. ★urine; 3. sea) ゆばり、ゆまり (v-m)
【賛】bAlIza (= m. retention 保持力 of ★urine L.) ばーりーつぁ → ばる
【賛】samprameha (= m. morbid flow of ★urine Car.) しょんべんハ
【賛】sarpirmehin (= mfn. having ★urine like clarified butter Sus3r.) さるぴるめしん → しーべん
【博多弁・消滅寸前】イビタレ  (= urine 【寝小便】)
【民】avAri (= ★urine 尿 (TLS)) いび (r 無音)、いばり
【民】tuLi-ttal (= 01 1. to drip, fall in ★drops, as rain, as tears, as honey; to trickle down; 2. to rain) 垂れ
c. 「寝浸(いびた)れ」、の変化では無いと思う。「いばり・垂れ」の変化だと思う。
【博多弁・消滅寸前】オカワ  (= stool, urine  【おまる・便器】)
【賛】gu (= 4 (= 1. %{gU} q.v.) cl. 6. P. %{guvati} , to void 排尿する、排便する by ★stool おまる、便器 Dha1tup. (cf. %{vi-gUna}.)) かわ (g-k, t 無音)
c. 先頭の「お」は、御の丁寧語接頭辞。「お」+「かわ」
c. 「おまる」も有るヨ。「お」+「まる」
【民】mOrA (= 03 ★foot-stool 足乗せ台) まる
c. 尚、糸島弁の「まる(= 小便をする)」【民】nIr (= ; 6. ★urine 尿;) まる、は別物であるが(どっちかというとコッチが当たり)、親戚関係。
【博多弁・消滅寸前】ショッペン  (= urine 【小便】)
【賛】sravaNa (= n. streaming , flowing , flowing off (also pl. ; cf. %{azva-sr-}) R. ; premature abortion VarBr2S. ; sweat , perspiration L. ; ★urine 小便 L.) しょっぺん、しょうべん、しょんべん
【十津川弁】ちびる   (= 少しだす 糞便等を我知らずもらすこと)
■ 魚津弁 file copy: 【魚】ツベル 【ちびる、失禁】
【民】cARippO-tal (= to prove futile; to ★fail 失敗する, as a business) かぶ (c-k) る、ちび る、つべ る
【民】calOpAtai (= 1. difficulty in passing urine 尿放出時の困難・問題) しかぶる、つべた
c. 【熊本弁】しかぶる 【尿を漏らす,失敗する し損なう,尿に限らず失敗全般。ションベンばシカブらした(小便を漏らされた) 大はタルカブル (投稿)】
c. 【[八丈島弁ハチ26]】 しかぶる 【(仕被(しかぶ)る; 小便をもらす)】
【十津川弁】いかだをのる  (= ね小便をすること)
【賛】AghAta (= ; retention 《医》〔本来排出されるべき便や尿などの分泌物の〕滞留。保有、保存、保持、保持率 (of ★urine 尿 &c.) ; misfortune 不運, pain 痛み L. ;) いかだ
【民】amari (= 01* ★urine 尿) おのる
【賛】zayyAmUtra (= n. wetting a bed with ★urine ベッドを尿で濡らすことS3a1rn3gS.) いかだをのる (z-y, y-k)、夜尿症 (m-n)
c. つまり、 「いかだおのる」 = 「不運な尿(尿保持疾患)」が、日本で「いかだをのる」に化けた。カモ。
c. 普通なら「いかだにる」と伝言ゲームしていくと思うが、「いかだのる」と言いにくい言葉を保持している所がスバラシイ (?)。
【土佐弁】 ばる ([小便を]する)
【民】pey-tal (= 1. to rain, fall, as dew or hail; 1. to pour down, pour into; 2. to put, place, lay, put into, serve up, as food in a dish; 3. to throw out, throw aside; ; 13. to discharge 排尿する, as ★urine 尿; to shed, as tears 涙を流す;)
【琉球】シーバイ(しーばい)/ 意味/ 小便/ おしっこ/ 解説/ 男性は「シーバイしてくるさー(トイレに行ってくる)」等と使ったりします。/ / 女性が使うのはやめた方がよいです。/ / 幼児語で赤ちゃんに「シーシー」と言ったりします。
【賛】srava (= m. flowing , streaming , a flow of (comp.) MBh. ; a waterfall L. ; ★urine L. ;) シーバイ、【今帰仁】スベー
【賛】sravaNa (= n. streaming , flowing , flowing off (also pl. ; cf. %{azva-sr-}) R. ; premature abortion VarBr2S. ; sweat , perspiration L. ; ★urine L.) 小便(しょうべん) 【賛】samprameha (= m. morbid flow of ★urine Car.) しょんべん
【民】tIccaTam (= ★urine) シーシーたむ、しっこタム
【琉球】■【八重山】しぅばれぅー (= 小便、おしっこ)
【賛】samprameha (= m. morbid flow of ★urine Car.) しぅばれぅー (m-w, m-w)、しょんべん
【琉球】■スベーハヂャー    (= (名詞)  小便のにおい。)
☑【賛】srava (= m. flowing , streaming , a flow of (comp.) MBh. ; a waterfall L. ; ★urine 尿 L. ;) シーバイ、【今帰仁】スベー
☑【賛】vA, vAti, vAyati, -te (= , pp. {vAta3} 3 & {vAna} (---) blow, blow near [[-,]] or towards (tr. & intr.), spread (intr. of odours), ★smell 臭い. ) 【今帰仁】ハヂャー、カジャー (v-k)
【宮古口】ゆっぱイ /juppaɿ/多すば乚 /sɿbaɭ/與すばイ /sɿbaɿ/新鏡ゆすぱイ /jusɿpaɿ/ 多與 新鏡 名詞 〈全〉小便
【民】uvari (= 1. brackish water; 2. ★urine; 3. sea) ゆっぱイ、いばり/ゆばり(尿)
【賛】vAtavasti (= f. suppression of ★urine Sus3r. ) ゆすぱイだ
【賛】srava (= m. flowing , streaming , a flow of (comp.) MBh. ; a waterfall L. ; ★urine L. ; ) すばイ
【賛】sravaNa (= n. streaming , flowing , flowing off (also pl. ; cf. %{azva-sr-}) R. ; premature abortion VarBr2S. ; sweat , perspiration L. ; ★urine L.) すばイな、すば乚 (N-乚)、しょうべん(小便)
---
【趣】šag4, šà (= : n., intestines; gut; heart; stomach; abdomen; entrails; content; womb; body; interior, midst,    inside; bed of a river; will, volition; mood; meaning, significance (grain/excrement + water/★urine +    chamber) [ŠA3 archaic frequency; 137; concatenates 6 sign variants].    prep., in; at.) さく、さ → しっこ、しか、しー
【趣】 - [ še10: ★excrement 排せつ物、糞便, dung. ] シー or しっこ[しー + 子?] 〇  [シーする? 日本, pee する? 海外]
【民】avAri (= ★urine (TLS)) いばり
【民】tIccaTam (= ★urine) ちっこタム
【民】nIr (= 01 1. water, one of the five elements; 2. sea, ocean; 3. juice, liquor; 4. rosewater; 5. humours of the body, as serum, lymph; 6. ★urine; ~) 尿
346use
cf. 教育漢字 使う use 用いる   f17#1.71
347vomit   ★--- 語順不正。vo が vi の前にある。★
はく(吐く)、えずく、たばく
【民】pAkkukkakkal (= chewed betel ★spit out) ぱーっくっかっかる → はきかける
【宮城弁ミヤ95】こったばぎ  (= 吐くこと。 「ねご,ぬわで,こったばぎすてだ」:猫が庭で吐いているよ。)
【民】kuttippiTugkutal (= to have a tendency to ★vomit) こったばぎ, こった
【石見弁】えづく(えづいた)  (= 吐く、(吐いた))
【土佐】 えずく(吐く)   他サイトから挿入  酒飲んでえずる(酒飲んで吐きそう)
【京都弁】えずく  (= はく、嘔吐する)
【民】eTu-ttal (= ; 20. to ★vomit 食べた物を吐く; ) えず
【民】etireTu-ttal (= 1. to ★vomit) えず
---
【民】kAl(lu)-tal (= to ★vomit 嘔吐する, disgorge) げろ
【博多弁・消滅寸前】タグル  (= cough 【咳き込む】  吐(たぐ)る。咳を吐くが語源。)
【民】teRkattikkaNai (= bronchitis, broncho-pneumonia, whooping cough 《医》百日咳, infantile convulsions) たぐった
c. 糸島弁と同じ。
【淡路島弁】ぎょぉ  (= (吐くときの言葉)おぇえ。嘔吐。「ぎょぉする」「ぎょぉゆ(言)う」で「嘔吐する」という意味になる。 例文:ほんないっぺんにメシくうたらぎょぉゆうぞ。(例文訳:そんなに一度にゴハンを食べたら「おぇえ」と言うぞ{吐いてしまうぞ}。))
【賛】khAdatavamatA (= f. (Impv. 2. pl. fr. %{vam}) continual eating and ★vomiting 嘔吐 ib. (v.l.)) ぎょぉ してまったー (v 無音)
【博多弁・消滅寸前】タバキ  (= vomit 【猫の吐しゃ】  唾吐(たば)きか。毛づくろいで腹に入った毛玉を吐くために、草を食べたりするとです。)
【民】kuTaRpiTugki (= blue vitriol, as cusing vomiting 嘔吐 sensation) たばき、ごだばぎ、こったばき
【民】kuttippiTugkutal (= to have a tendency to vomit) タバキ、ごだばぎ、こったばき
c. 東北弁の「ごだばぎ、こったばき(= 吐き気・嘔吐(おうと))」 と同じ。
c. インド辞書に「タバキ」の「た~」は無かった。なお、インド辞書によると、
【民】kuttu-tal (= ; 2. to puke 〈俗〉〔食べた物を〕吐く、戻す[【同】vomit], vomit, belch up) ごだ
なので、英語の俗語でも puke はく、というのですね。
【魚津弁】イタク  (= 吐く)
【賛】udgRR (= P. %{-girati} , to eject (from the mouth) 吐き出す、〔液体・煙などを〕噴出する、排出する, spit out , ★vomit ゲロを吐く out or up , belch out ; to pour out , discharge , spout MBh. ) いたくる
【琉球】■ハチュン 吐く
【民】vAyAleTu-ttal (= to ★vomit) ハチュ
【宮古口】ぱキでぃ /pakɿdi/多ぱキでぃ乚 /pakɿdiɭ/ 多與 新鏡 動詞 皆ぱキでぃ、ぱキどぅん 〈皆、與、新〉吐く  〈多、鏡〉嘔吐する、(胃の中身を)もどす
【賛】pracchRd (= ( %{chRd}) , Caus. %{-cchardayati} , to ★vomit Sus3r.) ぱキでぃ/ぱキでぃ乚
348village
cf. 教育漢字 村 むら village, hamlet   f17_1#n.19
349vine
つる、かずら、あびる、かず
cf. アルタイ諸語 語彙対応比較表 【英】 green (綠)   f17_1#al.102
350vinegar
2 Inheritance going back to the Neolithic
   |-- 2.2. Reconstructions for food production and preservation
      |-- (3) Proto-Transeurasian *sü:- ‘to reduce/preserve food by fermentation’
351wake up, (get up), vi
cf. 教育漢字 起 お(きる) 起きる get up, awake   f17#2.111
352warm
温い(ぬくい)
cf. 教育漢字 温い warm   f17#a.52
353wash
cf. 教育漢字 洗う wash   f17#1.156
354washtub
たらい
【宮古口】多皆びんだらい /bindarai/新びんだらイ /bindaraɿ/来びんだらイがに /bindaraɿgani/ 多皆 新来 名詞 〈皆、多、新、来〉洗面器
【賛】praNejana (= , f. {I} wiping away (---); n. ★washing away, bathing, water for ★washing.) びん
【民】tavalai (= metallic ★pot with a wide mouth 広口の金属製ポット) たらい
【賛】sUryAvarta (= ; N. of a ★water-basin S3atr. ; ) すーるゃーヴぁーた → たらい(盥)   △
355water
cf. 教育漢字 水 water   f17_1#n.17
cf. アルタイ諸語 語彙対応比較表 f17_1#al.42 water
356water, vi
水掛ける(かける)、水撒く(まく)
【賛】kAkAra (= %{as} , %{I} , %{am} mf. n. ★scattering water W.) かかる
【民】kakku-tal (= 01 1. to vomit, spew from the stomach; 2. to eject, as a snake its poison; 1. to skip with a rebound, fly back, recoil, as a nail; 2. to overflow, as a river; 3. to shoot out, as ears of corn; 4. to yield the essence, as drugs put in boiling ★water; 5. to ooze out, as oil through the pores of the skin) 掛け
【賛】kRR (= 1 cl. 6. P. %{kira4ti} (Pa1n2. ; perf. %{-cakAra} Pa1n2. ; 2nd fut. %{kariSyati} ; 1st fut. %{karitA} or %{karItA} Vop. ; aor. %{akArIt} [Ved. %{sa4M@kA4riSat}] ; ind. p. %{-kIrya} ; Pass. %{kIryate}) , to pour out , ★scatter , throw , cast , disperse RV. ;) 掛ける
【賛】nirvap (= P. A1. %{-vapati} , %{-te} (pf. %{-vavApa} R. , %{-uvApa} Bhat2t2. , %{-Upe} RV. ; fut. %{-vapsyati} TBr. , %{-vapiSyati} Hariv. R.) , to pour out , sprinkle スプリンクル, ★scatter , to offer , present (esp. sacrificial food , the funeral oblation or libation to deceased relatives) ;) まく (v-k)
【賛】vyAghR (= Caus. %{-ghArayati} , to ★sprinkle round or over , ★besprinkle TS. ) まく (v-m)
【賛】viralIkR (= P. %{-karoti} , to ★scatter , disperse Sin6ha7s. (%{-kRta} mfn. Hariv.) ;) ばらまく (l-m)
357wear, vt
cf. 教育漢字 着 き(る) 着る clothe, dress   f17#2.109
【琉球】■チュン 着る
【民】tITTu-tal (= to ★wear (TLS)) チュ
【民】toTu-tal (= 01 1. to touch, come in contact with, feel or perceive by the touch; 2. to handle, take hold of use; 3. to be connected, united with or joined to; 4. to ★put on, as a ring, clothes;) チュ
--
【民】kO-ttal (= 02 1. cf. grath tostring, as beads, flowers, ola leaves; to file; to insert; to thread, as a needle; 2. to compose, compile, arrange, reduce to order; to systematise; 3. to narrate in order; 4. to enumerate, recount; 5. to invent, as a story, in a clever and fitting manner; 6. to ★put on, to wear; 7. to clasp, join, interlock, as the hands; 8. to unite, merge; 9. to envelop, cover; 10. to oppose, resist)  る
【琉球】■スガールン    (動詞)  スーガンともいう。〈1〉装う。容儀をととのえる。身支度をする。着飾る。〈2〉支度する。準備する。
【賛】saMskR (= 1. (cf. %{saM-kR} ; %{upa-s-kR} and %{pari-S-kR}) P. A1. %{-skaroti} , %{-skurute} (impf. %{sam-askurvata} TS. ; pf. %{saM-caskAra} Nir. ; aor. %{sam-askRta} ; Prec. %{saM-skriyAt} , %{saM-skRSISTa} ; fut %{saM-skariSyati} MBh. ; inf. %{saM-skaritum} DivyA7v. ; ind. p. %{saM-skRtya} S3Br. , to put together , form well , join together , compose RV. ; (A1.) to accumulate (%{pApAni} , to add evil to evil "') Mr2icch. ; to prepare 準備, make ready , ★dress 着る, cook (food) MBh.; to form or arrange according to sacred precept , consecrate , hallow (in various ways ; cf. %{saM-skAra}) Mn. ; to adorn 飾る, embellish , refine , elaborate , make perfect , (esp.) form language according to strict rules (cf. %{saM-skRta}) Sarvad. ; ) スガール/スーガン (R-n)
【宮古口】キす /kssɿ/多きー乚 /kiiɭ/ 多與 新鏡 動詞 皆キす、きし、キさん 多きー乚、きーん 〈全〉着る
【民】kaTTu-tal (= 01 1. to tie, bind, fasten, shackle; 2. to build, construct, fix, erect; 3. to establish, as a theory; 4. to hug, embrace; 5. to support, sustain; 6. to tie on, adorn with; 7. to ★wear, to be dressed in; to ★put on, as clothes;) きす
【民】tITTu-tal (= to ★wear (TLS)) しす、しすん (+ん)
358weave, vt.
cf. 教育漢字 居る、織る、折る、おる   f17#2.7
【琉球】■ウユン  織る
【賛】Ave (= 1 P. %{-vayati} , to ★weave on to ; to interweave , string ; to sew loosely AV. ) ウユ
【賛】Uy (= cl. 1. A1. %{Uyate} , %{UyAm-Asa} , %{UyitA} , %{UyiSyate} , %{UyiSTa} , to ★weave , sew = %{ve} ) ウユ
【琉球】■フチュン    (動詞)  〈1〉打つ。たたく。ぶつ。〈2〉討つ。〈3〉撃つ。〈4〉(田を)耕す。〈5〉(むしろを)編む。織る。〈6〉投げうつ。〈7〉(型を)つける。〈8〉(まりなどを)つく。
【民】pOTu-tal (= ; 10. to strike 打つ、叩く; to stamp; to ★beat, as a drum; ) フチュ、ぶつ
【民】veTiccuTu-tal (= 1. to fire a ★gun 拳銃砲火; 2. to cause an explosion 爆発) フチュ
【民】payiriTu-tal (= 01 to ★cultivate 耕す) フチュ
【賛】veda (= 3 m. (perhaps connected with 1. %{ve} , to ★weave織る or bind 結う together) a tuft or bunch 束 of strong grass (Kus3a or Mun5ja) made into a broom 箒 (and used for sweeping , making up the sacrificial fire &c. , in rites) AV.) フチュ
【賛】vorapaTTi (= f. a sort of ★mat マット、むしろ、ゴザ or mattress マットレス for sleeping on (perhaps made of the straw 藁(わら) of the Vora) L.) フチュ
【民】pOTu-tal (= 01 1. to cast down, ★throw a short distance 近くへ投げる、放る; to cast away; 2. to put, set in a position, apply, lay; 3. to fasten, as a bolt; 4. to put on, as ornaments; ) フチュ
【賛】piz, pizati, -te (= , pp. {pizita3} 1 & {piSTa3} (q.v.) cut up, carve [[-,]] (esp. meat), arrange, prepare, adorn, shape, ★form; M. also refl. adorn one's self, be brilliant or beautiful. -- {abhi} & {A} adorn 飾る, embellish. --Cf. {pepiza3t, pe3pizAna}.) フチュ
【賛】piz (= ; to ★form , fashion , mould 鋳型、型にはめる RV. :) フチュ
【民】pAyccu (= 03 spring, ★leap 飛び跳ねる) フチュ
【宮古口】皆友與ぶイ /buɿ/多う乚 /uɭ/新鏡うイ /uɿ/ 多與 友新 鏡 動詞 皆ぶイ、ぶり、ぶらん 多う乚、うりー、うらん 〈全〉織る
【民】vala-ttal (= 01 1. to encircle, surround; 2. to spin, as a spider its thread; to plait; to ★weave; 3. to string in a series; 4. to tie, bind; 5. to bend) ぶイ/う乚/うイ
【賛】Uy (= cl. 1. A1. %{Uyate} , %{UyAm-Asa} , %{UyitA} , %{UyiSyate} , %{UyiSTa} , to ★weave , sew = %{ve} q.v. Dha1tup.) うイ
【賛】vA, vayati, -te (= , pp. {uta3} 2 or {Uta} ★weave, interweave, plait, fig. [[-,]] = compose (hymns etc.). -- {A} ★weave or lay in, interweave; also = {samA} M. string upon (loc.). {ud} bind up, suspend. {pari} interweave; tie round, fetter, ensnare. {pra} weave or tie to (loc.). {vi} plait, twist, weave. {sam} weave together, interweave, inlay or adorn with (instr.). -- Cf. {o3ta, prota, vyu3ta, vyUta, samuta3}.) ぶイ
359wedge
くさび、ふさび
【民】kaTAvu-tal (= 01 1. to discharge, as missiles; to propel; 2. to ride, as an animal; to drive, as a car; 3. to drive in, as a nail くぎ, a peg くい, a ★wedge くさび; to nail on; to join by nail, as boards; 4. to buffet, cuff; 5. to interrogate, question; 6. to urge, impel, influence) 楔(くさび)タル
360weigh, measure, vt
cf. 教育漢字 測・計・図・量  はか(る) 測る、計る、図る、量る measure, weigh   f17#2.14
361west
えり、にし、いり
cf. アルタイ諸語 語彙対応比較表 west (right)   f17_1#al.13
cf. 教育漢字 西 セイ、サイ、スイ、にし west   f17_1#n.363
【琉球】イリ(いり) (= 意味 西 解説 太陽が沈む(入る)方角なので「イリ」となります。)
【賛】avara (= lower, inferior; posterior, following, later, younger; nearer; preceding (w. abl.); ★western; vile, base, mean; --- at least in adj., n. in adv. --f. {avarA} after-birth.) イリ、えり
362whale
【賛】kAtala (= m. a kind of large ★fish 大きい魚 (Cyprinus Catla cf. %{kAtara}) L. ;) くじら
【琉球】■グンヂャ /guNza/  (名詞) 動物 意味: 鯨。
【民】cilattiRkaTuku (= ★whale) グンヂャかつぐ (l-n, c-k)、くじらつく (l 無音, c-k)
363wheat
3. Language contact in the Bronze Age
   |- Ancient borrowings from a Proto-Tungusic model
     |- (1) BARLEY, WHEAT
364whet, vt.
〔刃物などを〕研ぐ(とぐ)、磨く、けず る
cf. 教育漢字 研ぐ whet   f17#1.16
【賛】cud (= ; Pan. %{codyamAna}) , to sharpen , ★whet RV.) けず
【民】karukkiTu-tal (= to grind, whet, sharpen edge) けず、かるきず → けず
c. 同系復音は、短音に空耳アワーする。
365white
cf. 教育漢字 白 white   f17_1#n.11
cf. スワデシュ・リスト 207 妻   f20#s.40 cf. アルタイ諸語 語彙対応比較表   f17_1#al.98 white
366wide
cf. 教育漢字 広い wide, broad   f17#a.42
367wife
とんし、おっかた、つじ、とじ、つま(妻)、かない(家内)、おみゃ、おいがんと、うちんかかー、かかー、うちのかか、うちにゃちゅ、あり、にょうぼう(女房)、ごりょんさん(御料人様)
c. 【大阪弁】ごりょんさんごりょさん、ごりょはん: 御料人様、御寮人様。良家の主人の妻、娘や若い妻。昔商家で使われていた。もとは中流家庭の子供を敬って呼ぶ語で、配偶など御料(御寮)になるべき人の意。アクセントは「ご」。船場言葉。
【民】kaLam (= 05 ★wife) ごりょん
【賛】gRhapatnI (= (%{-ha4-}) f. the mistress of a house , a householder's ★wife RV.) ごりょはん (t 無音)
cf. 上代日本語 (Old Japanese) の代表サンプル from wikipedia    f17#on.22
cf. 教育漢字 女 ジョ、ニョ、ニョウ、おんな、め、むすめ、めあわせる、なんじ woman, female   f17_1#n.379
【趣[S1]】dam (= : spouse 配偶者 (husband or ★wife 妻) (da, 'side; nearness; to hold, protect', + am, 'to be; who') [DAM archaic frequency: 10].) つま
【趣474.】 [ kid2,7 (= : to pinch off (clay); to remove; to ★divorce 離婚; to dispossess; to open (ground with motion away from; cf., kìr, 'to nip off clay').)] 絶妻之誓(ことど)の、こと
- [ kù-dam-taka4 (= : ★divorce settlement ('silver' + 'spouse' + 'to leave with a person'). )] 絶妻之誓わたし(ことどわたし) (m-w, k-s)
【趣559.】 marry - [ dam...tuku/du12-du12 (= : to marry ('spouse' + 'to get'). )] 嫁ぐ(とつぐ) (m 無音) ◎
or 娉ふ(つまどふ) ◎

万4-0529; 大伴坂上郎女の註: 右郎女ハ、佐保大納言卿ノ女ナリ。初メ一品(ヒトツノシナ)穂積皇子ニ嫁ギ、寵被ルコト儔(タグヒ)無シ。皇子薨(スギマ)シシ後、藤原麻呂大夫郎女ヲ娉(ツマド)フ。郎女坂上ノ里ニ家ス。仍レ族氏(ウヂ)ヲ坂上郎女ト号(イ)フナリ。
c. 伝言ゲームで、嫁・妻をもらう、の意味が、主体が逆転して、嫁に行く、に変更されていますね。面白い。
【趣】šà-zu (= : ★midwife ('womb' + 'to know').) とじ (š-t)
tappatu(m), tappattu (= "(female) companion, partner" OA, O/jB [TAB.BA- ]; also Bab. "secondary ★wife" [dam.TAB.BA]; < tappu I) トヅ
【民】tOzi (= 01 1. a lady's maid; 2. heroine's confidante, being the daughter of her fostermother; 3. ★wife; 4. maidservant) トゥジ
【賛】dAra (= 2 m. sgl. & pl. (f. {A} & n. pl.) ★wife; {dArAn kR} or {pra--kR} take a ★ wife, marry.) つま (r-m)
【賛】vazakA (= f. an obedient ★wife L.) おっかー
【民】tuNai (= 01 1. association, company; 2. help, assistance, aid, succour, support; 3. protection, guidance; 4. partner, companion, mate; 5. escort, convoy, helpmate; 6. friend; 7. pair, couple, brace; 8. two; 9. husband; 10. ★wife, mate; 11. brother or sister; 12. comparison, similitude; 13. measure; extent; degree; quantity; number; 14. conjugal union) とぅない → とぅまい → つま
【民】vAzkkai (= 1. livelihood, living; 2. life-time; career; 3. married life; 4. ★wife; 5. happy state;) おっかー
【タイ語】phṭhū (= bride, woman, ★wife, female) 夫婦(ふうふ) (t 無音)
【ネパール語】Śrīmatī つまだ
●156. 「鬼の女房に鬼神」 尾張いろはかるた
   [aNagku, anugantavya, aNukkan2] 同音群
【民】aNagku (= ; 10. devil 鬼; ) おにが
【賛】anugantavya (= mfn. to be followed (as a husband by a ★wife 妻 in death) ; worthy of being imitated , to be looked for or discovered Pa1n2.) おにがみや
【民】aNukkan2 (= 1. one who is near; 2. devotee, as near to god 神; 3. one who is intimate; 4. umbrella) おにがみ
---
【民】aNNai (= devil, ghost, goblin (TLS)) おに
【民】aNNi (= 02 elder brother's wife) おに
【賛】amara (= , f. {A} & {I} immortal; m. a god.*) おに
【賛】mAnava (= ; (%{I}) f. a daughter of man , a ★woman RV. ;) にょう、女房
【賛】nava (= 1 mf(%{A})n. (prob. fr. 1. %{nu4}) ★new , fresh , recent , young , modern (opp. to %{sana} , %{purANa},,, (%{A}) f. N. of a ★woman (see above) Hariv. ;)) にょうぼう
【宮城弁ミヤ28】おが  (= おかあさん 正直言うと,この辺でも(昭和の)子供たちは「かあちゃん」か「おかあさん」きわめてまれに「ママ」といっていました。ではどんなときに使うか→「そいづは,おめどごの,おがだべ」:それはおまえんとこの母親(または妻をさす)だろ。 という大人の会話の中で現れます。) 【賛】akkA (= f. (Voc. %{akka} Pa1n2.) a ★mother (used contemptuously) ; N. of a woman ; [supposed to be a term of foreign origin cf. Lat. {Acca}.] ) おが、おっかー
【民】akkA (= ★mother (TLS) ) おが、おっかー 【津軽弁237】嫁コ  (= 嫁)
【賛】vAma (= 2 mf(%{I4} or %{A})n. (fr. 1. %{van} ; for 1. see col. 1) lovely , dear , pleasant , agreeable , fair , beautiful , splendid , noble RV. ;; (%{A}) f. a beautiful woman , any woman or ★wife 全ての女性又は妻 Pan5car. Sa1h. ; ) よめ
【賛】vemaka (= m. a weaver Hariv. ; (%{I}) f. the ★wife of a weaver 機織りの妻 ib.) よめご
【民】vammai (= presents given to a ★bride 花嫁 by her parents 花嫁への両親からの贈り物) よめ
【秋田弁125】ごぎり   (= 後妻の夫バージョンね。先夫が亡くなってそこの家に後添えに入った方。だからお婿さんでなければごぎりじゃないのよね、どうも。 「したはげ、あこのながでが死でしまて、ごぎりもらたば、こどかがが死だもんだがら、このめんごせもらたなへ(だから、あの若旦那さんが亡くなってしまったので後添えのお婿さんに来てもらったら、今度は奥さんが亡くなってしまったので、先日後妻さんをもらったのよ)」  うううう、自分で書いてても難解じゃ~ アクセントやイントネーションがつけばそれほどでもないんだけど(;^_^A)
c. 見つからない ★★★ 見つけた
【賛】kAkaruka (= mfn. faint-hearted , cowardly , timid ; a coward , craven Pan5cat. ; naked L. ; poor , indigent L. ; m. a henpecked 〔男が〕尻に敷かれた ★husband (governed by his ★wife) L. ; an owl L. ; deceit (%{dambha}) L. (cf. %{kAka-rava}.) ) ごぎりカ
c. 多分、結果的に尻に敷かれる旦那になる、ので、これは当たりだろう。「御義理」にも見える。
【博多弁・消滅寸前】イガイマシ (= older, wife 【姉さん女房】)
【賛】vyaGkaTa (= ★older form of %{veGkaTa}.) いがい (T 無音)
【賛】mahAsatI (= f. a virtuous woman or ★wife 妻.) まし
【博多弁・消滅寸前】ボーモリ  (= priest, wife 【僧侶の妻】  坊守。大黒さん。)
【賛】brahmaNaspatnI (= f. the ★wife 妻 of the Brahman priest 僧侶.) ぼーもり (N-r)、ぼうもんさん
c. 熊本弁の「ぼうもんさん」と同類。
【富山県の高岡弁】じゃあまあ  (= 妻)
【賛】jAni (= f. ★wife 妻 (only adj. ---).) じゃあまあ 【賛】janI (= f. a woman , ★wife (gen. %{-nyur} RV.)) じゃあまあ
【魚津弁】アトガリ (= かわり、代替、後妻)
【民】uRazkali (= a variety of kali verse in which statement and response ★alternate 代替、代行) あとがり
【賛】udgAthA (= f. a variety of the A1rya1 metre (consisting of four lines , containing ★alternately twelve and eighteen instants).) あとがー
【民】pESkAr (= 1. ★deputy 代行, agent, manager; 2. a revenue officer placed in charge of a division of a taluk and invested with the same authority as a tahsildar) あとがり (p 無音)
【魚津弁】カンボ  (= 妻、不倫、情人(いろ)、妾)
【民】kaNvATTi (= ★wife 妻 (TLS)) かんヴぁってぃ → かんぼ
【民】kun2Rupayan2 (= clandestine 〔違法行為を隠すために〕秘密に行われる[している]、内密の union, as of ★lovers 愛人) かんぼやな
【魚津弁】ツルヤ(ア)イ  (= つれあい、夫、妻)
【民】carvANi (= 01 Pa1rvati1, as the ★spouse 配偶者 of sarva) つるやあいの c. 【和歌山弁】(167)つれる 【男女が交際する】
【神奈川弁】にばんざ  (= 後妻)
【賛】zrIbhadra (= m. Cyperus Rotundus (generally %{A} f.) L. ; m. N. of a serpent-demon Buddh. ; of an author Col. ; (%{A}) f. N. of a goddess Ka1lac. ; of the ★second wife of Bimbisa1ra Buddh.) りーぶはどら → にばんざ
【琉球】トゥジ  (= :妻。日本古語の刀自に由来。)
【民】tOzi (= 01 1. a lady's maid; 2. heroine's confidante, being the daughter of her fostermother; 3. ★wife; 4. maidservant) トゥジ
【琉球】■マタードゥメー    (= (名詞)  後妻。)
【民】vazimuRaittAram (= ★second wife; wife married after the death of the pervious wife) またむらったーよめ (r-y)、マタードゥメー
【民】maRutAram (= ★second wife) まるたーらむ → マタードゥメー
【宮古島キッズネット】 妻  (= とぅず / ぶなりゃ)
【賛】parigraha (= m. surrounding, enclosing (lit. & fig.); putting on, assuming; taking or holding together, seizing, grasping; taking, receiving, getting, obtaining; acquisition, possession (adj. --- possessed of); undertaking, incurring, occupation or business with (loc. or ---); taking to, i.e. favouring, revering; honour, grace; taking to ★wife, marrying; ★wife (also coll.), household, family, attendants etc.) ぶなりゃ (r-n)、伴侶(はんりょ)
【民】pAriyai (= ★wife) ぶんりや → ぶなりゃ、はんりょ (+ん)
--
【民】tEvimai (= ★wifehood 妻であること、妻の身分) 妻(つま)
【賛】Arya (= (f. {A} & {A3rI}) belonging to the faithful or loyal, to one's own race, i.e. Aryan アリアン, noble, reverend, honourable 尊敬すべき. m. (f. {A}) an Aryan, a hon2ourable man, esp. one of the first three castes; also one's senior, i.e. grandfather, great-grandfather, or elder brother. f. {A} mother (also pl.) or ★wife of the elder brother; voc. m. & f. often in reverential address = your honour. f. {A} also N. of a metre.) あり
【民】aivarkkuntEvi (= Draupati1, ★wife of the five pa1n2d2avas) おいがんと
【民】arttAgki (= ★wife (TLS)) うちんかかー (+ん)
368wind
cf. 教育漢字 風 かぜ、こち、フウ、フ、かざ、ならわし、すがた、ふり wind   f17_1#n.201
369winnowing basket
み、みて、てみ、さんばら、みつぉーぎ、そーぎ、おもい
c. 箕(み)、手箕(てみ)とも言う。
 【賛】vic (= (cf. %{vij}) cl. (Dha1tup. ) %{vina4kti} , %{viGkte} (2. sg. %{vivekSi} RV. ; pf. %{viveca} AV. , p. %{vivikva4s} RV. aor. %{avaikSIt} Gr. ; fut. %{vektA} , %{vekSyati} ib. ; inf. %{vektum} MBh. ; ind. %{-vicya}. %{-vecam} S3rS. ) , to sift , separate (esp. grain from chaff by ★winnowing) RV. ; to separate from , deprive of (instr.) Bhat2t2. ;) みて (v-m)
 【賛】zUrpa (= n. a ★winnowing basket.) さんば、すーぱ
 【賛】niSpulAka (= mfn. free from chaff or useless grain (%{-kikRta} freed from chaff by ★winnowing Kull.) ;) みそーぎ
 【民】tURRumuRam (= ★winnowing fan) てーみー
 【民】cuLaku (= 1. a kind of ★winnowing★ fan for separating chaff from grain, bran from flour; 2. the 16th naks2atra , as resembling fan) そーけ/そーぎ (L 無音)
 【民】tURRukkUTai (= 1. ★winnowing basket; 2. ★winnowing fan) そーけタイ
【出雲弁】とうみ(農具)  (= 唐箕 唐箕(山口町郷土館)、とうみ(しまねの民具))
【民】tURRumuRam (= ★winnowing fan 脱穀用扇風機) とうみ
【民】turumpuTan2 (= heap of grain which has not been ★winnowed 未脱穀の穀物の山) とうみタン
【琉球】■ピッティン    (= (動詞)  箕(み)で粗いものをふるい捨てる。ぴッてィールンともいう。)
【民】puTai-ttal (= 01 1. to winnow, ★sift 篩(ふるい)にかける; 2. to beat, strike; to thresh, as grain; 3. to pierce; to thrash; 4. to beat, as a drum; ) ピッティ
【賛】pATIra (= m. (only L. ; cf. %{paTIra}) , the sandal tree ; a radish ; a ★sieve 篩; a cloud ; a field ; the pith or manna of the bamboo ; tin ; catarrh.) ピッティ
--
【民】vAru-tal (= ; 9. to ★sift, as with a ★sieve or by immersing in water; ) よる、ふるい、ふる
c. よりすぐりの〜。
【宮古口】むイぞーき /muɿdzooki/與新むいぞーき /muidzooki/多来むいじょーき /muidʑooki/ 多與 新鏡 来 名詞 〈全〉箕、浅い籠(豆用)
c. 箕(み)は、米などの穀物の脱穀の際に殻や塵を取り除くための容器。
【賛】mUtaka (= n. a little ★basket.) むイぞーき/むいぞーき/むいじょーき
--
【民】mUy (= 02 1. cover; 2. flower ★basket) 箕(み)

370winter
ふゆ(冬)
cf. 教育漢字 冬 トウ、ふゆ winter   f17_1#n.370
371wipe up, vt
拭く(ふく)、拭う(ぬぐう)、すすいん
   cf. 187⬟mop, vt    と、同一?。
     ふく、ぬぐう、のごう、すするんぐ、すするー
cf. スワデシュ・リスト 207 拭く ふく to wipe   f20#s.133
372wood
木(き)
cf. 教育漢字 木 き tree   f17_1#n.4
373woods, forest
やま、はやし
cf. 教育漢字 山 サン、セン、やま mountain   f17_1#n.571
cf. 教育漢字 森 もり forest  林 はやし wood, thicket   f17_1#n.3
374wool
わた
cf. 教育漢字 綿 わた cotton   f17_1#n.69
375work, vt
はたらく、がまだす[熊本弁]、仕事する[佐賀弁]
cf. 教育漢字 働く work   f17#1.170
【賛】karmadoSa (= m. a sinful 罪深い、邪悪な。法外な、とんでもない ★work , sin , vice Mn. ; error , blunder W. ; the evil consequence of human acts , discreditable conduct or business W.) がまだす
【熊本弁】がまだす  (= 精出す,励む,働く あーたがたハ よう ガマダシなはるナ(貴方たちは実によく精が出ますね) がマダス人をガマダシモン)
【賛】karmiSTha (= mfn. (superl. of the last) very active or ★diligent 勤勉な L.) がまだす
c. 出雲弁は「がんじょ(~な、~もん)」、和歌山弁は「 がぜ (m 無音)」と訛る。熊本弁の発音が最も原音に近いネ。
【民】cuTukATTuccittar (= a tribe of jugglers and fortunetellers who practise their austerities in the burning ground and carry about human bones for ★working charms and incantations) 仕事する、しごとしたる
【民】cekkaTi (= 02 place where oil-press is ★working) しごと
【民】cekkaTi-ttal (= 01 to ★work the oil-press) しごと
【博多弁・消滅寸前】キバクモン  (= active【働き者】  気魄をだして働く人の意。)
【賛】karmika (= mfn. active 活動的, acting g. %{vrIhy-Adi} and %{purohitA7di}.) きばく (m-b)
【民】kasarvAgku-tal (= to exact hard ★work; to be exacting, taxing) きばく
c. 出雲弁の「がんじょ(~な、~もん) [= 働く、熱心に働く、(勤勉な、働き者)]」と同系。
376worm
cf. スワデシュ・リスト 207 むし worm, insect   f20#s.50
377wound, n
きず、きりきず
cf. 教育漢字 傷 きず wound, injury, hurt   f17_1#n.174
378wrap, vt
包む(つつむ)、ししむ、ききむ  --- くるむ、は無いのか?。
cf. 教育漢字 包む wrap, envelop くるむ   f17#1.41
【賛】susaMvRta (= mfn. well covered or veiled or dressed , ★wrapped up or concealed in (instr. or comp.) Mn. ; well girt with (instr.) R. ; well surrounded or accompanied by (instr.) BhP. ; well hidden , kept very secret MBh.; carefully guarding one's self Ma1rkP.) ししむダ (v-m)
【賛】kaJcukin (= mfn. furnished with armour or mail ; (ifc.) covered with , ★wrapped up in Bhartr2. ;) ききむ、きにゃくきん
379year
とし、つし   --- とせ、は無いのか?
cf. 教育漢字 年 とし year   f17_1#n.14






鳩摩羅まくろ
exel 「⬢」頭追加。正規表現 ^c1,repl(sv1,\\"⬢$1"{}"(^[^次\n\r])",al(reg_ret  マルチライン flag on の環境下。
exel ⬣「⬢」頭追加。 ^c1,if(sv1="$"),alend,if(sv1<>"次行"),j0[⬢&sv1,{d},sk-6
exel 「次行」セル write。 ^c1,if(sv1="$"),alend,if(asc(sv1)=13),c+[次行,{d},sk-6
exel 複数行 copy。正規表現 sk+3,j0(reg_str,@,^c1,repl(sv1,\\" | "{} "\t+",al(reg_ret
exel 一行 copy。 sk+3,j0(wk,@,wk-,^c1,if(left(sv1{}1)="$"),al[end. cnt= &loop_cnt,wk||,{tab},sk-5   --- 正規表現の replace の方が速い。 p="\t", r=" | "
黒五角形の前に、一連番号を振る。ff に黒五角形 を入れてからやる。
x1-1,^^fv,{l},c+[&x1,{end},x1+,sk-5     --- c+(x1 の方が良い。また、j0(x1 の方が良い。
x1-100,if(x1>207),al207over do can,^^f,sl50,c+[j.&x1&z,{r},^^f,sl50,c+[j.&x1&z,{r},x1+,skip-11
^f,kbo.1",{esc},c+[o.&x1&",x1+,{d}, ---- vscode 化下では、^^f はNG. 前回検索 word が維持されていない。loop 処理だと、intrerrupt が入らないので、多分動作する。しかし、確認しながらやると、間隙を縫って、勝手に前回 word や、clip board 状態を vscode さんは破壊・変更する。なので、毎回 set が必要。
inNN?,al(x1/207,
#u_mess#@("0=【チベ】~
\n-= -\nc=@chan")u_mess,%% #last#@z1,sk#,@0,c+[【チベ】,{end},sl100,c+[
,@-,c+[ -,@c,nop@chan,^a,^c1,=(replace(sv1{}vbCrLf{}"/ ")),j0(ev,sl500,^a,^c,@x0-0%%

〒SI_5  ↑ jump to 先頭
Supplementary Information 5
Inherited and borrowed correspondence sets for agropastoral vocabulary
across the Transeurasian languages

c. 原文を見易くするために、下記目次を付けた。また、本文に古代インド語情報を追加し、 関連本文語彙を color 化した。下記目次のその箇所に マークの目印を付けた。 Japonic/ Japano/ Japanese と言う単語は全て Japonic の様に直した。  by 鳩摩羅童子
目次
1 Methods
2 Inheritance going back to the Neolithic
 2.1. Reconstructions for cultivation
  (1) Proto-Transeurasian *pata ‘field for cultivation’ 
  (2) Proto-Transeurasian *muda ‘uncultivated field’ 
  (3) Proto-Transeurasian *iuse- ‘to plant, grow (plants)’
  (4) Proto-Transeurasian *urə- ‘to grow, ripen (of plants)’ 
  (5) Proto-Transeurasian *pisi- ‘sprinkle with the hands, sow’ 
  (6) Proto-Transeurasian *pisi-i (sow- INS.NMLZ) ‘seed, seedling’, *-i/ø instrumental deverbal noun suffix
  (7) Proto-Transeurasian *kipi ~ kipe ‘components that are removed from the grain harvest, barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgali)’
  (8) Proto-Transeurasian *amʊ ‘cooked cereal, millet gruel’ 
   Proto-Japonic *amai ‘cereal starch’
   Proto-Koreanic *amʌ ‘cooked cereal’ >> Proto-Ainuic *ɒm 'cereals, such as rice, millet, wheat, barley'
   Proto-Sino-Tibetan *am ‘to eat/drink (liquid food such as gruel); liquid food’ >> Proto-Transeurasian *amʊ ‘cooked cereal, millet gruel’
   Proto-Sinitic *am ‘drink liquid food, rice gruel’ >> Proto-Austronesian *am ‘rice gruel’
  (9) Proto-Transeurasian *sarpa ‘spade’
  (10) Proto-Altaic *tari- ‘to cultivate’
  (11) Proto-Mongolo-Tungusic *pure ‘seed, sprout, offspring’
  (12) Proto-Japano-Koreanic *non ‘field for agriculture’’ 
   Proto- Sinitic *noŋ ‘agriculture’ >> Proto-Japano-Koreanic *non ‘field for agriculture’
  (13) Proto-Japano-Koreanic *mati ‘delimited plot for cultivation’ 
 2.2. Reconstructions for food production and preservation
  (1) Proto-Transeurasian *saga- 'to ferment' 
  (2) Proto-Transeurasian *sugu- ‘to ferment’ (in vowel alternation to (1))
  (3) Proto-Transeurasian *sü:- ‘to reduce/preserve food by fermentation’ 
  (4) Proto-Transeurasian *bilče- 'to ferment a liquid, mix with a liquid’ 
  (5) Proto-Transeurasian *silɔ ‘broth, soup, juice; liquid food extracted from vegetables, fruit or meat’ 
  (6) Proto-Transeurasian *niku- 'to crush to pulp’
  (7) Proto-Transeurasian *suru- 'to grind, rub' 
  (8) Proto-Transeurasian *simi- ‘to soak (food)’ 
  (9) Proto-Transeurasian *ulu- ‘to soak, wet’ 
  (10) Proto-Transeurasian *nɔr- ‘to soak’ 
  (11) proto-Altaic *deb- ‘to soak’
  (12) Proto-Japono-Koreanic *kama- ‘to soak, brew’ 
 2.3. Reconstructions for durable wild food resources
  (1) proto-Transeurasian *kuru ‘edible nut used for starch production such as walnut, acorn, chestnut or pine nut’ 
  (2) proto-Transeurasian *xʊsi ‘edible nut used for starch production such as walnut, acorn, chestnut or pine nut’ 
  (3) proto-Transeurasian *abu ‘plant of the Althaea genus with roots rich of starch’ 
  (4) Proto-Japano-Koreanic *pami ‘edible true nut, i.e. dry fruit with only one seed such as acorn, hazelnut and chestnut’ 
 2.4 Reconstructions for domesticated animals
  (1) Proto-Transeurasian *inu ~ *ina ‘dog’ 
  (2) Proto-Altaic *toru 'young male pig' 
  (3) Proto-Mongolo-Tungusic *uli ‘pig’
 2.5. Reconstructions for textile production
  (1) proto-Transeurasian *nap- ‘to make rope’ 
  (2) Proto-Transeurasian *nup- ‘to sew' 
  (3) proto-Transeurasian *sili- 'to sew’
  (4) proto-Transeurasian *pɔrɔ- ‘to weave (cloth)’
  Proto-Japonic *orə- ‘to weave’ 
  (5) proto-Transeurasian *tɔmʊ- 'to spin’
  Proto-Japonic *tumu 'spindle' 
  (6) proto-Transeurasian *giri- 'to cut (cloth)' 
  (7) Proto-Japano-Koreanic *parʌ- ‘to sew’ 
  (8) Proto-Japano-Koreanic *paca- 'to weave (cloth) with a loom’ 
  (9) Proto-Japano-Koreanic *pu- 'to spin, twist (thread)’ 
  (10) Proto-Japano-Koreanic *ʌsa ‘hemp’ 
  (11) Proto-Japano-Koreanic *mosi ‘ramie (cloth)’ 
3. Language contact in the Bronze Age
 3.1 Ancient borrowings from a Proto-Turkic model
  (1) BARLEY 
  (2) WHEAT
  (3) STALLION
  (4) BOVINE
  (5) SHEEP
  (6) LAMB
  (7) FERMENTED BUTTERMILK
 3.2 Ancient borrowings from a Proto-Mongolic model --- 3.2 の番号表記モレ。作者は、マヌケ。
   (1) HORSE 
   (2) MARE
   (3) ASS
 3.3 Ancient borrowings from a Proto-Tungusic model --- 3.3 の番号表記モレ。作者は、マヌケ。
   (1) BARLEY, WHEAT 
   (2) IRON
   (3) PLOUGH 
 3.4 Ancient borrowings from a Proto-Koreanic model --- 3.4 の番号表記モレ。作者は、マヌケ。
   (1) BEANPASTE 
   (2) SILK 
   (3) RICE CAKE 
   (4) MEASURING BOWL
 3.5 Ancient borrowings from a Proto-Japonic model --- 3.5 の番号表記モレ。作者は、マヌケ。
   (1) EARLY RIPENING GRAIN/RICE 
   (2) RICE PLANT --- タイトル間違っている。 「稲」じゃない、 rice food 飯(いい) 
   (3) VEGETABLE JAR 
   (4) METAL COOKING POTVEGETABLE JAR 
4. Rejection of the Pastoralist Hypothesis
5. Sound correspondences underlying the above reconstructions
 5.1 Reconstruction of the basic consonant inventory of Proto-Japonic
 5.2 Reconstruction of the basic vowel inventory of Proto-Japonic
 5.3. Reconstruction of the basic consonant inventory of Proto-Koreanic
 5.4 Reconstruction of the basic vowel inventory of Proto-Koreanic
 5.5 Reconstruction of the basic consonant inventory of Proto-Tungusic
 5.6 Reconstruction of the basic vowel inventory of Proto-Tungusic
 5.7 Reconstruction of the basic consonant inventory of Proto-Mongolic
 5.8 Reconstruction of the basic vowel inventory of Proto-Mongolic
 5.9 Reconstruction of the basic consonant inventory of Proto-Turkic
 5.10 Reconstruction of the basic vowel inventory of Proto-Turkic
 5.11 Consonant correspondences between the Transeurasian languages
 5.12. Vowel correspondences between the Transeurasian languages
References mentioned in Supplementary Information 5
Additional References SI 23b Mongolic
Abbreviations for languages
Abbreviations for linguistic forms


1 Methods ↑〒SI_5
Combining dictionary search with fieldwork, we collected a database of agropastoral vocabulary for each of the five Transeurasian subfamilies; see SI 23a for Turkic, SI 23b for Mongolic, SI 23c for Tungusic, SI 23d for Koreanic and SI 23e for Japonic. To this end, we started from agropastoral vocabulary in the earliest sufficiently documented historical stages of our languages (i.e., Old Turkic, Middle Mongolian, Manchu, Late Middle Korean and Old Japanese) and searched for potential cognates in contemporary languages and dialects. For a good number of comparative sets, this yielded a reconstructed proto-form, i.e., an ancestral Turkic, Mongolic, Tungusic, Koreanic or Japonic word, from which the cognates are thought to have descended.
We compared these reconstructions in order to select look-alikes with comparable form and meaning across the five Transeurasian subfamilies. When a set of two or more words taken from different languages look alike, their similarity may be accounted for by different reasons: it could be due to universal principles in linguistic structuring such as sound-symbolism or nursery terms, to coincidence, to borrowing between the languages concerned or, to inheritance from a common source. Given the shared cultural context, it is likely that the similarities in the Transeurasian agropastoral vocabulary have a historical motivation but among the possible historical accounts, it is difficult to distinguish borrowing from inheritance at face value.
To solve this issue, historical comparative linguists can rely on a number of formal and semantic guidelines to distinguish linguistic borrowing from inheritance (Robbeets 2012, 2016). Even if such principles are not foolproof, they are useful diagnostics. To identify whether our agropastoral correspondence sets are more likely to be the result of borrowing or whether they could better be explained by inheritance, we applied the following seven criteria.

1 Phonologically regular correspondences of bare verb roots that are well distributed in 3 or more subfamilies are likely to be inherited.
This guideline follows from a combination of five observations: first, regularity of sound correspondence as an indication of inheritance; second, the hierarchical tendency that nouns are more easily and frequently borrowed than verbs; third, the typological feature that the Transeurasian languages display a clear preference for borrowing verbs adding a native suffix or light verb to the loan verb; fourth, the fact that most examples of borrowed verbs have a binary setting in common, typically going from a model language into a recipient language but rarely progressing into a third or fourth language and; fifth, borrowings often have a limited distribution within their subfamily.
On these grounds, for instance, we regard the Tungusic, Mongolic and Turkic words participating to the etymology of Proto-Altaic *tari- ‘to cultivate’ in Section 2.1. (10) as cognates, in spite of previous claims that they are borrowed.



2 Comparative sets that violate the regular sound correspondences established for each subsequent consonant and vowel of the root (except the root-final vowel), are likely to be inherited.
The sound correspondences are given in Section 5. They are established on the basis of correspondences in the basic vocabulary, see SI 2. Comparative sets for agropastoral vocabulary that violate these sound correspondences are likely to be the result of borrowing. For instance, in Section 2.1. (1), Proto-Mongolic *atar ‘unploughed field’ is dismissed as a cognate of Proto-Transeurasian *pata ‘field for cultivation’ because the initial ø does not correspond with initial *p- in Transeurasian.

3 Comparative sets that consist of a morphologically complex word in one language that cannot be analyzed as such in the other language are likely to be the result of borrowing.
The donor words for ‘sheep’ (Section 3.1 (5)), ‘fermented buttermilk’ (Section 3.1 (7)), ‘horse’ (Section 3.2 (1)), ‘made of iron’ (Section 3.3 (2)) and ‘vegetable jar’ (Section 3.5 (3)), for instance, are morphologically segmentable, while the recipient words are not. This can be taken as a strong indication of borrowing.

4 If the correspondence set shares a meaning that is restricted to a secondary semantic development of one of the participating words, then it is likely to be the result of borrowing.
In Section 3.1 (3), for instance, the Turkic donorword means any ‘non-castrated male’ including but not restricted to male horses, while the Mongolic and Tungusic borrowings are semantically restricted to ‘non-castrated male horse’.

5 If the correspondence set shares a phonological property that is restricted to a secondary phonological development of one of the participating words, then it is likely to be the result of borrowing.
In Section 3.1 (2), for instance, it can be argued on morphological grounds that pTk *budgay is the original form for ‘wheat’ and that it underwent metathesis to become *bugday. Since the Proto-Mongolic look-alike *bugudaï ‘wheat’ only corresponds to the Proto-Turkic metathesized alternant, it is likely to be borrowed.

6 If the participants of a correspondence set have a limited distribution in one of the subfamilies, they are likely to be borrowed
The poor distribution of potential cognates of Proto-Transeurasian *simi- ‘to soak (food)’ (Section 2.2. (8)) in Turkic and Tungusic, for instance, is a legitimate ground to dismiss the words from the etymology. Similarly, the limited distribution of the words for ‘ox’ (Section 3.1 (4)) and ‘mare’ (Section 3.2 (2)) in Tungusic supports their being borrowed.

7 If the correspondence set corresponds to a probable donor word outside the Transeurasian family, then it is likely to be the result of borrowing.
For instance, the availability of plausible donor words in Indo-European, Sino-Tibetan, Sinitic or non-Transeurasian substrate language in the etymologies for ‘barley’ (Section 3.1 (1)), ‘horse’ (Section 3.2 (1)), ‘mare’ (Section 3.2 (2)), ‘barley, wheat’ (Section 3.3 (1)), ‘silk’ (Section 3.4 (2)) and ‘metal cooking pot’ (Section 3.5 (4)) is indicative of borrowing.

The application of these guidelines to our database allows us to distinguish agropastoral correspondence sets that are likely to be inherited from those that are likely to be borrowed. By examining the cultural, temporal and spatial patterns that characterize these two sets, we are able to make inferences about environment, subsistence strategies and culture of the speakers of the proto-language.


2 Inheritance going back to the Neolithic ↑〒SI_5

The origin and spread of Transeurasian subsistence vocabulary involve two major phases that mirror the origin and dispersal of agriculture in Northeast Asia.
The first phase, represented by the root and the primary nodes (i.e. Japano-Koreanic, Altaic and Mongolo-Tungusic) of the Transeurasian family, goes back to the Early to Middle Neolithic, when millet farming originated in the West Liao River area and spread across contiguous regions in Northeast Asia. A small portion of the subsistence vocabulary shared between the Japonic, Koreanic, Tungusic, Mongolic and Turkic languages can be traced back to a common ancestral root, i.e., Proto-Transeurasian or to its early descendants, i.e. Proto-Japano-Koreanic, Proto-Altaic and Proto-Mongolo-Tungusic. It concerns vocabulary for cultivation and harvesting activities, millets and durable wild food resources, food production and preservation such as fermentation, grinding and soaking, domesticated pigs and dogs, as well as spinning and weaving technology. This indicates that the speakers of Proto-Transeurasian and their early descendants in the Neolithic were sedentary, combined millet cultivation and pig-raising with collecting food in the wild and engaged in complex textile technology. Surprisingly or not, there are no cognate sets reflecting familiarity with rice or other cereals such as barley and wheat. A similar gap exists for dairying terminology and for vocabulary for domesticates such as horses, cattle and smaller ruminants. We can thus infer that the ancestral speakers of Transeurasian in the Neolithic were millet farmers that did not engage in the cultivation of rice, barley or wheat nor in pastoralism or dairying.
The second phase, represented by the individual daughter branches (Proto-Turkic, Proto-Mongolic, Proto-Tungusic, Proto-Koreanic and Proto-Japonic) goes back to the Bronze Age, when new crops such as rice, West Asian barley and wheat were introduced and new subsistence strategies based on dairying and pastoralism developed. This did not only change the agricultural package but it also impacted demographic and linguistic dynamics. Interestingly, a large part of the subsistence vocabulary shared between the Japonic, Koreanic, Tungusic, Mongolic and Turkic languages can be traced back to multidirectional ancient borrowing between the individual ancestral languages. As illustrated in Section 2, it concerns vocabulary for cereals such as rice, wheat and barley, more sophisticated agricultural tools, dairying activities and products, various domesticates such as horses, cattle, sheep and goats, the use of bronze and iron instruments and sericulture.
There is a clear distinction in cultural and semantic categories between inherited and borrowed subsistence vocabulary that mirrors the provenance and timing of the introduction of the corresponding agropastoral activities. For instance, millet and general cultivation terms are inherited, while words relating to rice, barley and wheat cultivation tend to be borrowed; basic agricultural tools such as spades are inherited while more specialized tools, some of which made of iron, are borrowed; words for domesticated animal names associated with agriculture in the Neolithic, such as dogs and pigs, are inherited, while pastoral animal names associated with the Bronze Age such as those for ruminants and horses are borrowed; words for fermentation in general are inherited, while words for dairying and milk fermentation tend to be borrowed or repurposed from vegetal fermentation terms within the individual histories of Proto-Mongolic and Proto-Turkic and; bast fibres such as hemp and ramie are inherited from Japano-Koreanic while silk terminology is borrowed individually into these languages from Chinese. These observations point to cultural and linguistic continuity in the Neolithic followed by massive cultural and linguistic interaction between speakers of Transeurasian as well as non-Transeurasian languages in the Bronze Age.
The early dating of the ancestral Transeurasian speech community at 9181 BP (5595 -12793 95% HPD) (SI 2) and its location in the West Liao area (SI 4) can be associated with the onset of sedentism and small-scale millet cultivation in the West Liao region and the transition to a significantly wetter climate, starting in the 9th millennium BP (Shelach-Lavi et al. 2019, Stevens et al. 2020).
The root age of a language family corresponds to the time when subgroups of the original speech community became first separated. It is sometimes assumed that this event is always determined by migration or geographical separation. However, the trigger for the separation can be any factor that reduces the connectivity of the speakers – whether geographical, environmental or social: growing populations may result in the formation of environmentally or socially separated subgroups of speakers, who are no longer in frequent contact and thus start to innovate their language in different ways. Due to a slight increase in population densities (ED Fig. 3) and the resulting need of land for cultivation, the earliest farmers in the West Liao region became separated into local communities. The clock of language separation started ticking as soon as the connectivity between the speakers was broken, it did not wait until actual migration to new farming grounds took place.
Our ancient DNA analyses (ED Fig. 8, 10) indicate that contemporary Sino-Tibetan speakers can trace a large proportion of their ancestry to Neolithic Yangshao farmers and their ancestors, supporting recent associations between the onset of agriculture in the Yellow River region and the origins of the Sino-Tibetan family (Sagart et al. 2019; Zhang et al. 2020, Ning et al. 2020). Lack of evidence for Sino-Tibetan influence in the ancestral Proto-Transeurasian language is consistent with the multi-centric origins of early millet cultivation suggested in archaeobotany.26 With the exception of the words for ‘millet gruel’ and ‘spade’ in Section 2.1. (8) and (9), there are only very few cases of borrowing of Proto-Sino-Tibetan agricultural vocabulary into Proto- Transeurasian or vice-versa. However, there are some indications that the Proto-Transeurasian agricultural vocabulary was coined language-internally, repurposing native terms that originally had a non-agricultural meaning. For instance, the Transeurasian word *pisi- in Section 2.1. (5) extended its original meaning from ‘to sprinkle with the hands’ to ‘to sow (seeds)’ and was then used to derive deverbal nouns such as ‘seed, seedling’ in (6) and ‘millet seed’ in (7). This observation supports an in-situ invention of agriculture in the West Liao River region in the Neolithic, relatively free from Yellow River influence.
In contrast with the language-internal development of agricultural vocabulary in the Neolithic illustrated in Section 2, the pastoral vocabulary and terms related to rice, barley and wheat agriculture in Section 3 were introduced through intensive borrowing across East Asia and the Eurasian Steppe in the Bronze Age. There is also some evidence for repurposing agricultural vocabulary as dairying terminology, such as the fermentation verbs in (1) to (4) that were recycled as dairying verbs in Mongolic and Turkic.
Why did the Neolithic expansion of millet farming cause pre-existing hunter-gatherers to abandon their native language and shift to the incoming Transeurasian target language, thus ensuring its continuity, while Bronze Age interaction involved maintenance of the native language with extensive borrowing of agropastoral vocabulary? In line with Renfrew’s (1987: 123–131) demography/subsistence model, the socio-economical context of the interaction may explain the outcome of the linguistic encounters. When farming is introduced to populations with relatively less successful subsistence strategies, we expect them to shift to the incoming culture and language because such a shift would involve a revolutionary potential for prosperity and demographic growth. By contrast, when groups of more or less equal socio-economic status meet, whereby certain crops are added to a pre-existing agricultural package or farming is complemented by pastoralism, the need to radically shift language and culture is less urgent. In such cases, the encounters are expected to result in borrowing.
The case of the spread of Koreanic and Japonic languages across the Korean peninsula represents a thought-provoking example of how (agri)culture may determine the linguistic outcome of interaction between speech communities. If millet agriculture and Hongshan genome were spread to the Peninsula with Proto-Koreanic languages in the Neolithic, while secondary crop agriculture and Upper Xiajiadian genome were spread with Proto-Japonic in the Bronze Age, it raises the question of why Koreans do not speak a Japonic language now. Why did Proto-Japonic not replace Proto- Koreanic on the Korean Peninsula? The answer to this question is probably determined by the socio-economical context of the interaction (Hudson & Robbeets 2020). When millet agriculture was introduced to the Korean Peninsula, farmers met hunter-gatherers. By contrast, when secondary crop agriculture was introduced, (rice, barley, wheat) farmers met (millet) farmers. From a socio-economical perspective, the first movement is more revolutionary than the second and will lead to language shift, while the second is expected to lead to linguistic borrowing between the pre-existing farmers and the incoming ones.
This explains why the Neolithic and Bronze Age migrations involved different linguistic dynamics and led to an interplay of two different outcomes, continuity and borrowing. This prehistorical layering of borrowed upon inherited words makes it difficult for historical linguists to distinguish between both transmission modes and is therefore at the base of the Transeurasian controversy.

2.1. Reconstructions for cultivation ↑〒SI_5

The etymologies (1) to (9) below suggest that the speakers of Proto-Transeurasian were familiar with agriculture, with (7) and (8) suggesting that millet was the central cultivar. They illustrate a continuity whereby agricultural terminology was passed on from the ancestral language to the Neolithic daughter branches Proto-Japano-Koreanic, Proto-Altaic and Proto-Mongolo-Tungusic. Even if absence of evidence is not necessarily evidence of absence, it is interesting to note that a specific vocabulary dedicated to rice cultivation is lacking in Proto-Transeurasian as well as in all Neolithic daughter branches.
Etymologies (1) and (2) suggest that the ancestral Transeurasian speakers made an explicit distinction between ‘field for cultivation’ and ‘uncultivated field’ and (12) and (13) show that the distinctions for different field types increased among the speakers of Japano-Koreanic, suggesting an intensification of agriculture.
Etymologies (3) to (5) indicate that the ancestral Transeurasian speakers were involved in activities, such as ‘sowing’,‘planting’ and ‘growing’ crops. The derivation of ‘seed’ as ‘what one uses for sowing’ and ‘millet seed’ as ‘what is sown’ in the etymologies (6) and (7) implies that seeds were not merely collected and consumed but planted and used for cultivation.
Etymology (3) further suggests that the ancestral speakers of Transeurasian repurposed a pre-existing verb for ‘sprinkling’ as a verb for ‘sowing’, which supports the independent development of agriculture, relatively free from external influence. Nevertheless, the etymologies in (8) and (9) indicate that Proto-Sino-Tibetan speakers living in the Yellow River area before 8000 BP exchanged agricultural knowledge with the speakers of Proto-Transeurasian in the West Liao River area by transferring the practice of preparing millet gruel and the use of certain agricultural tools such as a particular kind of spade. Between 8000 and 5500 BP, there was also contact between speakers of ancestral Sinitic and speakers of Proto-Japano-Koreanic situated on the Liaodong Peninsula, resulting in the transfer of additional Sinitic agricultural vocabulary, as illustrated by etymology (12).

(1) Proto-Transeurasian *pata ‘field for cultivation’ ↑〒SI_5

Proto-Japonic *pata ‘(dry) field’ + *-ka place suffix, *-i substantivizer
J hata, OJ pata ‘(dry) field’, J hatake, OJ patake2 ‘field, farm, plantation, garden’, Miyazaki hatsuke, Kagoshima/ Koshiki/ Kumamoto/Ōita/Fukuoka/Saga/Fukue/Nagasaki hatake ‘agricultural field’, Yamatohama (Amami) hathe, Naze (Amami) hatǝǝ, Asama (Amami) hatëë, Yoron (Amami) pattai, Yonamine (Okinawa) patʔaakʔi, Shuri (Okinawa) hataki, Old Shuri hataki, Ishigaki (Yaeyama) patagi, Hateruma (Yaeyama) pïte:gi, Hatoma (Yaeyama) pataki, Oura (Miyako) patagi, Yonaguni hatagi, PR *patake ‘field, croft’

Proto-Koreanic *patʌ ‘(dry) field’ (+ *-(ɨ/ʌ)k place suffix)
MK path ‘(dry) field, field for cultivation farm, patch, garden’, K path ‘a (dry) field, a farm, a patch, a garden, an orchard; a piece of ground where a particular plat grows thickly; a patch; a position on a game-board’, JJ was ~ pas ~ phas, JJ pas ~ phas , KB path ~ pach ~ pas, KN path, JN pas ~ path, JB pathtayki, KW pas, CN path, CB path, KG pas ~ path ‘(dry) field, garden’.

Proto-Turkic *(p)ata ‘delimited field irrigated for cultivation’
+ *-(A)g place suffix in MTk. (Middle Kipchak) atov ‘island’, MTk (Chagatay) adaq ‘island (overgrown with plants), an island with vegetation’, Chu. udă ‘island; a grove in a field; meadow; ravine, valley; locality; site, sector’, Tk. ada ‘island’, Gag. ada ‘cape; island; (rarely) swamp, bog, marsh’, Az. ada ‘island’, Tkm. a:da ‘island’, Karaim ada ‘island’, Kumyk ataw ‘island’, Uig. ata ‘island’, KKalp. ataw ‘island’, Bash. ataw‘island; a clearing in the wood, meadow, grassplot’
+ *-r2 collective suffix in OT (Karakhanid) atïz ‘any strip of land between two dikes’, atïzla- ‘to create irrigation ditches (for cultivation)’, MTk. atïzla- ‘to create an irrigation canal in a field’, Uig. etiz ‘field, cornfield; arable land’, Tkm. atïz ‘furrow; strip of land’, Shor adïz ‘a measure for fields, 1/18 dessiatin (= ca. 607 square meters)’, Kirg. adïr ‘hilly terrain, hill ridge, highlands’, Kaz. atïz ‘a plot of land, watered by irrigation canals and properly limited’, adïr ‘hillock; highlands, hilly terrain’

The Proto-Turkic place suffix *(A)g is petrified, for instance in PTk *o:t ‘fire’ → o:t-ag ‘tent, dwelling place’. The Proto-Turkic collective suffix *-r2 is petrified in Old Turkic, for instance, in paired body parts such as OT kö-z ‘eyes’, ti-z ‘knees’, agï-z ‘lips’ and kökü-z ‘breasts’, ethnonyms such as OT ogu-z and kïrgï-z, sets of more than one such as iki-z ‘twins’, üc-üz ‘triplet’, dörd-üz ‘quadruplet’ and undefined quantities such as OT yultu-z ‘stars’, yïldï-z ‘roots’.
For Turkic, it is commonly assumed that word initial PTk *p- developed over a bilabial fricative into h-, leaving only a trace in Khalaj h- and finally disappearing in most of the contemporary Turkic languages. There are only a few cases in which Khalaj h- supports the reconstruction and comparison of PTk *p-, e.g. OT adaq, Khalaj hadaq ‘foot’ < PTk *pada-k (compare K patak, MK pa·taŋ, pa·twok ‘bottom’ < *pata-) or OT ör-, Khalaj hör- ‘to plait’ < PTk *pö:r- (compare Khalkha oro:-, Mgr. furo:-, MMo. hura- < PMo *poro- ‘to entwine’ and Evk. horol- ‘to spin’, Ma. foro- ‘to turn round’ < PTg *poro- ‘to spin, weave’). When a Khalaj cognate is missing, we perceive a correspondence between initial ø in Turkic and PJ *p-, PK *p-, PTg *p- or PMo *p-, as is the case here. The initial *(p) in the Proto-Turkic reconstruction *(p)atï ~ *(p)ata is bracketed because the alleged loss of the initial labial stop *p- cannot be confirmed since we lack a Khalaj cognate.
In Mongolic, we find Written Mongolian atar ‘virgin land, unploughed or fallow field’, Kalkha atar, Buriat atar and Monguor atǝr. Given the poor distribution of the word, the lack of evidence for initial *p- and the lack of morphological segmentability, the Mongolic words are likely to be borrowed from Turkic.

畑 はた、はたけ field 畠
cf. 100⬟field, agricultural i.100
漢字ペディア 
赤 Akkadianpetii(m) II, patu, OAkk, OA patd'um (= "to open" G (ele) [BAD; astr. also TAG4] 1. door, gate; grave, house, room; container; "undo" lock, package 2. "expose, open up" foundation; "unsheathe" weapon; "dehusk" barley; "unroll" rope; "broach, start on" wine, grain etc. 3. "lay open" road, watercourse, mountains; "start" water flowing, "open up" well, spring; "bring" field "into cultivation 耕作" ) はた、はたの
【有 Albanian】fushë (= field, area, scope, court, domain, plain) はた (f-h)
【箍 Tagalog】parang (= field, meadow, prairie, mead, parang, wilderness) はらんぐ、はたけ (r-t)
【箍 Tagalog】batawan (= field, plantation) はたわん
【尼 Indonesia】bidang (= field, area, sector, plane, sphere, realm) はたんぐ
【民 Tamil】pattu (= 02 1. field) はた
【民 Tamil】pAtti (= 1. division, section, classification; 2. parterre, pan, small field; 3. part, portion, share; 4. house, dwelling, abode) はた
【民 Tamil】paTukar (= 01 1. path of ascent and descent; 2. pit, hole, hollow; 3. tank; 4. rice field 米畑; 5. agricultural tract) はたけ
【民 Tamil】paTTaTaikkazan2i (= a cultivated field 農耕地 artificially irrigated) はたけだに
【賛 Sanskrit】prAsthika (= mf(%{I})n. containing or weighing or bought for a Prastha Ka1tyS3r. ; n. (with %{kSetra}) a field sown with a Pradha1na of grain Pa1n2.) はたけ
【チベ Tibetan】https://english-tibetan-dictionary.tumblr.com/post/59658930403/field   [p15/23]
【チベ Tibetan】spang ljongs /pang jong/ (= - grassy plain / ★field, meadow [RY])
【チベ Tibetan】spo to /po to/ (= - 1) grassy small hill [rdog rdog]; 2) clumps of earth [in a plowed ★field]; 3) bullock; 4) unburned brick [IW])

(2) Proto-Transeurasian *muda ‘uncultivated field’ ↑〒SI_5

Proto-Japonic *muta ‘uncultivated land, marshland’
J (dial.) muta ‘swamp, marshland’, Miyako muta ‘land’, Shodon mutha ‘swamp’, Old Shuri has mitʃa: ‘swamp, marshland’, Hirara mta, Nagahama mta, Tarama mta, Ishigaki Nta, Yonaguni Nta ‘swamp’, PR *muta ‘swamp, marshland’

Proto-Koreanic *mutʌ ‘dry land’ + *-(ɨ/ʌ)k place suffix
K muth, MK muth ‘land, dry land’, JJ mus, KB mwuch, KN much, JB mus, CB mwus, CN mwus, KG mwuch, KW mwus

Proto-Tungusic *muda ‘plain, open field, highland’
Na. mudũ ‘meadow, area for handicraft’, Kur-Urmi Na. mudũ ‘highland along a riverbank’,
Evk. mudangna ‘top; cape’

【賛 Sanskrit】mRd (= 2 f. earth , soil , ★clay , loam VS. ; a piece of earth , lump of clay Mn. ; a kind of fragrant earth L. ; aluminous slate L.) 粘土(ねんど)
【賛 Sanskrit】maliSTha (= mfn. excessively ★dirty , ★filthy ; (%{A}) f. a woman during menstruation L.) mitsa (mud, clay) みさ
【賛 Sanskrit】maladUSita (= mfn. soiled with ★dirt , ★filthy L.) むた

(3) Proto-Transeurasian *iuse- ‘to plant, grow (plants)’ ↑〒SI_5

Proto-Koreanic *yes- ‘to grow grain’ + *-(ʌ/ɨ)k > *isak, *-(ʌ/ɨ)k edible plant suffix, e.g., MK chulk ‘kuzu (arrowroot, edible)’, MK a·wok ‘marshmallow (Althaea officinalis’), MK ·milh ‘wheat’, MK ·phoch ~ ·phosk  ‘red bean’, etc.
K yes, MK ·yes ‘taffy; sweet, sticky food, created by first cooking cereal, fermenting it with malt, boiling it into liquid, putting it into a sack, pressing it out, and simmering into a sticky state’, MK isak ‘ear of grain’, K isak ‘ear of grain, head, spike; shuckings’, KW isulak, isilak, KB isak ~ isayk ~ isiki ~ isik, JN isilak, JB isayki ~ isulak ~ pey isak, KW isulak ~ isilak, CB isak, KG isak ‘ear of grain, head, spike; shuckings’

Proto-Tungusic *üse- ~ üsi- ‘to plant' +-i deverbal noun / + *-n deverbal noun
→ *üse ~ üsi 'seed, seedling' / *üsi-n 'field for cultivation'
Evk. ihəw- ‘to grow (of people)’; Even isu:- ~ esu:- 'to sprout, come out (of plants), blossom, grow', isu:ce: 'young sowings, seedling, sprout', isuwken ‘the planting’, isuwken- ‘to plant’, isulmən ‘sprouting’, isumə ‘sprout; teenager’, isun ‘growth’; Neg. isew- ‘to grow, become acclimatized (about plants); mature, grow up (about people)’; Sibe use- ‘to sow seeds’, use ‘seed, grain’, usin ‘field, farmland’; Ma. use- 'to plant, seed (tr.)', use 'seed; insect egg', use tari- 'to sow seed', use use- 'to plant seed', usin 'field for cultivation', usisi 'farmer'; Jur. use 'seedling' (t’éh-léh-t’ūn-méi wúh-séh-t’iēn ‘particular species’), usi-in 'field' (wúh-šīh-yīn ‘field’), usi 'field'; Olcha use 'seed', usun ‘field, garden’; Na. use 'seed', usĩ ‘arable field for cultivation; private garden for cultivating vegetables’, usiŋku ‘person who possesses such a garden’; usilə- ‘to labour a land for cultivating plants’; Orok usi ‘field (farm), garden’, usi- ‘cultivate, till; hunt a bear’; Oroch usi ‘seeds, grains’, usin ‘garden for cultivating vegetables and plants’, usin- ‘to sow, to plant in a garden’; Ud. jehu- ~ jiu- ‘to grow (about plants, people); to grow (about the moon)’, uhi- ‘to sow, to plant a garden’, uhi ‘garden for cultivating plants’

Proto-Mongolic *ös- ‘to grow (of plants/animals)’
WMo. ös- 'to grow, multiply, increase (intr.)', öske- ‘to grow, raise, breed; to increase, multiply (tr./ causative of ös-)’.MMo. ös-, us-, os- ‘to grow (intr.)’, ösge-, osge ‘to grow (plants), breed (animals) (tr./ causative)’, Khal. ös-, Bur. üde-, Kalm. ös-, Ordos ös-, Dongxian osǝ-, osɨ, Baoan ose-, Dagur euse-, Eastern Yugur ǖs-, Monguor ōsǝ-

Proto-Turkic *ös- ‘to grow (of plants/animals)’
OT ös- 'to grow, increase in size (intr.)', MTk ös-, Turkish ös-, Tatar üs-, Uzbek ụs-, Uighur ös-
Turkmen ös-, Khakas ös-, Shor ös-, Oirat ös-. Tuva ö's-, Kirghiz ös-, Kazakh ös-, Noghai ös-, Bashkir üɵ-, Balkar ös-, Karaim ös-, Karakalpak ös-, Kumyk ös-

(4) Proto-Transeurasian *urə- ‘to grow, ripen (of plants)’ ↑〒SI_5

Proto-Japonic *ura-‘to mature, ripen (of plants)’ + *-(C)i- causative-anticausative
J ure-, OJ ure- (B) ‘to mature, ripen (of plants)’, Kagoshima uruʔ, Miyazaki/Kumamoto/ Ōita/Fukuoka ururu, Saga uruʔ, Nagasaki ururu ‘to ripen (of crops, fruits)’, Hatoma ʔurin ‘to ripen’

Proto-Tungusic *ure- ‘to grow, ripen (of plants)'
Evk. uruktu ‘bush’, Sol. urilə ‘grain’, Ma. ursan ‘new shoots that sprout from old roots, new branches that appear on a tree that has been cut away’, ursana- ‘to sprout from old roots or an old stock’, Sibe ursan ‘seedlings, bystander branches’, ursa-na- ‘to revive’, Jur. ure- ‘to ripe’, uri- ‘to become ripe’, Na. urə- ‘to grow, ripen; to develop’, urə-ktə ‘willow rod’, Olcha urə- ‘to grow’, urə-qtə ‘a rod’, Orok urəktə ‘a rod’

Proto-Mongolic *ur-ga- ~ *urgu- 'to grow (of plants)' (WMo. -GA- < pMo *-gA factitive)
WMo. urɣu- 'to grow, sprout; to appear, show up; to rise (of sun) (intr.)', urɣuca 'harvest, yield, crop', MMo. urqu-, hurɣa-, urɣu- '1 to grow', Khal. urga- '1', Bur. urga- '1', Kalm. urɣǝ- '1', urɣǝmǝr 'harvest, yield, crop', Ordos urGu- '1', Dag. orgu-, orege-, orgo- '1', Mog. urɣu- '1', Eastern Yugur uğarma 'plant' (< *urga-ma)
The initial h- in the Middle Mongolian form hurɣa- in the Muqaddimat al-adab is
secondary since h- before consonant clusters is found to be a quite a common phenomenon in Muqaddimat al-adab (Gruntov 2005). The Mongolic forms of the shape *ur-ga- 'to grow' can be derived as a factitive derivation of an original root pMo *ur- 'to grow', while the forms of the shape *urgu- 'to grow' could represent an assimilation of the stem-final vowel to the preceding one. However, the derivation with a factitive suffix remains problematic because the resulting verb is not transitive.

pTk *ur ‘growth, excrescence'
Tk. ur '1 growth, excrescence', Az. ur 'burl, wart (on a tree); tumor; crop', Tat. ŭrɨ '1', Kirg. ur 'burl, wart (on a tree), Bash. ŭrŭ 'burl, wart (on a tree); bump; nodule; outgrowth, excrescence', Nog. urɨ 'gland; excrescence', Kaz. ŭra 'bump, excrescence', Tuva uru '1', Shor ur '1', Oyrat ur '1', Yak. ur '1'

赤 Akkadianpelu III (= "to be red" Bogh., jB G (i/i) of face, hair; moon, rainbow N "become red" of ripening dates ?; > pelu I ) うれ (p 無音)
【有 Alubanian】i arrirë (= mellow, mature, ripe) イ うれ  【形容詞】(イは、アルバニア語形容詞の接頭辞)
【民 Tamil】uru-ttal (= 01 1. to get angry, to be provoked; to exhibit signs of anger; 2. to burn, smart; 3. to become ripe, mature; 1. to be angry with; 2. to bear likeness to, resemble) うれ

(5) Proto-Transeurasian *pisi- ‘sprinkle with the hands, sow’ ↑〒SI_5

Proto-Koreanic *pis- ‘to sprinkle, scatter, sow’
K ppu:li- ‘to sprinkle, rain slightly (intr.); to sprinkle, shower, water (tr.); to scatter, sow’, K ppuli ‘a root (of a plant)’, MK spu·li- ‘to sprinkle’ (MK -(u)li- transitivizer), MK spih- ‘to sprinkle; slander’

Proto-Tungusic *pisi- ‘to sprinkle with the hands’
Ma. fisi- ‘to sprinkle with the hands; to shake, to toss (one’s sleeves), Olcha pisuri- ‘to sprinkle’, Orok pisitči- ‘to sprinkle’, Na. pisi-, fisi- ‘to sprinkle’

Proto-Mongolic *pesü-/*pisü- ‘to sprinkle, scatter; jump around’ + *-r- intensive
Dag. xǝsur-, xesurǝ- ‘to sprinkle’, Mgr. fiʒuru- ‘to sprinkle, pour, cast (metal)’

Although the meaning ‘to sow’ is only explicitly attested in the Korean verbs, it can be reconstructed to the ancestral language, given the derived nouns for ‘seed, seedling’ and ‘millet seed’ in the following etymologies (4) and (5). The polysemy between ‘sprinkle’ and ‘sow’ is recurrent throughout the Transeurasian languages, including verb roots that are not cognate to the root under discussion such as Japanese maku ‘to sprinkle, scatter, strew, sow (seed)’, hodokosu ‘sprinkle, scatter, sow; give, perform, apply’, Sibe swata- ‘to sprinkle, sow’, Turkish sač- ‘to sprinkle, scatter, sow (seed)’, ek- ‘to sprinkle, scatter, drop, throw about, sow (seed)’, etc. Therefore, we can argue that the speakers of Transeurasian extended their verb for ‘to sprinkle (with the hands)’ to ‘to sow (seeds)’ aas they became familiar with plant cultivation.

【趣633-7】numun, nuĝunx, niĝunx (= : n., seed 種; ★sowing 種蒔き; cornfield トウモロコシ畑; offspring 子孫, progeny 〈文〉子孫 (níĝ, 'thing', + gùn, 'dots, speckles') [NUMUN archaic frequency: 22]. v., to produce. ) 麦(むぎ)、蒔く(まく) (n-m, n 無音)
秋 【秋田弁37】えばる  (= 威張りません (^_^;)\('_')  畑用語で 畝立てをすることですが、苗を作るための種を蒔くこと「ひえる」、芽が出て混み合った苗を仮植することを「やとう」と言います。もちろん地域限定ですが。「このめひえた枝豆 の苗、おっきくなたがらくえる」「んだが。まだ畑えばてねがら、やとておくな」(この前に種を蒔いた枝豆が大きくなったのであげるね)(そう?まだ畝立てしていないから、仮植しておくね))
【民】aval (= rice obtained from fried paddy by pestling すりつぶす it; 2. shallow depression 浅いくぼみ; 3. cultivated land 耕された土地) えばる
【賛】pariupti (= f. ★scattering seed 種をばらまく, ★sowing 種まきL.) ひえるプティ
【賛】yajJazaraNa (= n. `" sacrifice-shed 犠牲物小屋"' , a building or ★temporary structure under which sacrifice are performed 正式に捧げられる前の仮の建物・構築 Ma1lav.) やとて --- i.e. やとう = 仮処置
【宮古口】まキ /makɿ/ 多與 新鏡 動詞 皆まキ、まき、まかん 〈全〉蒔く
【民】nARRuppAvu-tal (= 1. to ★sow seeds; 2. to transplant seedlings) まキ (v-k)
【民】vIcu-tal (= 1. to throw, fling, as a weapon; 2. to flap, as wings; 3. to swing, as the arm; 4. to fan; 5. to wave, flourish, as a sword; 6. to strike, beat, flog; 7. to open out, spread; to lengthen, stretch; 8. to accumulate; 9. to give liberally; 10. to spill; 11. to strew, scatter; ★sow, as seeds;) まキ (v-m, c-k)
【宮古口】ぽーイ /pooɿ/多ぷー乚 /puuɭ/新ぱうイ /pauɿ/ 多與 新鏡 動詞 皆ぽーイ、ぽーり、ぽーらん 〈皆、與、多、新、鏡〉(種などを)蒔く  〈鏡〉ものをあちこち投げる
【賛】bhR, bibharti (= ; offer, present; stretch out, ★hurl 放り投げる, cast; bring in, introduce; M. flash, vibrate, rush on, fly along. {abhipra} ★hurl, shoot;) ぽーイ/ぷー乚/ぱうイ
【民】pAvu-tal (= 01 1. to extend; 2. to be diffused; to pervade; 3. to spread, as creepers on the ground; to ramify, as family connections; 4. to touch, skim along the ground; 1. to lay in order; to pave, ceil with boards; 2. to spread; 3. to ★seed 種を蒔く closely for transplanting 移植のために密に播種する; 4. to transplant; 5. to leap or jump over) ぽーイ
【賛】pratyukS (= P. %{-ukSati} , to ★sprinkle A1pS3r.) ほどこす
【賛】puMskRtyA (= ind. by ★applying masculine forms S3Br.) 施す(ほどこす)ヤ
【民】paTTagkaTTu-tal (= 1. to confer a title; 2. to invest with office, dignity, authority; to install, crown; 3. to fasten a gold band on the foreheads of the bridal pair in a marriage; 4. to ★perform the ceremony of indicating the succession to the estate of a deceased person among mar6avas, wherein, before the corpse is removed, the chief heir and his wife take two balls of cowdung mixed with various kinds of grain and stick them on to the wall of their house and throw them in water on the eighth dat after death; 5. to ★perform the ceremony of going round the deceased during cremation) 施す(ほどこす)

(6) Proto-Transeurasian *pisi-i (sow- INS.NMLZ) ‘seed, seedling’, *-i/ø instrumental deverbal noun suffix ↑〒SI_5

Proto-Koreanic *pisi ‘seed; lineage’
MK ·psi ‘(plant) seed, the hard substance within a fruit of a plant, which will sprout and grow into a new plant; the source of bearing and reproducing new animals; derogatory term for the blood or the origin of a family’, K ssi ‘seed, kernel, stone, pip; lineage, descent, breed, stock’, K pye-psi ‘rice seed’, JJ ssi, KB ssi, KN ssi ~ ssikas, JN ssi ~ ssikas, JB ssikasi, KW ssi, CN ssi, CB ssi, KG ssi ‘seed’

Proto-Tungusic *pisi-ke ‘broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum)’ < *pisi- ‘to sprinkle with the hands, sow’ + *-xa ~ -kA deverbal resultative nominalizer (Robbeets 2015: 402-408)
Ma. fisihe ~ fisike ‘glutinous millet, broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum)’, fisitun ‘a ritual vessel for offering millet; bowl for grinding millet, carved out from a piece of wood’ (< fisi + tetun ‘utensil’); Olcha pikse; Na. pikse ‘millet’; Kur-Urmi dialect fisxe ‘broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum)’; Jur. fise bele ‘yellow rice; coarse rice’ (bele ‘hulled rice, edible grain’)

Proto-Mongolic *pesi ~ *pisi ‘origin or base of a plant’
MMo. nisi, hesi, Written Mongolian isi ~ esi ‘foundation, basis, origin, source; a stalk of grain, trunk of a tree, stem of a plant, shoot; handle, grip’, Khal. iš ~ eš ‘1 source, basis; 2 stem, stalk, trunk, underground stem; 3 handle, shaft’; Bur. eše ‘1, 2, 3’, Kalm. iš ‘beginning, source; stalk (of plant), stem (of tree); handle, grip’, Ordos eši ~ iši ‘1, 2 , 3’, Bao. jɛśi, heʂï ‘handle, grip’, Dag. xeš, xeši, heši ‘handle, grip, knob’; Eastern Yugur šǝ ‘handle, stem’, Kangjia heši ‘handle, grip’ (Nugteren 2011: 354)

The derivation of Proto-Tungusic *pisi-ke ‘broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum)’ as ‘what is sown’ recalls the derivation of Old Tukic tarïg ‘grain (generic); crop; cultivated land’ and Middle Turkic tarïg ~ tarïḳ 'cultivated field; millet' from the Old Turkic verb tarï- ‘to disperse, cultivate’, see (10). The suffix deriving the resultative noun from the verb is attested in numerous petrified pairs in Tungusic, such as Even ewi:- ‘to play’ → ewi:ke: ‘game, toy’, te:w- ‘to put’ → te:pke ‘cover’, et- ‘to conquer’ → etka ‘regime, power’, hi:l- ‘to suffer’ → hi:lka ‘suffering, agony’, Evenki kalta- ‘to split in halves’ → kaltaka ‘one of a pair’, sukca- ‘to ruin’ → sukcaka: ‘ruin’, etc. (Robbeets 2015: 402-408)

(7) Proto-Transeurasian *kipi ~ kipe ‘components that are removed from the grain harvest, barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgali)’ ↑〒SI_5

Proto-Japonic *kinpi ~ *kimi ~ *kipi-mi ‘millets for human consumption such as barnyard millet (Echinochloa esculenta), broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum)’
J kibi (2.5), EMJ kibi, OJ ki1mi1 ‘broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum)’, Hachijo/ Sodegaura kimi ~ kibi ‘broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum)’, Kagoshima kiʔ, Koshiki ki(ː)bi, Miyazaki/ Kumamoto/ Fukoka/ Saga/ Fukue/ Nagasaki kibi ‘broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum)’, Tokunoshima kimi ‘broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum)’, Wadomari (Okinoerabu) kimi ‘broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum)’, China (Okinoerabu) kimii ‘broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum)’, Hirara tsïm ~ kïm ‘barnyard millet’, Ogami kïm ‘barnyard millet’, Tarama kïm ‘barnyard millet’, Ishigaki pi: ~kïŋ ‘barnyard millet’, kïŋ ‘broomcorn millet’, Hateruma sïN ‘barnyard millet’, sïŋ ‘broomcorn millet’, Kohama kïn ‘barnyard millet’, Taketomi ʃiŋ ‘broomcorn millet’, Yonaguni c'iNti ‘barnyard millet, broomcorn millet’

Proto-Koreanic *kipi > *phi ‘barnyard millet (Echinochloa esculenta)’
MK ·phi ‘barnyard millet; It is about a meter high. It has thin, long leaves whose surface covers the stems like a sheath. During the summer, light green or purplish brown flowers bloom as panicles and seeds are born as awns. The seeds are eaten or used as fodder’, K phi ‘(Japanese) barnyard millet (Echinochloa esculenta)’, JJ phi , KB phi, KN phi, JN phi, JB phi, KW phi, CN phi, CB phi, KG phi ‘barnyard millet’

Proto-Tungusic *kipe ‘components that need to be removed from the grain harvest, barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgali)’
Manchu hife ‘barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgali), tares, darnel (Lolium temulentum: “false wheat”)’

Proto-Turkic *kẹpek ‘bran (from millet, barley), chaff’
OT kepek ‘bran’, MT kebek ‘bran’, Az. käpäk ‘bran, chaff, dandruff, sawdust’, Bash. käbäk ‘chaff, empty glume, dial. bran’, CTat. kepek ‘bran, dandruff’, Gag. kepek 'bran', Kaz. kebek ‘bran, husk, chaff’, Khak. kibek ‘egg-shell, nut-shell, cast-off (of hay, straw), dial. bark’, Kirg. kebek ‘husk, chaff (from millet, barley, etc.), bran’, KKalp. kepek ‘husk, chaff. bran (from millet, barley, etc.)’, Kum. gebek ‘bran’, Nogh. kebek ‘millet husk’, Tatar kibɛk ‘chaff’, Tur. kepek ‘bran, dandruff’, Tkm. kepek ‘bran, bran siftings’, Tuv. xevek ‘millet flour’, Uigh. kepɛk ‘bran’, Uzb. kepak ‘bran’, Chu. kibek ‘husk, chaff, peeling skin on face’, kibengə ‘husk’

Echinochloa esculenta is referred to by the common names (Japanese) barnyard millet or Japanese millet. It is still cultivated on a small scale in Japan, Korea and China as food for humans or animal fodder. It is grown in areas where the land is unsuitable or the climate too cool for paddy rice cultivation. Small-scale cultivation of domesticated barnyard millet in Japan goes back to around 4000BP, during the Jomon period. The wild ancestor of Echinochloa esculenta is Echinochloa crusgali, which is known as barnyard grass. As it causes forage crops such as broomcorn millet to fail by removing nitrogen from the soil, it is considered as a weed and thus a component that needs to be removed from the grain harvest.
The meaning of Early Middle to contemporary Japanese kibi and OJ ki1mi1 is restricted to ‘broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum)’, while the Ryukyuan languages combine the meaning ‘broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum) and barnyard millet (Echinochloa esculenta)’. According to the 18th-century dialectal wordlist Butsurui Shooko, Modern Japanese kimi has shifted its meaning to 'maize, sorghum' in southern Tohoku. An interesting meaning differentiation is found in the modern Fukushima dialect in Tohoku, which has kɨbɨ for the plant and kɨmɨ for the grain of broomcorn millet. This might be a Fukushima innovation, but the meaning distinction raises the possibility of a morpheme boundary in Proto-Japonic, involving pJ *-mi, deriving from OJ mi2, J mi ‘fruit, nut, kernel’.
In Japanese hie, OJ pi1ye is used to refer to (Japanese) barnyard millet (Echinochloa esculenta) but Ryukyuan cognates such as Yamatoma hwei, Asama hui are used in reference to the wild ancestor barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgali). Except for Miyazaki hiye, which can refer to both the wild and the domesticated variety, all the Kyushu dialects, i.e. Kagoshima hie, Koshiki (Kamikoshiki) hiye, Kumamoto hiye, Ōita hiye, Fukuoka hie, Saga hie, Fukue hie and Nagasaki hie, are restricted to the meaning ‘wild barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgali)’.
This observation suggests that Proto-Japonic made a distinction between *kinpi ~ kimi~ *kipi-mi ‘millets cultivated for human consumption such as broomcorn (Panicum miliaceum) and barnyard millet (Echinochloa esculenta)’ and *piyai ~ *piyia ~ *piye ‘weeds on the grain field such as barnyard grass’. In addition, Proto-Japonic had a separate word *apa for ‘Foxtail millet (Setaria italica)’.
Given that the Korean forms underlying Proto-Koreanic *kipi > *phi ‘barnyard millet (Echinochloa esculenta)’, the most parsimonious reconstruction for Japano-Koreanic is *kipi ‘barnyard millet’. The semantics of the Tungusic and Turkic reconstructions point to a common Altaic form meaning ‘unwanted part of the millet production, barnyard grass’. Because of the mismatch in the vowel, it is not clear whether the Turkic participant belongs here. However, (millet) bran refers to components that are removed from the grain or millet harvest and thus makes a good semantic fit with barnyard grass. Therefore, the original Transeurasian meaning may have referred to the wild variety ‘barnyard grass’ and innovated as the domesticated variety ‘barnyard millet’ in Japano-Koreanic.

【趣 Sumer】kibx[GIG](-ba) (=: wheat.) キビ(黍)
赤 Akkadiankibtu(m); pi. kibdtu, Mari kabdtum (= "wheat" Bab., NA [(SE.)GIG(.BA); NB also GIG.Bl] ) きびつ
【民 Tamil】kavEtu (= wild species of wheat (TLS)) きびつ
【チベ Tibetan】kyur ‘bur /kyur bur/ (= - preparation of ★wheat flour, sugar-beer [JV]) きるびる
【チベ Tibetan】'khur ba /khur ba/ (= - {khur ba}, {'khur ba}, {khur - wa} 1) carry, take [on]/ away, suffer, bear [burden/ responsibility]; 2) respect/ venerate; 3) [★wheat dough zhig ste yule 'gar go re zer, a kind of pastry [IW]) くるば
【チベ Tibetan】gro 'bru /dro dru/ (= wheat grain [IW]) どろ どぅる
【民 Tamil】aruvi (= 02 stubble of italian ★millet イタリアのキビの無精ひげ) 粟(あわ)
【民 Tamil】karuvai (= 01 ★millet straw) 黍(キビ)
【民 Tamil】peruvaraku (= a kind of common ★millet (TLS)) 稗(ひえ)ラク
【民 Tamil】pArli (= ★barley 《植物》オオムギ、大麦, s. sh., hordeum vulgare 《植物》オオムギ) ひえリ
【賛 Sanskrit】palAla (= m. n. a stalk , straw Mn. ; the stalk of the Sorghum , Indian ★millet Sus3r. ;) 稗(ひえ) (l 無音)
【民 Tamil】niRA (= hardness in ★fruit) 実(み) (R 無音)、みら

(8) Proto-Transeurasian *amʊ ‘cooked cereal, millet gruel’
Proto-Japonic *amai ‘cereal starch’
 ↑〒SI_5
OJ ame2 ‘gluten; starch from cereals used to hold foods together’, Tarama ami, Ishigaki ami ‘gluten’

Proto-Koreanic *amʌ ‘cooked cereal’
K a:m, a:m cwuk, MK am, amcywuk 'cooked cereal; thick rice soup', KN amcwuk, JN mam cwuk
The long vowel in the contemporary Korean form indicates that earlier in Middle Korean the word had a rising tone and supports a contraction of an originally disyllabic shape with a final reduced vowel *amʌ.

Proto-Mongolic *amu-n ‘cooked cereals; millet’, *amu-sun ‘various cereal dishes; cooked rice’, *narin amun ‘broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum)’ (*narin ‘small, fine’)
MMo. amu(n) ‘millet’, amusun ‘cooked cereal’ ; WMo. amu(n) ‘grain, cereals’, amusun ‘cooked cereal, porridge; food offering made to spirits’; Khalkha amuu ‘millet; millet groat; groat; cereal; grain’, lianguu amuu ‘white millet’, mongol amuu ‘Monghol millet’, tutarga amuu ‘rice, rice groat’, xonog amuu ‘fine millet’, ams ‘cooked cereal’; Bur. amha(n) ‘cooked cereal’, Ordos a(:)mu ‘broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum)’; Dagur am ‘grain, cereal; (in compounds only), am budaa ‘grain, groat, food’, maŋŋələm ‘broomcorn millet’ (< *moŋgal amun), narye:m ‘millet’ (< *narin amun); Eastern Yugur amən ‘grain, cereal’, aməsən ‘cooked cereal’, narən amən ‘millet’; Monguor a(:)mu; Bao. amuŋ; Kangjia amu ‘millet’; Dgx. aməŋ ‘rice gruel’(Nugteren 2011: 268).

Manchu amsun ‘offerings of wine and food to a deity’ is a borrowing from the Mongolic form derived with a collective suffix.

Borrowing
Proto-Koreanic *amʌ ‘cooked cereal’ >> Proto-Ainuic *ɒm 'cereals, such as rice, millet, wheat, barley'
Proto-Ainuic *ɒm(=)ɒm 'cereals, such as rice, millet, wheat, barley': Yakumo (South-West Hokkaido Ainu) am=ám 'cereals, rice', Obihiro (North-East Hokkaido Ainu) amám 'cereals, rice', Raichiska (Sakhalin Ainu) am=am(=uhu) 'rice', Kuril Ainu am=ama 'rice' (Vovin 1993: 82). The consonant-final form and the meaning ‘cereals including rice’ in Ainu suggests that the word is more likely to have been borrowed from Proto-Koreanic than from Proto-Japonic.
Proto-Sino-Tibetan *am ‘to eat/drink (liquid food such as gruel); liquid food’ >> Proto-Transeurasian *amʊ ‘cooked cereal, millet gruel’
Proto-Tibeto-Burman *am ‘eat, drink; food’ > Proto-Tibeto-Burman *am ‘rice plant'
Dhimal am ‘to drink’, Thulung (Western Kiranti) um- ‘eat’, Anong (Nungic) am ‘eat’, Karen (Karenic) ʔam2 ‘eat’, Bue (Karenic) a33 ‘eat’, Kayan (Karenic) ʔaŋ11‘eat’, Kayaw (Karenic) ʔo11‘eat’, Pa-O (Karenic) ʔam2 ‘eat’, Pwo (Karenic) ʔàn ‘eat’, Taungthu ʔam ‘eat,’ Lepcha am ‘food,’ Rawang Mutwang dialect əm ‘eat,’ Lushei (and general Kuki) in ‘drink’ 
(Matisoff n.d.)
Bengni (Tani group) am ‘rice plant’, Dulong (a.k.a Trung, Nungish group) am55 ‘rice’ (paddy), Sak (Sal group) ‘rice plant’ (Final *-m regularly shifts to in Sak), Jingpo (Sal group) mam³³ ‘rice (paddy)’, Chepang ʔamʰ ‘cooked rice’, yam ‘rice plant’, Thulung (Kiranti) mam ‘grain of rice remaining unhusked after milling’ (Sagart 2018)

Proto-Sinitic *am ‘to drink liquid food’ > *am ‘rice gruel’
Old Chinese 飲 ʔi̯əm ‘drink’ (Baxter and Sagart 2014)
Minnan am3 'rice gruel'

Proto-Sinitic *am ‘drink liquid food, rice gruel’ >> Proto-Austronesian *am ‘rice gruel’
Proto-Austronesian *am ‘rice gruel’ (Sagart, pc)
Bunun am ‘water from cooked rice’, Kavalan am ‘rice gruel’, Thao am 'rice gruel; water from cooked rice; slop, leftover food that is left to the pigs', Amis ʔaʔam 'soft watery rice'.
Along with Proto-Transeurasian *sarpa ‘spade’ in the following etymology (9), the Proto-Transeurasian reconstruction *amʊ ‘cooked cereal, millet gruel’ is one of the few Neolithic subsistence terms that may have been influenced by Proto-Sino-Tibetan. Given the meanings ‘eat/drink’ in Tibeto-Burman languages and the meaning ‘drink’ in Old Chinese, the original meaning of the Sino-Tibetan root can be reconstructed as ‘to eat/drink liquid food such as gruel’ and by extension ‘liquid food such as gruel’. The nominalized meaning served as a model, not only for Proto-Transeurasian, but also for Proto-Austronesian. The Proto-Transeurasian word can be reconstructed as ‘cereal/ millet gruel’ and may have been borrowed at a time before the introduction of rice agriculture in the Yellow River region, i.e. before 6000 BP and probably also before the break-up of Proto-Sino-Tibetan in 8000 BP (Zhang et al. 2020). Since the Austronesian words all share the element ‘rice’, they go back to a time after 6000 BP, thus postdating the break-up of Proto-Sino-Tibetan. The contact probably took place at a time when Austronesian was still spoken on the continent, i.e. before 5000 BP.

【趣 Sumer】énmen, émmen, ímmen, ímmin, émma, ímma (= : to ★drink beer ビールを飲む.) 飲(いん)、イのむ
【箍 tagalog】inumin (= ★drink, take as a medicine) いん、イのむ
【民 Tamil】uN(Nu)-tal (= 1. to eat or ★drink; to suck, as a child; take food; 2. to swallow without biting; 3. to enjoy, experience;) いん
【民】an2n2amalam (= ★gruel (TLS)) あめーラム
【賛 Sanskrit】AranAla (= n. sour ★gruel made from the fermentation of boiled rice Sus3r.) あーらなーら
【民】kajncikkAyccu-tal (= to prepare food, as ★gruel, slop or boiled rice) かにゃしかゆっす、かゆ
【出雲弁 IZUMO dialect】おねば  (= おもゆ(重湯)、ご飯のたき汁 ex. 熱が出てえたしてえけん けん、おねばなと作ってごいた。 【= 熱が出て苦しくていけない から、重湯でも作ってくれ。】)
【民】an2n2avURal (= * ★congee 粥(かゆ), water in which rice has been boiled) おねば、おもゆ
c. 重湯(おもゆ)は、ほぼ汁のみ。お粥(おかゆ)、かゆ、はもう少しご飯粒が入っている。 congee でインド辞書には上記1つしか無かった。従って、これは 100 点。
c. (v-y) 音通とすると、「おもゆ」とも聞こえる。
【出雲弁】かいじゃ  (= おじや・雑炊 ex. 晩飯はかいじゃでえー わ。 【= 晩飯は雑炊で結構です よ。】)
【民】kUz (= 01 1. thick ★gruel, porridge ポリッジ、かゆ■水または牛乳でオートミール(oatmeal)などを煮た粥状のもの, semiliquid for; 2. food; 3. growing crop; 4. wealth; 5. gold) くーず
【博多弁 HAKATA dialect、消滅寸前】オミイ  (= gruel 【雑炊】)
【賛】unnAha (= m. excess , abundance BhP. xi , 19 , 43 ; impudence , haughtiness BhP. ; sour ★gruel 粥 (made from the fermentation 発酵 of rice) L.) おみい
【琉球 OKINAWA dialect】ウケーメー(うけーめー)/ ウケーメー/ / 意味/ お粥/ おかゆ/ 解説/ お米の食べ方で、沖縄にはボロボロジューシーという汁が多めの柔らかい雑炊(少しリゾットっぽい!?)食べ方もありますが、ウケーメーは完全なお粥の事を指します。/ / もずくと梅干しのお粥レシピ
【民】vicalam (= 01 ★gruel) ウケーム (c-k)
【琉球】フケー    (名詞)  おかゆ。
【琉球】フケーメー    (名詞)  かゆのご飯。
【民】varkku (= 03 ★gruel) フケー
【民】vicalam (= 01 ★gruel) フケーメー
-- 【賛】pakvavAri (= n. ★sour rice-gruel 酸っぱい粥 (= %{kAJjika}) L. ; boiling or distilled water 沸騰している又は蒸留した水 W. (v.l. %{paGka-v-}).) おかゆ (p 無音)
【宮古口 MIYAKO dialect】ゆヴ /juʋ/多ゆーがま /juugama/ 多與 新鏡 名詞 〈全〉御粥
【民】vaRavu (= ★gruel) ゆヴ
【賛】yavAgU (= f. ★rice-gruel.) ゆヴ、ゆーがま (v-g, g-m)
【民】apicavam (= ★gruel, conjee (TLS)) ゆーがま
【民】avaRkam (= ★gruel (TLS)) ゆーがま
--
【賛】kAJjI (= f. sour ★gruel (%{kAJjika}) L. ; N. of a plant (%{mahA-droNa}) L.) かーにゃじー → かゆ、コンジー (+ン)
【民】attiyUr (= * little ★conjeevaram which has a Vis2n2u shrine) おじや
【賛】vAtIya (= mfn. windy , relating or belonging to wind &c. W. ; sour ★rice-gruel L.) おじや

(9) Proto-Transeurasian *sarpa ‘spade’ ↑〒SI_5

Proto-Koreanic *salp(V) ‘spade’
Paekche OK *sap ‘spade’ (Bentley 2000), MK ·salp ‘spade, shovel; a tool for digging earth and scooping soil’, K sap ‘shovel, spade’, HN sakkalay, CN sakkaley, KB sakkaylay, PB sanci, HN sapcang, KW saph ‘shovel, spade’

Proto-Turkic *sarpan ‘wooden plough (breast), spade’
OT (Karakh.) saban ‘plough, cultivating the land’, MTk (Codex Cumanicus) saban ‘plough, ploughed land’, Az. sapan 'a sort of wooden plough', Bashk. haban 'plough, plowing', Crim Tat. saban 'plough', Gag. saban 'wooden plough', Kaz. saban ‘plough, ploughland, ploughed field’, KBalk. saban 'plowing', Kar.  saban ‘(wooden) plough’, Kum. saban ‘plough, ploughed land’, Nogh. saban ‘plough, ploughing’, Sal. sovan ‘wooden plough’, Tat. saban ‘plough, ploughing, spring-planted’, Tur. saban ‘(wooden) plough’, Uig. sapan ‘wooden plough’, Chu. sorban ‘plough breast’

Proto-Sino-Tibetan *tsrop ‘spade’ >> proto-Transeurasian *sarpa ‘spade’
Old Chinese *[tsʰ]<r>op ‘pestle’ (Baxter & Sagart 2014)
Mpi tɕoʔ³ ‘dig with a spade’, Lahu tshᴀ⁵⁴ ‘spade’, Pumi tʃhɛ̃³³ tsə⁵⁵ ‘spade’, Thado suʔ ‘spade’, Tiddim suk3 ‘spade’

The Turkic and Koreanic forms correspond regularly, including a labial cluster correspondence. Given the Chuvash meaning ‘plough breast’, the Proto-Turkic meaning may be specified as the spade that is attached to a plough handle. Therefore, we reconstruct the original Transeurasian meaning as ‘spade’. Formally, Old Chinese *[tsʰ]<r>op could serve as a plausible model for Turkic and Koreanic, but the meaning of this word is ‘pestle’. However, based on the Tibeto-Burman cognates, we can reconstruct a Proto-Sino-Tibetan word *tsrop with the meaning ‘spade’. This suggest that rather than the Old Chinese one, the Sino-Tibetan reconstruction served as a model for Proto-Transeurasian *sarpa ‘spade’. As such, we may be dealing with an ancient borrowing, going back to 8000 BP, when Proto-Sino-Tibetan was spoken in the Yellow River area (Zhang et al. 2020). Neolithic Yellow River and West Liao River cultures shared certain aspects in common, including tools associated with the management of cereals such as hoes, spades and shovels (Liu & Chen 2012: 127-152, Shelach-Lavi 2015: 68-95, Stevens et al. 2020; SI 7).
On the basis of OJ sapi1 ‘spade, hoe’, we can reconstruct pJ *sapi ‘spade’. However, in addition to missing a voiced labial stop (b < *np), which would be the required correspondence for the labial cluster, the word is not attested in the Ryukyuan languages. This indicates that the word is a borrowing, probably from the Paekche Old Korean word *sap ‘spade’, which has developed from Proto-Korean *salp through liquid loss. The context of this borrowing is probably the migration of Paekche elite to Japan in the period of the Silla unification (660-668). More recently, the Middle Korean word ·salp ‘spade’ was borrowed into Middle Japanese as EMJ sarafi ‘rake’, deriving as the verb MJ sarafe- ‘dig out’.

(10) Proto-Altaic *tari- ‘to cultivate’ ↑〒SI_5
Proto-Tungusic *tari- ‘to cultivate; to sow, plant’
Evk. tari- ~ tare- ~ tale- ‘to sow’; Sol. tari- ‘to sow seeds; to plant; to cultivate; to grow; to disseminate; to inject; to infect, to catch a disease’, tariŋko ‘injector’; Ma. tari- ‘to cultivate, farm; to plow’; Jur. tali- ~ tari- ‘to sow, plant, cultivate’; Ulcha tari̇- ‘to sow, plant’, Na. tari- ‘to sow seeds’, tariko ‘sowing machine’, tarici- ‘to sow (seeds) regularly’; Ud. tali- ‘to plant a garden’, tali ‘garden for cultivating plants’, Oroch tariko- ‘to plant’

Proto-Mongolic *tari- ‘to prepare the soil for cultivation; to sow, plant’
MMo. tari- ‘to sow, plant’; WMo. tari- ‘to sow, plant; to plough; to inoculate against infection, vaccinate’; Khal. tari- ‘to sow; to plant; to infect; to perform a deed; to inject; to vaccinate’; Ordos tari- ‘to sow; to plant; to plow; to inoculate (smallpox)’; Bur. tari-; Kalm. tär-; Eastern Yughur tarə- ‘to sow, plant’; Mgr. tarə- ~ tari- ‘to sow; to cultivate land’; Bao. tarə- ~ tar-; Kgj. tari-; Dgx. tari- ‘to sow, plant’

Proto-Turkic *tarï- ‘to cultivate (land); to prepare the soil for cultivation; to sow, disperse’
OT tarï- ‘to disperse, cultivate (a field)’, MTk. (Chagatay) tar-, tarï- ‘to scatter seeds, sow’, Kirg. tarï- ‘to sow, cultivate ground, plow’, Bash. tarï- ‘to sow’, Alt. tarï- ‘to sow, cultivate’, Uig. dar-, tar- ‘to sow’, tarï-, taru- ‘to cultivate ground’, S-Yug. tarï- ‘to sow’; Khak. tarï- ‘to sow’, Tuv. tarï- ‘to plow, cultivate ground, sow, plant’; Tofa. tarï- ‘to sow, plant’


It should be noted that the Old Turkic form tarï- means ‘to disperse’ in addition to ‘to cultivate’. Since this meaning is primary in Turkic, while the Tungusic and Mongolic languages only reflect the meaning ‘to cultivate’, this could be taken as an indication of borrowing (Doerfer 1963: 244-245, 1968: 480-482, Doerfer 1985: 77, Rozycki 1994: 203). However, the underived verbal nature of the compared roots, the rich distribution of cognates across the Altaic languages and the presence of a potential cognate in Korean argue against a borrowing scenario.
There is a parallel in Proto-Korean *tɨl- ‘to cultivate’ and its derived noun PK *tɨl-ɨk ‘field-’ (PK *-ɨk deverbal noun suffix, Robbeets 2015: 469), which is not included in the etymology because of the mismatch of the Korean vowel. The Korean verb is reflected in various forms such as K kulwu tuli- ‘turn over the soil and sow for a second crop’ (kulwu ‘aftercrop’), K tuli- ‘to winnow grain from the chaff’, K noph-tuli ‘an unproductive rice field in a high place with little water’ (noph- ‘to be high, elevated’), K kiph-tuli ‘a low-set rice field’ (kiph- ‘to be deep’; -i deverbal noun suffix), while the derived noun is found in K tulh, MK tulh / tuluh 'field-, wild'.


(11) Proto-Mongolo-Tungusic *pure ‘seed, sprout, offspring’ ↑〒SI_5

Proto-Tungusic *puri 'sprout, offspring, child'
Even hurken ‘adolescent; young (person); single (person)', hurke ‘pregnant (of animals)’, hurel ~ urul ~ urel 'child, infant; grandchild; younger brother or sister', Evk. huri-l ‘children’, huru: ‘family; mother of many children’, hurkə:n ~ urkə:n ~ hurkə:kə:n ~ urkə:kə:n ‘boy’, Solon ukkəxən ~ urkəxən 'son, boy', uril 'children; offspring', Neg. xujil (plural of xutə) ‘child (son, daughter); baby of an animal’, Olcha purul(i) 'children (plural)', puri- ‘to give birth’, Orok puril 'children (plural)', puriɣə ~ pure: ~ puriə ~ purə ~ purəɣə 'young', Na. puril 'children (plural)', puri- ‘to give birth (of animals)’, Oroch xi:(g) ~ xiji(g) 'children (plural)’, Ma. fursun ‘shoots, sprouts (especially of a grain); sawdust’
The final liquid in the Tungusic forms is a petrified plural suffix pTg *-l, e.g., Evk. ŋa:le 'hand' → ŋa:le-l 'hands', Neg. oyo 'reindeer' → oyo-l 'reindeers', Even adal 'net' → adal-al 'nets' (Benzing 1955: 1023-1026). The Tungusic forms in *-kan reflect a lexicalized diminutive suffix pTg *-kA:n, e.g. Even ŋa:l-ka:n 'small hand', Orok ke:či-ke 'puppy', Na. toke-kan 'small sleigh', etc. The Manchu form fursun 'shoots, sprouts' may be a borrowing from Mongolic because the meaning ‘sprout’ is not attested elsewhere in Tungusic and because -*-sUn is a collective and body part suffix in Mongolic but not in Manchu (Rozycki 1994: 83).

Proto-Khitan-Mongolic *püre ‘seed, fruit; offspring, child’
MMo. xüre (HY), hüren (Muq) '1 offspring, descendant, seed, fruit, result', WMo. üre '1', Dag. xur, hure '1', Khal. ür '1', Bur. üre '1', Ordos ür, üre '1', Kalm. ürn 'child, offspring, seed, fruit, result', Eastern Yugur hure '1', Mgr. fure:, fure, furie:, xuru, xure:, xurie, Bao. fure, fǝrɛ, Dong. Fure; Khitan *p.úr.s ‘descendant’


(12) Proto-Japano-Koreanic *non ‘field for agriculture’’ ↑〒SI_5

Proto-Japonic *no ‘field’
J no, OJ no1 ‘field’, Yonamine (Okinawa) moo ‘hill, overgrown field’, Shuri (Okinawa) mo: ‘overgrown field’, Old Shuri mo: ‘wild field’, Hirara (Miyako) nu: ‘field’, Nagahama (Miyako) nu:, Ikema (Miyako) nu:, Ōgami (Miyako) nu:, Tarama (Miyako) nu:, Ishigaki (Yaeyama) nu: ‘field’, Hatoma (Yaeyama) nu:, Hateruma (Yaeyama) nu:, Kohama (Yaeyama) nu:,Taketomi (Yaeyama) nu:, Yonaguni nu: ‘field’, PR *no: ‘field’

Proto-Koreanic *non ‘irrigated field, rice paddy field’
K non ‘rice field, paddy field, rice paddy; a group (network) of rice paddy plots, paddy’, K non kali ‘plowing a rice field’, MK ·nwon ‘paddy field, irrigated piece of land where plants (mostly rice) are planted and cultivated’, JJ non , KB non, KN non, JN non, JB mwunon ~ nonkwuteyngi ~ nonttayki, KW non, CN non, CB non, KG non ‘paddy’

Borrowing
Proto- Sinitic *noŋ ‘agriculture’ >> Proto-Japano-Koreanic *non ‘field for agriculture’

Proto- Sinitic *noŋ ‘agriculture’
Old Chinese *nˤ[o]ŋ 農 ‘agriculture, peasant, farmer, to farm’ (Baxter & Sagart 2014)

Borrowed in Tibeto-Burman?
Achang nuŋ³¹ ȵɛ³¹ / nɔŋ³¹ ȵɛ³¹ ’agriculture’, Nusu nõ³¹ nie³¹ ‘agriculture’, Hani (Gelanghe) nuŋ³¹ jɛ³¹ ‘agriculture’, Jinuo noŋ⁴² ȵə⁴² ‘agriculture’, Lisu (Northern) nɔ²¹ je²¹  ‘agriculture’, Gurung (Chachok) ‘farm labourer’, Dulong (Nujiang) luŋ³¹ ȵe³¹ ‘agriculture’, Jingpo nuŋ³¹ je³³ ‘agriculture’, Tujia (Northern) lũ²¹ ne²¹  ‘agriculture’, Tujia (Southern) nõ¹³ ne³³ ‘agriculture’, Bai (Dali) nu iɛ ‘agriculture’

The ancestral Sinitic form from which Old Chinese *nˤ[o]ŋ ‘agriculture’ descends is a likely model word for Proto-Japano-Koreanic *non ‘field for agriculture’. Although a Proto-Sino-Tibetan reconstruction *noŋ ‘agriculture’ cannot be entirely excluded, the Tibeto-Burman evidence is not very solid because the bisyllabic forms can be explained by borrowing from Chinese later in history. If we are indeed dealing with an ancient borrowing, the Japano-Koreanic word was probably borrowed after the break-up up between the Sinitic and Tibeto-Burman branches around 8000 BP (Zhang et al. 2020) and before the break-up between the Japonic and Koreanic languages, according to our Bayesian estimations in 5458 BP (SI 4; SI 24).

【趣 Sumer】ĝišeme-numun (= : an ★agricultural tool ('tongue' + 'seed').) エメ なむん
【趣】muš2,3 (= : n., face, appearance, aspect; diadem; a city's irrigated, ★cultivated territory; surface (mu10, 'female', +    áš, 'to desire') [MUŠ3 archaic frequency; 284; concatenates 2 sign variants].
   v., to glisten, shine.) 農地(のうち)
赤 Akkadianmirtum (= (an agricultural tool) OB) みるたむ
【民 Tamil】nAgkar (= cultivation, ★agriculture) 農業(のうぎょう)
【民】mutteTTu (= field ★cultivated free of wages for the proprietor by his farmlabourers) 農地(のうち)
【賛 Sanskrit】nirvap (= P. A1. %{-vapati} , %{-te} (pf. %{-vavApa} R. , %{-uvApa} Bhat2t2. , %{-Upe} RV. ; fut. %{-vapsyati} TBr. , %{-vapiSyati} Hariv. R.) , to pour out , sprinkle , scatter , to offer , present (esp. sacrificial food , the funeral oblation or libation to deceased relatives) ; to choose or select for (dat. or gen.) , to distribute (e.g. grain for sacrif. purposes) ; to perform (a sacrifice or a funeral oblation &c.) RV.; (with %{kRSim}) to practise or exercise ★agriculture MBh.: Caus. %{-vApayati} , to sow out Pan5c. ; to choose or select (for the gods)) ノウ、ノホ

(13) Proto-Japano-Koreanic *mati ‘delimited plot for cultivation’ ↑〒SI_5

Proto-Japonic *mati ‘delimited plot for cultivation’
J mati ‘field (sector/measure), quarters, town, market’, OJ mati ‘garden, plot of land for agricultural proposes’

Proto-Koreanic *mat(i)-k ‘delimited plot for cultivation’
K math ‘yard, court; place, ground; threshing ground, yard used for threshing’, MK math ‘yard, flattened land in front of or behind a house, plot of land for agriculture’, KB mata, mataey ~ matayng ~ matap ~ matayi ~ matayng, KN matai ~ matang, KW matayi ~ mateyi, mateyng ~ polimateyi, CN matayi ~ matang, JN matayng, hantimangtang, JB mateyi ~ matang, JJ matang , JN matayng, hanti mangtang, CB matayi, KG matang ‘yard; threshing ground’

町 まち town, city 街
赤 Akkadianmahazu(m) (or mdhazu), occas. mahzu (= 'place of taking' [KI.SU.PES5] 1. "shrine 神社, cultic centre カルトセンター"; "(market 市場) ★town"; OAkk also a PIN; Nuzi "quay" 2. jB ~ "spring, basin"; < ahdzu; > mahazis ) まち
【民 Tamil】mAlveTTu-tal (= 1. to cut out a form or pattern, make a plan or diagram; 2. to form ★plots 〔土地などの〕区画 bounded by ridges) まち (l 無音)
【民】muTTam (= 01 1. village, ★town; 2. side, slope; 3. crow) 町の
【チベ】mthil (= depth, base, bottom, sole, middle, SA dkyil, bottom, lowermost part, the depths, hollow part of anything, center, principal part of a ★town, chief place, fundamental point, final goal, main point [JV]) まちる
【チベ Tibetan】me cu ru di (= open ★town in india during buddha’s life [JV]) ま ち る だ
【賛 Sanskrit】mahArathyA (= f. (ifc. f. %{A}) a great street , high street (with %{purI} , a ★city having large streets 大通りを持つ市) MBh. ) 街(まち)、まはーらちや
【民】vATi (= 02 1. garden; 2. wall; 3. courtyard; 4. house; 5. fish-curing yard; 6. ★village, hamlet; 8. hut of bamboo and grass, of ka1n2i-k-ka1rar ; 9. enlosure, fenced place; 10. yard, shed where firewood is stored for sale) おち(落)、まち(町) (v-m)
【民】maujA (= 1. chief ★village, its lands and habitations; 2. hamlet) まち(町)
【民】nattam (= 01 1. growth; 2. town, ★village; 3. residential portion of a ★village; 4. portion of a ★village inhabited by the non-Brahmins, opp. to akkiraka1ram ; 5. land reserved as house-sites; 6. place, site; 7. plantain; 8. reflexed-petalled giant swallow-wort.; 9. gnomon) まちの

2.2. Reconstructions for food production and preservation ↑〒SI_5

To produce and preserve food, the ancestral speakers of Proto-Transeurasian fermented cereals, vegetables and fruits (etymologies (1) to (4)), grinded (7) and crushed food to pulp (6), extracted liquid from fruit and vegetables (5), soaked food such as nuts to remove unwanted components or make it more digestible (etymologies (8) to (11)), and brewed alcohol (12).
Whereas roasting technologies and lactid-acid fermented food using animal milk such as yoghurt, butter and cheese originated in western Asia, Eastern Asia is the birthplace of boiling and steaming technologies and lactid-acid fermented food using cereals and vegetables, such as pickles, kimchi, miso, sake, etc. (Fuller & Rowlands 2011, Susano 2016; SI 7). Our etymologies (1) to (4) reflect the extensive use of fermentation techniques among the speakers of Proto-Transeurasian. They were probably applied to improve the nutritional value of the food, dissolve unwanted components, lessen the labor of food preparation and facilitate portability.
Whereas the original meaning of the verbs in (1) to (4) can be reconstructed as ‘to ferment’, the association with dairying only developed individually in the Mongolic and Turkic branches, after the separation between Mongolic and Tungusic around 4500 BP. Therefore, the etymologies suggest that the lactic-acid fermentation techniques that were first applied on vegetal and cereal sources in the Neolithic were extended to animal milk by speakers of Mongolic and Turkic in the Bronze Age. This argues for the recycling of basic vegetal lactic-acid fermentation techniques as dairying technology. It can be noted that contemporary Mongolic and Turkic populations such as Mongols, Kazakhs who subsist on dairying, surprisingly tend to have low lactase persistence (Jeong et al. 2020). In order to remove the lactose, they need to ferment their milk into cheese or fermented drinks before consuming it. The low lactase persistence suggests that they developed dairying relatively recently in their population histories and explains the close semantic connection between vegetal fermentation terminology and dairying vocabulary in the daughter languages that moved towards the eastern steppe.
Although grinding in general is more typical of western “roasting” cultures than of eastern “boiling” cultures, our etymologies (6) and (7) suggest that food was crushed to pulp and grinded. This is in line with Liu’s (2016: 247) findings about the continued importance of ‘grinding’ in the Neolithic of the West Liao River region as opposed to the Yellow River region. Whereas grinding gradually disappear from the archaeological record in the Yellow River region after 7000 BP, when millet-based agriculture was intensified, the Neolithic populations in the West Liao River area, relied intensively on grinding for their food-production. The starches involved in this process were not limited to millets, but were provided by various nuts such as walnut, chestnut, acorn and pine as well as roots. Combining our reconstructed vocabulary for ‘grinding’ with the etymologies for durable wild food resources in Section 2.3, therefore indicates a broad-spectrum subsistence strategy with some economic dependence on the cultivation of plants such as millets.
The high frequency of verbs for ‘soaking’ in our dataset ((8) to (12)) also catches the eye. They could be connected to food production because in the Neolithic, nuts were soaked to remove the tannic acid (Kawashima 2016). The polysemy of ‘soak’, ‘brew’ and ‘chew’ in etymology (12) may be associated with the addition of human saliva to add sugars in the fermentation process when brewing alcohol. However, as a number of soaking verbs developed secondary meanings such as ‘to stain’, ‘to paint’ and ‘to bleach’ in (8) and (11) or derived nouns meaning ‘clothes’ in (11), some may be connected to textile production because bark fibers such as tree bark, ramie and hemp need to be soaked before they can be turned into thread and textiles need to be soaked for dyeing.

(1) Proto-Transeurasian *saga- 'to ferment' ↑〒SI_5

Proto-Japonic *saka- 'to ferment, be in heat, bloom'
J sake ‘saké, rice wine, alcoholic liquor’, OJ saka-/ sake2 'wine’, OJ sakar- ‘be at a peak, be in heat', OJ sak- 'bloom'; Yamatohama (Amami) sehe, Asama (Amami) sjakɨɨ,Yoron (Amami) sai, Yonamine (Okinawa) sakii, Shuri (Okinawa) saki, Old Shuri saki, Hirara (Miyako) saki, Nagahama (Miyako) saki, Ikema (Miyako) saki, Ōgami (Miyako) saki, Tarama (Miyako) ʃaki ‘rice wine’, sakaN ‘be at peak’, Ishigaki (Yaeyama) saki ‘rice wine’, sakarɨ ‘be at peak’, Hatoma (Yaeyama) saki, Hateruma (Yaeyama) saki, Kohama (Yaeyama) saki, Taketomi (Yaeyama) saki, Yonaguni sagi ‘rice wine’, PR *sake ‘rice wine’, *saka- ‘be at peak’

Proto-Koreanic *sak- 'to ferment, to rot'
K sak-, MK sak- 'to ferment, to rot’; K sek- 'to rot', sekim 'ferment', JJ kalwu sak-, kalu sak-, sayki- 'to ferment, to rot’, KB ssak-, saykhi- 'to ferment, to rot’, KN sakha- 'to ferment, to rot’, JB sak- ‘be fully fermented, get old, to die down (of anger), relent, fade’, JN ssek- 'to rot away, decay, be corrupt, stink’, CB ssuk- 'to ferment, to rot’, CN ssek- 'to rot away, decay, be corrupt, stink’, KG sak- ‘be fully fermented, get old, to die down (of anger), relent, fade’

Proto-Mongolic *saga- ‘to ferment; to reduce (food); to milk’
MMo. sa’a-, sa- 'to milk', WMo. saɣa- 'to shorten, contract, abridge; to diminish, to lessen; to do something in shorter time; to milk (tr.)', WMo. saɣa- 'to ferment', WMo. saɣali 'milch animal (cow, camel, etc.); milking; milk products; dairy (n.)', WMo. saɣamal 'milch, milk-giving (adj.)', WMo. saɣalta 'milch animal (cow, camel, etc.); milking; milk products; dairy', Khal sa:- 'to milk; to lessen, diminish, shorten (by tying in a knot) (tr.)', Khal. saga- 'to ferment', saaly 'milk, yield of milk, dairy; trap, crossbow', sa:mal 'just being milked', sa:lt 'milking; shortening, reduction', sa:m 'fresh milk, milk', Bur. ha:- 'to milk; to shorten, diminish (tr.)', Bur. haxaj- 'to become covered with mud',, ha:li 'milking capacity; dairy production; milch-cow; trap, crossbow', ha:m 'milking capacity', ha:lta 'hindrance, obstacle, brake', Kalm. sa:- 'to pull closer, to pull towards oneself; to reduce; to milk', Kalm. saxǝ- 'to ferment', sa:li 'arch, trap; milking, milk animal', sa:lɣan 'milking; pulling towards oneself; straining a bow', sa:m 'yield of milk; period of time', Ordos sa:- 'to milk; to draw back; to reduce; to delay; to diminish in number'; Mog. sɔ- 'to milk', Dag. sa:- 'to milk; to shorten, lessen (tr.); to fish with a drag seine', Dgx. sa- 'to milk'; Bao. sa:- 'to milk'; S.-Yugh. sa:- 'to milk'; Mgr. s(u)a:- 'to milk', sa:li ‘milch animal, female (goat, sheep)’

Proto-Turkic *sag- ‘to milk; to extract’
OTk saɣ- 'to milk (an animal)', OTk (Karakh.) saɣ-, Chu. sъwv-, Tk. saɣ- 'to milk; to fleece, despoil; to extract honey from the hive; to pour out rain (cloud); to unwind'; saɣïm 'milking; quantity of milk taken at one time, quantity of honey taken at one time; milk-giving animal'; saɣlï 'kept for milking'; saɣlïk 'dairy animal', sagmal 'milch, kept for milking, milk-giving; fit to be fleeced (person)', Gag. sa:-, Az. saɣ-, Tkm. saG-, Sal. sax-, Khalaj sa:ɣ-, Uzb. sɔɣ-, Uig. saɣ-, Krm. sav-; Tat. saw-; Kirgh. sa:-; Kaz. saw-; KKalp. saw-; Kum. sav-; Nog. saw-; SUig. saɣ-; Khak. saɣ-; Oirat sa:-; Tuv. saɣ-, Yak. їa-

教育漢字 酒 さけ alcohol, liquor   f17_1#n.54
赤 Akkadiansikaru(m), Sikru(m) (= "beer; alcoholic drink" [KAS(.HI.A/MES)]; j/NB also S. suluppl "date wine"; in Syria usu. "(grape) wine"; s. Sadi (a wine); bit S. "tavern"; NB rab S. (official in charge of brewery); < Sakdru ) さける
susu(m), NA susu (= "liquorice 《植物》甘草" O/jB, NA [GIS.SE. DU.A; GIS.ZA.MUS.SES] in om., med. isid/surus x. "liquorice root"; leaves, seed) ささ
【賛 Sanskrit】saraka (= mfn. going , moving , proceeding L. ; m. or n. a drinking vessel , goblet (esp. for spirituous liquors) R. Sus3r. ; spirituous liquor (esp. that distilled from sugar) , rum Katha1s. ; drinking spirituous liquor S3is3.) さらか、さけ
【賛】TAGka (= n. a spirituous liquor prepared from the %{TaGka} fruit Mn.) さけ (t-s)
【賛】sAsava (=mfn. having spirituous liquor , filled with spirituous liquor , S3a1ntis3.) ささ、笹
【チベ Tibetan】chang (= chang, Tibetan beer, barley beer, wine, liquors, alcohol [general for any alcohol], beer, alcoholic drink, home brewed beer; [RY]) さけ (ch-s, n 無音)
【羌 Chan】ʨhe (= liquor) ちゃけ (h-k)
【蛇 Hebrew】שֵׁכָר shêkâr /shay-kawr'/ (= strong wine, strong drink, drunkard, drink of strong, strong, drunkards, drink or strong, liquor, drink) さけ

(2) Proto-Transeurasian *sugu- ‘to ferment’ (in vowel alternation to (1)) ↑〒SI_5

Proto-Koreanic *su(k)u- 'to make alcohol'
MK swuwul, MK swuul 'rice wine, alcoholic liquor’, K sul ‘rice wine; (intoxicating) liquor, drink, booze’, JJ swul, KN swul, JN swul, JB swul, KW swul, CN swul, CB swul ~ cwu, KG swusil ‘rice wine’

Proto-Mongolic *su(g)a- 'to milk'
Monguor sua:-, Mogol sɔ-, Mogol suɒ:- ‘to milk’ (Nugteren 2011: 479” “peculiar Monguor (MgrH) and Mogol forms”)

Proto-Turkic *sug- ‘to procure cheese’
OT sug- ‘to procure cheese’, sugut ‘dried cheese’

(3) Proto-Transeurasian *sü:- ‘to reduce/preserve food by fermentation’ ↑〒SI_5

Proto-Japonic *su- 'to be sour, fermented in vinegar'
J su, OJ su 'vinegar', J su-, OJ su- ‘to be sour, vinegared, acid, tart’, J susi ‘sushi, vinegared fish and rice’ (-si deverbal noun suffix, e.g., in OJ ki1tasi ‘rock salt, dried and hardened salt’, karasi ‘mustard’), Kagoshima/Koshiki/ Miyazaki su / Kumamoto suː, Ōita/Fukuoka/Saga /Fukue/Nagasaki su ‘vinegar’, Yamatohama (Amami) sïïsari, Asama (Amami) sjɨɨhai,Yoron (Amami) siisjaN, Yonamine (Okinawa) siiseN, Shuri (Okinawa) siisaN, Old Shuri şiisaN, Hirara (Miyako) su:munu, suv, Nagahama (Miyako) si:si, Tarama (Miyako) sïfusal, Ishigaki (Yaeyama) sïsanu, Hateruma (Yaeyama) ʃiʃahaN, Kohama (Yaeyama) so:hanu, Taketomi (Yaeyama) ʃi:sa, Yonaguni c'jaN, PR *su- ‘to be acidic, sour’

Proto-Koreanic *swu- ‘to be sour’ > *swu-y- ‘become sour’ (*-i- fientive)
MK swuy- ‘become sour’, JJ swiwu- ‘become sour’, KN si- ~ ssi- ‘be sour’, JB swey- ‘be sour’, CB swiwu- ‘become sour’, CN si- ‘be sour’, KG ssi- ‘be sour’, KW si- ‘be sour’

Proto-Mongolic *sü- ‘strain, filter, skim off, reduce (food)’ -> *sü-sün (strain-COLL) ‘strained food’ > *üsün > *sün 'milk'
Proto-Mongolic *siü- ‘to strain, filter, skim off, reduce (food)’ -> *siü-sün (strain-COLL) ‘juice; reduced food’.

PMo *sü- in MMo. sü:- ‘filter’

PMo *süsün ~ *üsün ~ *sün 'strained food; milk' in WMo sü(n), üsün, MMo. sün, su:n, su, MMo. süsün ‘provision for travelling’, Khal. sü(n), Bur. hün, dial. ühe(n), Kalm. sün, üsn, Ordos üsü(n), Dag. su:, Eastern Yugur sun, hsʉn Mgr. sun , Mog. sün, sun 'milk' The form süsün is only preserved in MMo, while *sün is represented in MMo, Mog, Khal., Bur and Dag, whereas Kalm. üsn, Ord üsü(n), and EYu hsʉn go back to *üsün. The Mongolian word is borrowed as Manchu sun 'milk' (Rozycki 1994: 190). PMo *sün 'milk' is unlikely to be borrowed from proto-Turkic *sü-(t) given the missing imitation of the Turkic suffix *-t.

PMo *siü- ‘to strain, filter, skim off, reduce (food)’ in MMo. ši’u-, šü:- ‘to filter’, MMo. ši’ü-kü ‘a filter’, WMo. sigü-, šügü- ‘filter, strain; fish out with a net’, Khal. šüüx, Ordos šü:-, Bur šüüxe, Kalm šüüx, Dag su:- ‘to scoop up’, Eastern Yughur šü:-, Monguor śu:-

PMo *siü-sün ‘juice; portion of meat allocated to a certain person’ in MMo. ši’usun ‘ration’, ši’usu ‘food, provisions’, WMo. sigüsü(n), šügüsü, šüsü ‘sap, juice, food (usually meat) for offerings, food for traveling officials, whole sheep cooked and served to honored guests’, Khal. šüüs(en) ‘sap, juice; food (usually meat) for offerings’, Ordos šʉ:s(ʉ), Bur šüühe(n) ‘juice’, Kalm šüüsn, Dag ču:s ‘half-cooked meat juice, etc’, Mgr. su:sən ‘sheep cooked in its entirety’.

Proto-Turkic *sü:- 'to filter, strain (milk or soup), reduce (food)' -> *sü:-t (strain-NMLZ) ‘strained food’ > *sü:t ‘milk’, *-t deverbal noun suffix, e.g. OT sug- 'to procure cheese' -> OT sugut 'dried cheese', OT kurï- ‘to dry up’-> OT kurut ‘dried curds’, OT yogur- ‘to thicken, condense’ -> OT yogurt ‘curdled milk’

PTk *sü:- 'to filter, strain (milk or soup)' + *-(X)z causative suffix (Erdal 1991: 757) in OT süz- ‘to filter, to strain (the action of filtering milk and soup)’

PTk *sü:t ‘milk’ in OT süt (OUygh.), Karakh. süt, MT süt, Tk. süt, Az. süd, Tkm. sü:t, Gag. süt, Tat. sü̆t, Kirg. süt, Kaz. süt, Nog. süt, Bash. hü̆t, Balk. süt, Krm. süt, Kkpak süt, Salar süt, Kumyk süt, Uz. sut, Uig. süt, Tuva süt, S-Yug. süt, söt, Khak. süt, Shor süt, Yak. ü:t, Halaj si:t, Chu. sǝʷt 'milk'

赤 Akkadiansappatu, sabbatu, NB also sappatu (= (a pottery vessel) OB(Alal.), M/NA, j/NB for wine, ★vinegar; NB also of bronze ?; < sappu) すっぺーダ
sursummu, occas. surusumu (= "sediment, dregs" M/NB of beer, used in med.; also "lees" of wine, ★vinegar etc.) するすむ
【賛 Sanskrit】zaTa (= mfn. ★sour , astringent , acid L. ; m. N. of a man g. %{gargA7di} ; of a son of Vasu-deva Hariv. (prob. w.r. for %{zaTha}) ; of a country g. %{zaNDikA7di}.) すー、すす
c. ケルン大のインド語辞典のサンスクリット語の発音記号は、Harvard-Kyoto 方式で、/z/ の記号は、IPA 発音記号の /ʃ/ シューである。Harvard-Kyoto 方式は、普通のアルファベット文字のみの表記の利便性が売りである。
【賛】suvIra (= ; %{-rA7mla} n. ★sour rice gruel L.) すびーら
【賛】sthUla (= ; ★sour milk , curds L. ;) すー (l 無音)

(4) Proto-Transeurasian *bilče- 'to ferment a liquid, mix with a liquid’ ↑〒SI_5

Proto-Japonic pisi ‘fermented liquid’
J hisiko, OJ pisiko1 ‘anchovy’ (OJ ko1‘little one’), J hisio, OJ pisipo ‘a liquid made from barley and soy beans, mixed, fermented, and salted, and used as a pickling vehicle for vegetables’, J sisi-bisio ‘salted meats’. There are no cognates in the Ryukyuan languages.


Proto-Korean *pici- ‘ferment (liquid), brew, make dough’
K pic-, MK pic- ‘to shape dough for (rice cakes), roll into balls (as dumplings); brew (rice wine), ferment’, JJ ppici-, KB pic-, JB pic-, JN pic-, CB picu-, CN picu-, KW pici-

Proto-Mongolic *bilca- 'mix a liquid with food’
WMo. bilča-, bilče- 'to smear all over, to splash in the mud (tr./intr.), WMo bilčayi- 'to be of thin consistency (of though, batter), become smooth or flattened, spread under pressure', bilčal- 'to flatten completely, squash into pulp, crush, pound (millet) (intr.), Khal. b́alca-, Bur. bilsa-, Kalm. bilcǝ-, Ordos  bilčal- ‘to become flat and watery, to smear all over’. The Mongolian verb is borrowed as Manchu bilca- ‘to mix (flour), to glue’.

Turkic *bilči- 'to ripen, to churn (milk, butter), to stir up, beat a liquid in order to make butter’
OT biš- ‘1 to become boiled, ripe’, MT biš- ‘1’, Tk piš- ‘1, Turkmen biš- ‘1’, pišek 'churn pestle', pišek-le- 'to churn', Az. biš- ‘1’, Gagauz piš- ‘1’, Tatar beš- ‘1’, peš- 'to ripen, stir up, chirn', Kirghiz bɨš- / biš- 'to ripen, churn (koumiss)', biškek 'churn-staff for kumis', Kaz. pis- 'to ripen, to stir up, chirn', pispek 'churn-staff', Nog. piskek 'churn-staff', Bashkir beš- ‘1’, beše- 'to churn; to beat', beškäk 'churn-staff', Karaim biš-, piš- ‘1’, Kkpak. pis- 'to ripen, stir up, chirn', piskek 'a big churn', Kumyk biš- ‘1’, Uighur piš- ‘1’, Uzbek piš- ‘1’, Uz. piškak 'churn pestle', Khakas pɨs- ‘1’, Sary-Yughur pɨs- ‘1’, Shor pɨš- ‘1’, Tofalar bɨš- ‘1’, Yakut bus- ‘1’, bis- 'to smear', Dolg. bis- 'to smear', Halaj bɨš- ‘1’, Chuvash piś- ‘1’, Chu. pǝźer- ‘to pound, beat’

c. 学研全訳古語辞典  学研教育出版学研教育出版
ひしほ   名詞
(一)【醬】大豆と麦で作った味噌(みそ)の一種。なめみそ。
(二)【醢】「肉醬(ししびしほ)」の略。肉や魚を塩漬けにした食品。塩辛(しおから)の類。
c. 梅びちょ、梅びしょ、ってあるよね。
【民】paTuvuppu (= natural ★salt) ひしほ
【賛】paTu (= mf(%{u} , or %{vI})n. ( %{paT}?) sharp , pungent , acrid , harsh , shrill , keen , strong , intense , violent MBh. ; ; n. ★salt , pulverized ★salt L.) ひし
【民】paTu (=; 6. ★salt; ) ひし

(5) Proto-Transeurasian *silɔ ‘broth, soup, juice; liquid food extracted from vegetables, fruit or meat’ ↑〒SI_5

Proto-Japonic *siru ‘broth, soup, juice’
J siru, OJ siru ‘juice, sap; broth, soup’, Yamatohama (Amami) siru, Asama (Amami) sɨruu,Yoron (Amami) sjuu / siru, Yonamine (Okinawa) siruu, Shuri (Okinawa) siru, Old Shuri siru, Hirara (Miyako) sunusï / su:, Nagahama (Miyako) sunusï / su:, Ōgami (Miyako) su:nusï, Tarama (Miyako) sïru, Ishigaki (Yaeyama) suru, Hatoma (Yaeyama) su:, Hateruma (Yaeyama) su:, Kohama (Yaeyama) su:, Taketomi (Yaeyama) ʃu:, Yonaguni c'iru, PR *siru ‘broth, soup’

Proto-Mongolic *silö ‘meat broth, soup, juice’
MMo. šulen, šülen, šīlɛ, šilän, sülen ‘meat broth, soup’, WMo. silü(n), šölü, šülü ‘soup, bouillon, broth’, Khalkha šöl, Buriat šülen, Kalmuck šöln, šüln, Ordos šölö, Dongxian šulie 'soup; juice', Baoan  šile 'soup; juice', Dagur šil, šile 'soup; juice', Eastern Yoghur šǝlen
Monguor šulō

【趣】tu7 (=: ★soup; ★soup pitcher.) ちゅう
【趣】šur, sur (= : to rain; to produce a liquid; to flow, drip; to extract seed oil; to process wine and ★juices; to press (out); to spray out; to brew (beer); to submerge; to flash, gleam (šu, 'to pour' + to flow; cf., šeĝ3,7).) 汁(しる)
ser pet u (= (a barley ★soup) O/jB with milk or oil; < sardpu I) しる ペット う
slru(m), siru, OB also sirrum, MA, MB also tiru, often pi. (= "flesh; body; entrails (omen)" [UZU(.MES)] "meat" of animals; organ s. lawi "is surrounded in flesh"; me s. "meat ★broth"; ) しる、ちる
】suluppu(m), NA saluppu (= ; Nuzi pi. f. "date" [ZU.LUM; OB occas. ZU.LUM; later ZU.LUM.MA, abbr. ZU]; aban s. "date-stone"; me s. "date- ★juice"; qilip s. "date-skin"; < Sum.) シロップ、しる
saljatu(m) I (= "to press, squeeze" Bab., NA |Suk| G (a/u) "press out" oil, wine, ★juice etc. I) * (i also transf. "put pressure on, oppress, hluck mail, pressgang" s.o. N pass, of (i also Ug. ol person "be hard pressed"; > fa(iiu; /ulfiitu; sdhitutu; sdhittu; su(i(iutu; musfuitu; -» $i)(iit ginutu) 汁じゅう(しるじゅう)
ummaru(m) (= - "soup, ★broth" O/jB [TU7; jB also KAM ?]) うま味
【民】cARu (= 02 1. ★juice, sap; 2. toddy ヤシの樹液、ヤシ酒; 3. water in which aromatic substances are infused; 4. pepper-water; 5. food given by relatives in the house of the chief mounter, generally on the tenth day) 汁(しる)
【民】cERu (= 02 1. sap, ★juice; 2. sweetness, toothsomeness; 3. toddy; 4. honey; 5. treacle; 6. water, transparency and brilliance of a gem) 汁(しる)
【トルコ】su (= ★water, ★juice, aqua, bourn, bourne, hydric oxide) すー
c. 水(すい)、吸う、汁、と親戚。
【出雲弁】すー  (= 汁 ex. すーがたれー 【= 汁がこぼれる】)
【民】cUppu (= 02 ★soup 汁) すー (p 無音)
【賛】sUpa (= m. ★soup, broth 〔肉・魚・野菜などを煮出した〕だし汁、スープ.) すー (p 無音)
【琉球】おつゆ、汁 soup, juice   中:うしる 北:しるー 宮:しぅる 八:する 与:ちる
【民】puLiccARu (= vegetable ★soup prepared with tamarind and fenugreek) うしる (p 無音)
【民】teLivu (= 1. clarity transparency, limpidness; 2. brightness, brilliance, as of a gem, pearl, etc.; 3. perspicuity, clearness, as a merit of poetic composition; 4. plumpness, sleekness; 5. ★juice essence; 6. sweet toddy; 7. water strained from rice after it is well cooked.; ) しる、つゆ
【民】tERal (= 1. clearness; 2. pure, clarified toddy; 3. honey; clarified ★juice) しる、する、ちる
【賛】sUpya (= mfn. fit for a sauce or ★soup &c. Car. Va1gbh. ; n. food consisting of soup ib.) つゆ
【宮古口】する /sɿru/鏡っす /ssɿ/ 多新 鏡 名詞 〈多〉汁、おつゆ、スープ   〈鏡〉(絞りなどをする時に出る)しる
【民】tappaLam (= tamarind 《植物》タマリンド[◆アフリカ原産で熱帯アジアに分布するマメ科] ★soup スープ containing pieces of vegetables (TLS)) するノ/っすノ
【賛】saurAva (= m. salted 塩味の ★broth ブロス。〔肉・魚・野菜などを煮出した〕だし汁、スープ。培養液 (cf. %{saurasa}) Sus3r.) する/っす

(6) Proto-Transeurasian *niku- 'to crush to pulp’ ↑〒SI_5

Proto-Koreanic *niki- 'to crush to a pulp, knead (flour)'
K iki-, MK niki- 'to crush to a pulp, mash, knead, beat water into flour’, KB ikay-, JB cinniki-, JN ningkki-~ ingkkallu- ~ ingkkey- ~ ingkkuli- ~ ingkhay-, CB ungkki-, CN ukkay-, KG ukkay-, KW minggi- ~ minggay-

Proto-Mongolic *niku- 'to crush, knead (flour), '
WMo. niqu- ~ nuqu- '1 to knead (flour), mash, crumple, rub, press, massage', niquɣur 'implement for kneading dough', MMo. nuqu- '1', Khal. nuxa- '1', Bur. ńuxa- '1', Kalm. nuxǝ- '1', Ordos nuxu- '1', Bao. noġǝ- '1', Dag. nogu- '1', Mgr. nuġu- '1', Mog. nuqu- ~ noqu- 'to crush', Dong. nuqu- 'to hit with force'

Proto-Turkic *yïk- 'to crush’
OTk. yïk- '1 to crush, demolish, destroy', OT (Karakh.) yɨq- '1', Tk. yɨk- '1', Az. yɨx- '1', Tkm. yɨq- '1', Gag. yɨq- '1', Tat. yɨq- '1', Kirg. ǯɨq- '1', Karaim yɨq- ~ yɨx- '1', Kaz. žɨq- '1', Nog. yɨq- '1', Bash. yɨq- '1', Kpak. žɨq- '1', Kum. jɨq- ~ jix- '1', Uz. yiq- '1', Uig. yiq- '1', Khak. yuq- '1' , Oirat yɨq-, d́ɨq- '1', Khalaj yuq- '1', Chu. (dial.) śăx- '1'.


(7) Proto-Transeurasian *suru- 'to grind, rub' ↑〒SI_5

Proto-Japonic *sura- 'to grind, rub': J sur- (B), sure- (B) ‘to rub against eachother’, OJ sur- 'to grind, rub', J surari ‘without trouble, smoothly’ (-ri adverbializer), sura-sura ‘without a hitch, smoothly’, Shuri sir- 'rub, grind', șiyuŋ 'to rub', Shodon k'usryum, Hirara sïpagzï, Ishigaki sïsuŋ, Kabira suri, Yonaguni ccituŋ, ciruŋ, pR *suri- ~ *kosuri- 'to rub'

pTg *suru- ‘to grind    pTg とは、proto-Tungusic の略です。
Ma. šuru- ‘to grind, whet, sharpen’
In a few cases Manchu displays a palatal sibilant š- rather than s- in correspondence with words with initial h- in Even and initial s- in the other Tungusic languages. There is no internal ground for this palatalization, such as a following high vowel. However, as it concerns only a few cases and since the palatalization is restricted to Manchu, Benzing (1955: 989-990) refrains from establishing a separate palatal sibilant *š- in proto-Tungusic. I do not consider Even huruŋ- 'to grind, pound, mash, pestle, crumble, divide in small parts', huruwe: 'bits and pieces, crumbs' to be related here. These forms derive from pTg *puru- 'to crush', reflected in Evk. huru-, hurgu-, horo- 'crush', Ma. furu- 'to chop, cleave', Olcha pori- 'to crush', Na. purtu 'crumbs'.

pTk *sür(ü)- 'to rub, smear' (pTk *-ti- causative-passive; e.g. OT arï- ‘to be(come) clean (intr.)’ → arït- ‘to clean (tr.)’; Robbeets 2015: 290-292): OT sürt- '1 to rub, smear (tr.)', MT sür-, sürüt-, sürt- '1', Tk. sür-, sürt-, Az. sürt-, Tkm. sür-, sürt-, Gag. sürüt-, Uz. surt-, Tuva sür-, Yak. ür-, Khak. sürt-, Kirg. sür-, sürt-, Kaz. sürt-, Nog. sür-, sürt-, Bash. hü̆r-, hü̆rt-, Balk. sürt-, Karaim sürt-, Kpak sür-, sürt-, Kum. sürt-, Chu. sĕr-

【趣#124】su.ub (= TO ★RUB (to rub)) 擦る(さする)
【趣】s^es^ (= TO ★RUB (anoint with oil)) 擦る(さする), こする (s-k, s-s)
【アゼルバイジャン】kisələmək (= to ★rub) こする
【賛】kaS, kaSati, -te ( ★rub, scratch (M. scratch one's self or being , hurt, destroy.) こする
【民】cAti-ttal (= ; 5. to ★rub on carefully, as a coating of oil; to paint, polish) こす る、さす
【石見弁】こさげる、(鍋底の焦げを~落とす) (= 掻く、(鍋底の焦げを掻き落とす))
【賛】kaS (= cl. 1. P. A1. %{kaSati} , %{-te} , to ★rub , ★scratch 引っ掻く, scrape Pa1n2. 3-4 , 34 Naish.: A1. to rub or scratch one's self ChUp. (pr. p. A1. %{kaSamANa}) Vait. ; to itch (A1.) BhP. ; to rub with a touchstone , test , try Ka1s3. on Pa1n2. 7-2 , 22 ; to injure , hurt , destroy , kill Dha1tup.; to leap ib. : Caus. P. %{kASayati} , to hurt ib.) こす
【賛】gaNDakaNDu (= m. `" ★scratching the cheek ホッペタを掻くこと"'N. of a Yaksha MBh. (%{-DU} B.)) こさげンズ c. 擦る(こする)、と、こさげる、の元祖。
【熊本弁】にじっつくる  (= こすり付ける,なでつける 汚れた手ばニジッツケンデはいよ,キタニャアバイ(汚れた手をこすり付けないで下さい,汚いよ))
【賛】mRd, mRdnAti, mardati, -te (= 1 ({mradati, -te}) pp. {mRdita3}, ★rub 擦る, [[-,]] squeeze, crush, smash; wipe off, destroy. C. {mardayati, -te} press or ★rub hard, pound, crush, grind down, destroy, harass, afflict, also cause to be ★rubbed etc. -- {abhi} crush, smash, destroy, lay waste. {ava} the same. {ud} ★rub in, mix with (instr). {ni} smash, destroy, ★rub or strip off. {pari} trample down, squash, wear away, wipe off. {pra} crush down, bruise, pound, destroy, ravage. {vi} & {sam} the same.) にじっつくる
【熊本弁】にじる  (= こすり付ける,なすり付ける 汚れが付いた手・足・指を物にこすり付けること。ニジクルとも,より強意にニジッタクルやニジッツクル)
【賛】nirjRR (= Caus. %{-jarayati} , to wear down , ★rub 擦り付ける to pieces , crush ib. 2.) にじる (r 無音)
【京都弁】にじくる  (= 物をなすりつける)
【民】muzucu-tal (= 01 1. to dive, dip, get in, enter; 2. to ★rub 擦る(こする), strike against) にじくる (c-k)
【十津川弁】さする   (= 静かに柔らかくなでる)
【民】cAti-ttal (= 01 1. to effect, accomplish, attain; 2. to establish, confirm; 3. to adhere to, continue the observance of; 4. to obtain mastery over a mantra; 5. to ★rub さする、擦る(こする) on carefully 注意深く, as a coating of oil 油で表面を塗る等; to paint, polish) さす
【賛】mRd (= 1 (cf. %{mrad} and %{mRD}) cl.; ; to ★rub , stroke 〔水泳の〕ひとかき、ストローク。〔手で優しく〕なでること, wipe (e.g. the forehead) ib. ; to ★rub into , mingle with (instr.) Sus3r. ; to ★rub against , touch , pass through (a constellation) VarBr2S. ;) なで
【魚津弁】フクル  (= こする、手でふく)
【民】pUcu-tal (= 01 1. to besmear, anoint 塗る, ★rub 擦る, daub, spread on, plaster; 2. to scrub 〔ゴシゴシと〕~を洗う[磨く] the floor with cowdung dissolved in water; 3. to clean; 4. to wash, as with water; 5. to gather together) ふく(c-k)、ふく (c-k)
【琉球】■シユン  擦る
【民】tuTai-ttal (= 01 1. to wipe, wipe off, scour, ★scrub; 2. to sweep, brush; 3. to dry by wiping, as wet hair) シユ、さす
【民】cIy-ttal (= 1. to sweep; 2. to cut down, cut with adze; 3. to destroy, remove to rub こすり取る) シユ
c. 「擦る(こする)、さする」も有る。
【民】citai-ttal (= 02 1. to injure, waste; 2. to disperse, scatter; 3. to destroy, ruin, demolish, kill; 4. to shave, shear; 5. to pluck out, uproot; 6. to ★rub; 7. to sound) こす/さす(c-k)
【琉球】■シリヌグルン    (動詞)  力を入れておしぬぐう。こすってふく。 【民】tIRRu-tal (= 1. to feed by small mouthfuls; 2. to cover and fill up a hole or crevice with mortar or clay; 3. to smear; to put on an outer coat of mortar or clay; to ★rub; to polish, as plaster; 4. to ★rub and smooth the folds of a cloth; 5. to stiffen a cord with glue; 6. to clean the teeth) シリ
【民】nIvu-tal (= 02 1. to stroke, ★rub 擦る gently, handle softly; 2. to smooth by passing the fingers over; 3. to wipe off; 4. to spread; 5. to daub, smear) ヌグう (v-g)
【賛】nirghRS (= P. %{-gharSati} (only ind. p. %{-ghRSya}) , to ★rub against or on (loc.) R.) ヌグル (S 無音)
c. 「尻拭い(しりぬぐい)」は、原意は、「お尻を拭く」では無かった、と、判明。 --- 沖縄弁さん、アリガトウ。
【琉球】■780. シリキヂュン    (= (動詞)  擂鉢(すりばち)などですってかき回す。)
【民】tITTulakkai (= ★pestle すりこぎ used for cleansing rice) シリキ (t-shi)、すりこぎ (t-s)
【民】tUNTu-tal (= ; 8. to ★pound 乳鉢[すり鉢]で〜をつき砕く, as with a ★pestle; 9. to push 押す, force forward) ヂャース(N 無音)、ヂュ (N 無音)
【賛】saMcUrN (= P. %{-cUrNayati} , to ★grind グラインド to powder , comminute , pulverize Sus3r.) ヂャースン、ヂュン
--
【民】cira-ttal (= 1. to crush, ★grind グラインド; 2. to destroy) する(擦る)
【賛】kSottR (= %{ttA} m. a ★pestle , any implement for grinding グラインド Comm. on Un2. ) こすり
【宮古口】すっヴぃ /sɿvvi/多すっヴぅ乚 /sɿvvuɭ/ 多鏡 動詞 多すっヴぅ乚、すっヴりー、すっヴぅらん 〈多、鏡〉(汚れを)ふき取る
【民】tuvar-tal (= 01 1. to divide, part, as the hair in the middle; 2. to dry, ★wipe 拭く off moisture; 3. to smear; 1. to become dry; 2. to be clear 明確化, distinct 〔他のものと〕はっきりと異なる[区別できる]、違った; 3. to be parted, divided; 4. to be mature; 5. to be complete, whole) すっヴぃ/すっヴぅ乚
【民】taivA-tal(taivarutal) (= 1. to shampoo, ★rub 擦る(こする), massage; 2. to touch, adjust; 3. to spread, extend, pervade; 4. to ★wipe off, ★clean by dusting ダスティング[◆ごみやほこりをモップで取り除くこと。]; 5. to harmonise with the key-note) すっヴぃ/すっヴぅ乚
【宮古口】っす /ssɿ/鏡っしゃーす /ɕɕaasɿ/ 與新 鏡 動詞 〈皆、與、多、新、鏡〉擦る
【民】tuTai-ttal (= 01 1. to wipe, wipe off, scour, ★scrub; 2. to sweep, brush; 3. to dry by wiping, as wet hair; 4. to polish; 5. to ★rub, apply; 6. to remove, dispel; to expel, dismiss; 7. to ruin, destroy, obliterate, annihilate; 8. to kill; 9. to relin quish, desert; 10. to exhaust) っす、つーす → っしゃーす

(8) Proto-Transeurasian *simi- ‘to soak (food)’ ↑〒SI_5
Proto-Japonic *sima- ‘to soak, permeate’
J sime- ‘to be damp, soaked’, J simi- 'to soak', simi 'stain', OJ sim- ‘to pierce, soak, sink, permeate’, Shuri suum- ‘to soak’, Ishigaki (Yaeyama) sïmiruŋ- ‘to irrigate (tr.)’,

Although the Korean verb K sumi-, MK ·su·mui-‘to soak, permeate, infiltrate, sink into’ is a good semantic match and looks similar, the Korean vowel -u- < pK *ɨ represents an irregular sound correspondence.

Proto-Mongolic *sime- ‘to soak (food), moisten, suck up’
WMo. sime- ~ simi- ‘1 to draw a liquid into the mouth, suck up, sip (tr.)’, simed- ~ simede- ‘to become soaked with, become saturated, become absorbed (intr.); to penetrate’, simedke- ‘to soak in, absorb (tr.)’, sime ‘3 essence, extract, sap, nourishment’, simejin ariki ‘liquor made from fermented milk’, MMo. šimi- ‘to soak; to suck’, Khal. šime- ‘to suck’, šimte- ‘to become soaked’, Khal šime- ‘1’, šimde- ‘2’, šim ‘3’, Buriat šeme- ‘2’ šeme ‘3’, Kalm. šimǝ- ‘to suck, suck out’, süm- ‘to suck (of cattle)’, šime:ldǝ- ‘to become absorbed, to penetrate’ (< *sime-ge-ldü-), šim ‘juice, taste, nutritious liquid’, mali:n šimǝ ‘edible products, the juices of cattle (i.e. butter, cheese, milk, fat)’, Ordos šime- ‘2’, šime ‘3’, Dagur šime- ‘2’, šim ‘3’, Eastern Yugur šǝme- ‘2’, šǝme ‘3’, Mgr. šǝme-, šǝmu- ‘2’, śime, Mogh. šimi - 'to suck', Dgx. ʂïməi- ‘to sip, take in the mouth and taste’
A plausible cognate in Tungusic is Manchu sime- ‘to soak, to moisten, to seep into; to favor’, simi- ‘to suck’ and simen ‘moisture, juice, secretion, nutritive fluid’. However, the poor distribution of this verb in Tungusic, restricted to Manchu, signals that this word may be borrowed from Mongolic. If this is indeed the case, the borrowing yields additional support for reconstructing the Proto-Mongolic meaning as ‘to soak, to moisten’, preserved in the passive derivative pMo *sime-de- ‘to become soaked’ and the derived noun *sime-n ‘moisture, liquid’

In Turkic, we can reconstruct pTk *simür- ‘to suck’ on the basis of Karakhanid simür- ‘1 to suck, swallow’, Turkish süm-, sümür- ‘1’, Az. sümür- ‘1’, Tkm. sümür- ‘1’, Kaz. simir- ‘1’, Nog. simir- ‘1’, Bash. hĭmĭr- ‘1’, Kkp. simir- ‘1’, Uz. simir- ‘1’, Uig. sümür- ‘1’ and Chu. sim, sǝm 'honey drink'. However, the limited distribution of the Turkic verb, the unmatched stem-final -r in Turkic and the fact that Turkic only preserves the secondary meaning ‘to suck’ makes us suspect that this form is borrowed.

【賛】snA (= ~; to steep or ★soak in (loc.) Bhpr. ; to bathe with tears , weep for(?) MW.: ~) 沁、泌、浸、濅、しみ る
c. 中英候補:沁 soak浸す into, seep しみ出る in, percolate 浸透する・濾す、泌 to seep out, excrete 分泌する、 浸 dip 浸す・付ける  immersed ~を浸す、・つける・沈める
【津軽弁058】かっぱとる   (= 水溜まりに靴が浸かること) 【民】kaviz-tal (= 01 1. to be capsized, turned bottom upwards, to turn down; 2. to bow one's head from modesty; to hang down, as the head, with shame, confusion, defeat; 3. to stoop, bend down; 4. to be overthrown, discomfited, touted; 5. to die, perish; 6. to be ★submerged, to founder) かっぱと
【秋田弁25】うるがす  (= これって方言かなぁ・・ 水に浸すことを言うんだけど。「ままうるがしてくれ(お米を《といで》水に浸してくれ。」 どうも標準語みたいな気はするけど、使ったの聞いたことがないし・・)
【民】URu-tal (= to ★soak) うるがす    --- 宮城弁にもある。
c. 次の節の (9) Proto-Transeurasian *ulu- ‘to soak, wet’ と同じの感じがする。
【出雲弁】ほとびらかす  (水に浸して)柔らかくする ex. 茶碗をかやかいて ほとびらかす 【= 茶碗を水に浸して(付着した飯粒を)柔らかくする】
解説    弓が浜方言辞典にあり
【賛】bhRD (= cl. 6. P. %{bhRDati} , to ★dive 潜る、潜水する, plunge 〔水や場所などに急に〕飛び込む、突っ込む Dha1tup. xxviii , 100 (v.l. for %{kruD}).) ほと
【賛】pragAh (= A1. %{-gAhate} , to ★dive into , penetrate , pervade RV.) びらか
c. dip 水に付ける、ひたす immerse 〔~を液体に〕つける、浸す でも似たものが有る。
【熊本弁】ほとびらかす  ふやかす,浸して柔かくする ソルバ ホトビラカシテはいよ(それを水に浸してふやかして下さい) ホトビルとも
【民】vaTaipparuppu (= a salad of green gram ひよこ豆 split and soaked ふやかす in water and seasoned with condiments 水に浸し、バラけてふやけた後、調味料で味付けした緑色ひよこ豆のサラダ) ほとびらっぷ
c. 「ほとびらかす」という動詞は、インドの「ほとびらっぷ」という名前の「豆入りサラダ」のなれの果ての名前である。ひよこ豆の wikipedia にサラダのことも書いてある。
尚、インド辞書によると、ふやかす soak、のインド語は、もっと短い別の名前である。
【石見弁】かやかす   (= (豆を一晩~) 水につけておく、(豆を一晩水に浸ける))
【民】kaiyiTu-tal (= 1. to ★dip 漬ける one's hands; 2. to undertake, engage in; 3. to meddle, interfere officiously) かやかす (y-ki)
【十津川弁】どじむ  水がどじむ、しみこむ
【民】cetumpu-tal (= 01 to become damp and moist, as from excessive sprinkling of water; to be ★soaked 〔液体に〕浸る、つかる。〔液体が~に〕染み込む。ずぶぬれ[びしょぬれ]になる) どじむ (c-t-d, p 無音)、どじゅむ (c-t-d, p 無音) c. soak 以外全滅。 (c-t-d) の音通で、ここまで前面に出るのは珍しい。

(9) Proto-Transeurasian *ulu- ‘to soak, wet’ ↑〒SI_5
Proto-Japonic *uru- ‘to irrigate, make wet’ + *-pa- ~ -pə- reflexive-anticausative (Robbeets 2015: 292-294)
OJ urup- (?B) ‘to get muddy, be wet’, J uruow-, OJ urupop- (?B) ‘to get damp, get moist, receive profits, get enriched’, OJ urum- (?B) ‘to get wet, moist’, Old Shuri ʔuri:-, Hirara (Miyako) uri-, Nagahama (Miyako) uri:-, Yonaguni uri- ‘to irrigate (tr.)’, PR *ur-*ur- ‘to irrigate (tr.), make wet’

Proto-Koreanic *uli- ‘to soak’
K wuli-, MK wuli- ‘to steep, soak, bleach’, JJ wuli-, wulenay-, KB wuli-, KN wula- ~ wulwu-, JB wulku-, JN wulkwu-, wulki-, CB wulkwu-, CN wulkwu-, wulkhwu-, KG wulkwu-, wulkwu-, wulkhwu-, wulkhi-

Proto-Tungusic *ula- ‘to wet, soak’ + *-p- anticausative (Robbeets 2015: 296-298)
Evk. ula- ‘to soak, to wet (legs); to become wet; to melt (about falling water snow)’, ulap- ‘to become wet’ (Evk. -p- anticausative; Robbeets 2015: 298); Even ụl- ‘to soak, to wet’, ụlab- ~ ụlap- ‘to get wet’, Sol. ụlakku: ‘wet’, Ma. ulga- ~ ulha- ‘to wet, dampen, dip in a liquid’, ulgaku: ‘inkwell, well for ink on an inkstone’, Jur. ul(h)a- ‘to wet, to dampen, to dip in liquid’, Orok ụla- ‘to soak; to wet’, Na. ụlarïko: (dial.) 'wet', Ud. ula- ‘to soak, to wet; to set a net’, ula-sa- ‘to become wet (about dried fish); to be settled (about net)’

■日本語で wet を「うる」って言うか?。「うるっと来た。お涙頂戴?」「喉をうるおす? 潤す」「潤い(うるおい)が有る?」 保水のこと?。灌漑(かんがい)で水を引くことを「うる」って言うか?--- 原作者様、もっと解説が必要です。
【民】uLar-tal (= 1. to adjust, smooth out, as birds their feathers; 2. to spread out and draw the fingers through, as in drying ★wet hair;) うる
【民】iRai-ttal (= 05 1. to splash, spatter, dash; 2. to scatter abroad, strew, cast forth; 3. to draw and pour out water, ★irrigate, bale out 〔バケツなどを使って船底などから水を〕くみ出す; 4. to fill, as one's ears with strains of music; 5. to lavist, squander) いらい
【宮古口】あいじゃ /aidʑa/多あっ乚ぁ /aɭɭa/ 多與 新鏡 間投詞 〈全〉濡れたときに発する間投詞
【賛】avoda (= mfn. dripping , ★wet L.) あいじゃ
【賛】ola (= or %{●olla} mfn. ★wet , damp L. ; (%{am}) n. Arum Campanulatum L.) {●olla} あっ乚ぁ

(10) Proto-Transeurasian *nɔr- ‘to soak’ ↑〒SI_5
Proto-Japonic *nura- ‘to be(come) wet’
J nure-, OJ nure- (A) ‘to be(come) wet, damp; to come undone, loose’, Yoron (Amami) nidituɴ 'to be wet', Shuri (Okinawa) ndir- (A) 'to get wet', ɴditooɴ 'to be wet', Hatoma (Yaeyama) zoori bee 'to be wet'

Proto-Mongolic *nor- 'to be(come) wet'
WMo. nor- 'to become wet, soaked, drenched, damp, moist (intr.)', norɣa- 'to wet, moisten, soak (tr.)', MMo. nur- 'to be wet, soak', norma 'moistened', Khal. nor- 'to get wet', Bur. noro- '1 to become wet, soaked', Kalm. nor- 'to become wet', norɣa:- 'to make wet', norɣu:(n), noru: 'wet', Ordos nor- '1', Dgx. noro- ~ nuru- ~ noru- '1', Dag. noir- '1', noirga:- 'to make wet', Mgr. no:ri- ~ nori- '1'

nilu(m) II, ni'lu (= "★wetness, moisture" O/jB 1. "flooding" of field 2. human, animal, god's "semen" 3. astr. mng. unkn.; < na'dlu) 濡れ(ぬれ)
【蛇44. ヘブライ語】 ★wet - נִרְטַב /nir-tav/ 濡れ タブ(ぬれタブ)
【賛】ninv (= cl. 1. %{-vati} (Dha1tup. ; v.l. %{sinv}) , to ★wet or to attend (prob. a confusion between %{secane} and %{sevane}).) 濡ぶ
【民】nIr-ttal (= 02 1. to become thin or watery, as liquid food in cooking; 2. to be ★wet, moist) 濡れ
【賛】samud (= (or %{und}) P. %{-unatti} (ind. p. %{-udya} , having well moistened "') , to moisten thoroughly , sprinkle all over , water , ★wet Pa1rGr2.) 湿った
【博多弁、消滅寸前】シオタレル  (= wet 【湿気がある】)
【賛】sArdra (= a. ★wet 濡れた、湿った, moist, damp.) しおたれる、しめってる (r-m)
【熊本弁】じゅっくり  (= びっしょり,ひどく濡れる 汗ジュックリ ナッタバイ(汗をびっしょりかいたよ) ジックリとも。ジュタジュタ(水に濡れている状態)も)
【賛】svavaklinna (= mfn. well ★soaked or macerated Car.) じゅっくり
c. びちょびちょ、すぶぬれ、モあるでよ。
【賛】pIta (= 1 mfn. (1. %{pA}) drunk , sucked , sipped , quaffed , imbibed RV. &c. &c. ; ifc. having drunk , ★soaked , steeped , saturated , filled with (also with instr.) Mn. MBh. (cf. g. %{AhitA7gny-Adi}) ; n. drinking L.) びちょ
【賛】subhAvita (= mfn. well ★soaked Sus3r.) ずぶびちょ
【和歌山弁(125)】ぼとしずく  (= びしょびしょに濡れているさま)
【賛】vyutta (= mfn. well sprinkled or ★wetted , drenched ずぶ濡れ TS.) ぼと
【賛】tuSArakaNa (= m. a ★dewdrop 雫(しずく)、露(つゆ), icicle , flake of snow Katha1s.) しずく (r 無音)
【十津川弁】いかだをのる  (= ね小便をすること)
【賛】AghAta (= ; retention 《医》〔本来排出されるべき便や尿などの分泌物の〕滞留。保有、保存、保持、保持率 (of urine 尿 &c.) ; misfortune 不運, pain 痛み L. ;) いかだ
【民】amari (= 01* urine 尿) おのる
【賛】zayyAmUtra (= n. wetting a bed with urine ベッドを尿で濡らすことS3a1rn3gS.) いかだをのる (z-y, y-k)、夜尿症 (m-n)
c. つまり、 「いかだおのる」 = 「不運な尿(尿保持疾患)」が、日本で「いかだをのる」に化けた。カモ。
c. 普通なら「いかだにる」と伝言ゲームしていくと思うが、「いかだのる」と言いにくい言葉を保持している所がスバラシイ (?)。
【十】ズクズク  (= びしょぬれの様の形容)
【賛】sic (= %{siJca4ti} , %{-te} (once in RV. , %{se4cate} pf. %{siSeca} , %{siSice} [in RV. also %{sisicuH} , %{sisice}] ;; to scatter in small drops , sprinkle , besprinkle or moisten with (instr.) RV. ; to dip , ★soak ずぶぬれ[びしょぬれ]になる。〔液体に〕浸る、つかる, steep Bhpr. ;) ずく、ずっく
c. 【富山弁】ずっくずく 、ずくずく 【濡れてべたべたになってること】
【富山弁】したるい  (= 湿っぽい そのシャツ着るがケ、まだ“したるい”ヨ)
【賛】sajala (= a. containing water, ★wet 湿気を含む.) したるい (j-t)
【賛】sAdhAraNa (= ; having something of two opposite properties 両極端の性質が混在, occupying a middle position 中間状態, mean (between two extremes e.g. `" neither too dry nor too ★wet 乾いているでも無く濡れているでも無い"' , `" neither too cool nor too hot 寒くも無く暑くも無い"') Sus3r. ;) したるな
【賛】samud (= (or %{und}) P. %{-unatti} (ind. p. %{-udya} , having well moistened "') , to moisten thoroughly , sprinkle all over , water , ★wet Pa1rGr2.) しめった
【賛】saMkleda (= m. making or becoming ★wet; wetness by (---).) しっけた (l 無音)
【富山弁】べちゃべちゃ  (= ひどく濡れる形容 雨で“べちゃべちゃ”になったチャ)
【賛】bindUya (= Nom "' A1. %{-yate} , to form drops , drip down (p. %{yamAna} , dripping 滴り落ちる、垂れる, ★wet 濡れる) Ma1lati1m.) べちゃ (n 無音)、べちゃべちゃ、べちょべちょ、ビチョビチョ
【魚津弁】ズトズト  (= 濡れた様子)
【賛】zRdh (= ; to moisten , become moist or ★wet 濡れた Dha1tup. ) ずと
【琉球】■ンダスン  (= 濡らす)
【賛】niSic (= ( %{sic}) P. %{-SiJcati} (impf. %{ny-aSiJcat} pf. %{ni-SiSeca} ; cf. Pa1n2. ) , to sprinkle down , pour upon or into , infuse , instil , irrigate RV. ; to dip into Bhpr.: Caus. %{-Secayati} , to irrigate , ★wet , moisten R. Sus3r.:) ンダスン (+ン)
【琉球】■ンリユン  (= 濡れる)
【民】nIr-ttal (= 02 1. to become thin or watery, as liquid food in cooking; 2. to be ★wet, moist) ンリユン (+ユン)、ぬれ
【琉球】■シプタイクサーリン    (動詞)  〈1〉ひどくしめっている。〈2〉ひどくぐずぐずして、のろい。 〈1〉:
【賛】sopasveda (= mfn. having perspiration or moisture , moistened , ★wetted 湿っている MBh.) シプタイ 【民】colucolen2al (= expr. signifying (a) continuous drizzling; (b) clayey condition 粘土質の状態, as of ★wet floor 濡れた床の例え; (c) the state of being mashy, as overboiled rice) クサーリンの (l 無音)
〈2〉:
【民】izuppATTam (= 1. tardiness 遅刻, procrastination 先延ばし, ★lingering 長引く、ぐずぐずする; 2. uncertainly) シプタイ (i 無音, m 無音)
【民】kaLLaccuram (= a ★lingering fever often deceptive and evading diagnosis 診断をだまして回避することが多い長引く発熱) クサーリン (LL 無音)
【琉球】■シッタン    (動詞)  ぬれる。しめる。
【琉球】☑◇シッタイ   (名詞)  しめった所。ぬかるみ。
☑【賛】sArdra (= a. ★wet, moist, damp.) シッタン (r-n)、シッタイ
☑【賛】svArdra (= mfn. very ★wet or moist Bhartr2. (v.l.)) シッタン (r-n)、シッタイ
【宮古口】ざインみ /dzaɿmmi/多じゃ乚ンに乚 /dʑaɭmniɭ/ 多與 友新 鏡 動詞 皆ざインみ、ざインむん 〈皆、與、多、新、鏡〉ずぶ濡れる
【賛】svavaklinna (= mfn. well ★soaked ずぶ濡れ or macerated 〔液体に浸して〕〜を柔らかくする Car.) ざインみ/じゃ乚ンに乚 (k 無音)
【賛】subhAvita (= mfn. well ★soaked Sus3r.) ざインみダ (b 無音, +ん, v-m)、ずぶぬた (v-n)
【民】tayirvaTai (= cake of black-gram pulse ★soaked in curds 凝乳に浸したブラックグラムパルスのケーキ) ざインみダイ(r-n, v-m)
【宮古口】ンみ /mmi/多ンに乚 /mniɭ/ 多與 新鏡 動詞 皆ンみ、ンむん 多ンみ乚、ンみん 〈全〉濡れる
【民】nIr-ttal (= 02 1. to become thin or watery, as liquid food in cooking; 2. to be ★wet, moist) ンみ/ンに乚
【賛】nimih (= P. %{-mehati} (Intens. %{-me4mihat}) , to pour down urine , moisten with urine , ★wet TS. ) ンみ/ンに乚
【宮古口】すぷたイ /sɿputaɿ/多すぷた乚 /sɿputaɭ/ 多與 友新 動詞 皆すぷたイ、すぷたり、すぷたらん 〈皆、與、多、新〉湿る、濡れる  〈皆、與、多、新〉(人が)不潔で(気持ち悪い)
【賛】svid, svedate, svidyati, -te (= , pp. {svinna3} 1 sweat, perspire. C. [[-,]] {svedayati} cause to sweat, make warm, foment. -- {pra} begin to sweat, become ★moist 湿る. {sam} C. = S.C.) すぷたイ/すぷた乚
【宮古口】あいじゃ /aidʑa/多あっ乚ぁ /aɭɭa/ 多與 新鏡 間投詞 〈全〉濡れたときに発する間投詞
【賛】avoda (= mfn. dripping , ★wet L.) あいじゃ
【賛】ola (= or %{●olla} mfn. ★wet , damp L. ; (%{am}) n. Arum Campanulatum L.) {●olla} あっ乚ぁ

(11) proto-Altaic *deb- ‘to soak’ ↑〒SI_5
Proto-Tungusic *debe- 'to make wet, paste, paint'
Evenki dewe- 'to paint', Even dewe- ‘to paint', Negidal dewekse 'paint', Manchu debe- ‘to overflow, run over, to flood’ , Ulcha dewekse 'paint', Orok dewe:- 'to paint', Oroch dewukse, dewekse 'paint'

Proto-Mongolic *debe- ‘to soak (e.g. clothes), make wet'
WMo. debte- ~ debtü- ‘1 to be soaked, steeped, saturated with a liquid; to swell, expand (intr.)’ (pMo *-dA passive), debtege- ‘to soak or steep in a liquid, dampen, moisten, soften’, e.g. amu debtege- ‘to soak grain’, WMo. debül- ‘to spout, gush, boil, bubble, to overflow’ (pMo. *-l- iterative), MMo. debul- 'to boil', WMo. debege ‘marshy place, damp or wet area, alpine grassland’ (pMo *-GA place suffix), Khalkha devte- ‘1’, Buriat debte- ‘1’, Kalmuck deptǝ- ‘1’, Ordos debte- ‘1’, Dagur debte-, derte- ‘1’, Eastern Yogur debte:- ‘1’, Monguor tǝbdē-, tudē- ‘1’, Mogol debtäl- `to make fall into the water'

Proto-Turkic *yẹbi- 'to become wet, soak'
Karakhanid yebe 'dampness', Tatar  ǯebe- '1 to become wet, soak', Uzbek ivi- '1’, Uig. ivi- '1, Shor  čibi- '1, Oirat d́ibi- '1’, Chuvash  śǝʷve 'whey', Yakut sibi:n- 'fresh', Kirghiz ǯibi- '1’, Kazakh  žibi- '1’, Noghai  yibi- '1’, Bashkir yebe- '1’, Karaim yibi- '1’, ibi- '1’, Karakalpak  žibi- '1’, Kumyk  yibi- '1’

(12) Proto-Japono-Koreanic *kama- ‘to soak, brew’ ↑〒SI_5
Proto-Japonic *kamǝ- ‘to chew, brew, dye’
OJ kam- ‘to brew’, J/OJ kamos- (B) ‘brew’, OJ kamu-pata ‘multi-colored woven cloth’, J kamu (B), OJ kam- ‘to bite, gnaw, chew, masticate, eat’; Yamatohama (Amami) xamuri 'to eat', Asama (Amami) kamyuɴ 'to eat', Shuri (Okinawa) kamuɴ 'to eat', Hirara kam 'to bite', Ishigaki kamuŋ 'to bite', Yonaguni kamuŋ 'to bite', pR *kamu- 'to bite, eat'

Proto-Koreanic *kʌmʌ- 'to put in a bath'
MK ·kom-, K ka:m- 'to bathe, wash', JJ mom kam- (mom ‘body’), KB mok kkam-, KN kkam-, JB kamu-, CB kkam-, KW kam- ~ kkam-

【民】kaNNaTai-tal (= 1. to be blocked up, as a hole; 2. to cease shooting, as the head of a plant; 3. to be ★spoiled, as milk when kept too long ミルクを長時間保つ) こねた, 醸す(かもす)
c. こねる、は「ミルクを長時間腐らせる(醸造)、醸す(かもす)」、かもす、と、こねる、は同音属・同義語。
■噛む(かむ)/かみつく:
【賛】khAd, khAdati かむだ
【賛】carv (= ★chew) かむ (v-m)
【民】kavvu (= 02 1. ★bite, seizing by the mouth, as dog; 2. ★eating; 3. fork of a branch or horn) かン (v-n)、かむ (v-m)
【民】cappu-tal (= ★chew) かむ (c-k, p-m)
【チベ】kham (= 1) a bit. 2) one who is about to. 3) piece / ★bite of something, mouthful. 4) fitness. 5) one of {spar kha brgyad} 6) color, water or southern quarter; a morsel [RY]) かむ
【民】mAgkicam (= flesh; ★meat) にくかむ (肉噛む)
■噛む/モクモグ/クチャクチャ:
【チベ】'khun (= 1) grunt, groan, moan, sigh; 2) forced breathing; 3) shrink, contract[ion]; 4) comprehend, understand; 5) abridgment/ diminutions; 6) time of chewing the cud 〔牛などの反すう動物の〕食い戻し [IW]) 噛む(かむ)
【チベ】myag pa (= ★chew [JV]) もぐべ、もぐもぐ
【賛】carvaNa (= n. `" ★chewing "' see %{carvita-} ; tasting Sa1h. ; `" to be chewed "' , solid food BhP. ; (%{A}) f. tasting Sa1h.; a molar tooth Gal. ; v.l. for %{-rmaNA} L.) 噛む
【賛】khAdin (= 1 a. ★chewing, eating (---).) くちゃの、くちゃくちゃ
【琉球】カムン  (= 食べる)
c. [ハチ21 八丈島弁] かむ(食べる) ex. あさけい かんできたらよー
【賛】jam (= 2 (derived fr. %{jama4d-agni}) cl. 1. %{ja4mati} , to go Naigh. ; to ★eat Dha1tup. : Intens. 強調用法 p. %{jAjamat} consuming continually 連続消費 MBh. ) かむ (j-g-k)/じゃむ
【賛】kavalaya (= Nom. P. %{-yati} , to swallow 〜を飲み込む[下す] or gulp down , ★devour Hcar.) かめヤ (v-m)
【賛】kavalIkR (= to swallow or ★eat up , devour Na1g.) かめーくー(v-m)、かめーくらえ (v-m)
--
【賛】sarvabhuj (= mfn. ★all-devouring BhP.) たらふく (s-t, j-g-k)

2.3. Reconstructions for durable wild food resources ↑〒SI_5
Our Transeurasian reconstructions reflect reliance on durable wild food resources such as nuts (etymologies (1), (2) and (4)) and wild roots (3). As these are collected in large quantities and stored for longer periods, they point to sedentism (Shelach et al. 2019).
During the Neolithic, the West Liao River region consisted for 55% of trees, a mix of conifer and broadleaf trees, the latter category being predominantly oak (Quercus) and walnut (Juglans) and also some chestnut. Wild walnuts (Juglans mandshurica Maxima) are found on the floors of houses at the Xinglongwa site (Shelach 2000: 380). Analyzing starch residue on grinding stones Liu (2016), found that Xinglongwa people in the West Liao River region processed acorns and several plant roots for starch at least as frequently as millets. It is probably significant that it is precisely nuts such as walnut, acorn, chestnut or pine nut, which were targeted for their starch and consumed by Xinglongwa people, that turn up in our etymologies. Walnuts and acorns were also stored at early agricultural sites of the Zaisanovka culture (5300-2500 BP) in the Russian Far East (Sergusheva 2009, Kuzmin 2013). Our archaeological dataset (SI 7) further shows that the consumption of acorns and walnuts remained common in farming societies in the Amur basin, the Primorye, Korea and Japan.
According to Liu (2016) roots and bulbs were also targeted for their starch in the Neolithic in the West Liao area. Our reconstruction (3) for Althaea rosa, a plant native to Northern China, may reflect the fact that the root of these plants was used medicinally.



(1) proto-Transeurasian *kuru ‘edible nut used for starch production such as walnut, acorn, chestnut or pine nut’ ↑〒SI_5

Proto-Japonic *kuru ‘walnut, chestnut’
J kuri (2.3), OJ kuri ‘chestnut’, J kurusu ‘chestnut grove’, OJ kuri/u-kuma ‘Chestnut Corner’, J kurumi, MJ kurumi ‘walnut (Juglans regia)’ (MJ mi ‘fruit, nut’). As chestnuts are not native to the islands, there are no cognates for this word in the Ryukyuan languages.


Proto-Koreanic *kul ‘oak < ? walnut’
MK kwul ‘oak’ in K kwul pa:m ‘acorn’ (K pa:m ‘chestnut’), MK kwul pam ‘bristletooth oak (Quercus serrata)’, K kwul cham-namu ‘oriental oak (Quercus variabilis)’ (K cham-namu ‘oak tree’), K kwul phi ‘oak bark’ (K phi ‘bark’), kwul phi namu ‘Walnut-like tree (Platycaria strobilacea)’, KN kal chamnamwu, KG kwul chamnangkwu’oak’

Proto-Tungusic *kuri ‘pine cone, pine nut’ (pTg *-ktA collective for small items)
Ma. xuri ‘cone of coniferous trees’, Jur. xuri ‘cone of coniferous trees’, Evk. korekta ‘cedar nut’ (Menges 1983: 274), Na. koriči ‘water chestnut’, korekta ‘pine cone, cedar cone’

【賛】kiyAha (= m. a ★chestnut-coloured horse L.) 栗(くり)
c. chestnut とは、栗。しかし、インド弁の chestnut の中に「とち」はない。「くり」は有るが、少し、今一。
十津川弁の「いがぐり」を調べたときは、トゲ thorn から攻めたら、有った。
【賛】vaGkila (= m. a thorn 棘(とげ) L.) いげ (l 無音)、いが (l 無音)、 ---- 実は、いがぐりも隠れていた。
【賛】kiyAha (= m. a chestnut-coloured 栗色の horse 馬 L.) くり (y-r)  △
c. 結論として、栗、栃、両方とも、thorn に有る気がする。
【賛】khara (= ; a ★thorny plant (sort of prickly nightshade or perhaps Alhagi Maurorum) L. ; ) くり
【民】kiLai-tal (= 01 1. to remove, purge; 2. to wash, as rice; 3. to put off, as garments; 4. to pry out, as a ★thorn from the fiesh with a needle) くり
【賛】taraTa (= N. of a medicinal plant Npr. ; (%{I}) f. N. of a ★thorny plant (cf. %{tAr-}) L.) とらた、とち、しし
【賛】sitAgra (= m. or n. a ★thorn (for %{zil-}) ib.) とちいがら、とちくり、とげ、ししくり
【魚津弁】インガラ  (= 栗のいが、野犬捕りの人)
【賛】veNukarkara (= m. Capparis Aphylla (a species of ★thorny plant = とげの多い植物 %{karIra} , commonly called Karir or Karil) L.) いんがら
【賛】vaGkila (= m. a ★thorn L.) いが、いがら
【民】aRRam (= 02 ★dog 犬 (TLS)) いん 【民】kULiyar (= 1. soldiers, warrios; 2. ★hunters ハンター, those who live by chase; 3. highway robbers, plunderers; 5. attendants; 6. friends) がら

(2) proto-Transeurasian *xʊsi ‘edible nut used for starch production such as walnut, acorn, chestnut or pine nut’ ↑〒SI_5

Proto-Japonic *kusi ‘chestnut’
OJ kusi ‘chestnut’. As chestnuts are not native to the islands, there are no cognates for this word in the Ryukyuan languages.

Proto-Tungusic *xusi ‘acorn’ (pTg *-ktA collective for small items)
Ma. usixa ‘big nut’, Evk. usikta ‘oak tree’, Na. xosaqta ‘acorn’, Ud. uhikta ‘acorn’

Proto-Mongolic *kusi ‘walnut’ (pMo *-Ga(n) diminutive, often in plant names, e.g. WMo. čibaɣa(n) ‘jujube’, abuɣa ‘marshmallow’ etc.)
WMo. qusiga ‘walnut, nut; testicles’, Khal. xušga ‘walnut’, Kalm. xušg ‘walnut’, Ordos ġušiġa ‘walnut’, WMo. qusi ~ qosi ‘cedar, Siberian pine’, Khal. xuš ‘cedar, Siberian pine’, Kalm. xoš ‘cedar, Siberian pine’.

【民】kUcciram (= seaside Indin ★oak 《植物》オーク(材)、【楢の実】, barringtonia racemosa) 樫ノ(かしノ)、かし/くし
--
【日】どんぐり、つるばみ、ナラコー、マタジー、ドングリの背比べ   cf. 語源 【どんぐり】
【趣763., 】wood - [ ĝištu-lu-bu-um: plane tree or wood (Akkadian dulbum, 'Oriental plane tree').] 橡(つるばみ)[= クヌギ、またはその実のどんぐりの古名。]
【博多弁】ナラコー (= oak 【どんぐりの実】  楢の木の子か。コナラの逆転か。)
【民】maravam (= 1. saffron; 2. seaside Indian ★oak 楢(ナラ); 3. common cadamba; 4. small Indian oak) ならこーノ (v-k)、なら、つるばみ (m-t)
【博多弁】マタジー (= oak 【楢の実】  ブナ科マテバシイの転。ナラコー参照。)
【民】mAcakkAy (= 1. galls; 2. dyers oak, m. sh., quercus 楢 infectona ; 3. british ★oak 楢(ナラ), l. tr., quercus robur) またじー (c-t, k-j)
c. インド辞書に acorn 「どんぐり」は、未登録。英辞郎に 楢(ナラ)は未登録。
c. 「つるばみ」系はシュメール語にある。「ドングリ」系は不明。 → 有った。  楢の実、で、実(み)の英語が判らなかったので、栗(くり)の英語の chestnut から攻めたら有った。ドングリも栗も大きく見れば同族。 そもそも、ドングリの「グリ」は、「栗」みたい。
【民】tEnavarai (= red mullet, ★chestnut, attaining 5 in. in length, upeneoides bensasi) どんぐり (v-g)、つるばみ (n-l, r-m)
c. 当初、「どんぐり」はインド辞書から見つけられなかったが、「ドングリの背比べ」は見つかった。
【民】tUkkal (= 1. rise increase 増加・上昇する, as in price 例えば、価格が; 2. ★height 背丈) どんぐり (+ん)、丈ル(たけル)
c. つまり「背丈(せたけ)」のことを「ドングリ」と言う。なので、「背比べ」は「ドングリ比べ」と言う。
c. 「比べる」 to compare も。「ドング る」と言う。
【民】tUkku-tal (= 01 1. to lift, litt up, raise, take up, hold up; to hoist, as a flag; 2. to weigh, balance; 3. to consider, reflect, investigate; 4. to ★compare 比べる; 5. to have in view; to expect; 6. to hang, suspend;) ドング (+ン) る
c. つまり「ドングリの背比べ」をインド弁で発音すると「ドングリのドングリ、ドングル」となる。つまり、日本の古代人の3連チャンの言葉遊び、だと、判明した。いろはカルタと同じ思考回路。

(3) proto-Transeurasian *abu ‘plant of the Althaea genus with roots rich of starch’ ↑〒SI_5

Proto-Japonic *apu ‘hollyhock (Althaea rosa)’
J aoi, OJ apupi1 ‘hollyhock (Althaea rosa)’; Ishigaki Ɂaurɨ ‘hollyhock (Althaea rosa)’

Proto-Koreanic *apok ‘marshmallow (Althaea officinalis)’
K awuk ‘marshmallow, Althaea officinalis’, MK a·wok, a·hwok ‘(Vegetable) mallow. A biennial malvaceae plant. It is 50-70cm tall and has alternate leaves with five leaflets like maple leaves. Its soft stems and leaves can be boiled into soup. Its seeds are used as a diuretic in traditional Korean medicine’, KN akwu ~ yawuk ~ awu ~ awup ~ awus, KS akwuk, apwuk, aok, KB apang, apok, apwuci, awung, awuk, HG apwuk, JN aong, awung, aok, wuk KN awu, awup, awus, KG aok ~ awuk, JL aok, CC aok, HH aok, JJ awuk, JN akwung, JB aok, KW awuk ~ aok, CN awuk, CB awuk ‘marshmallow’

Proto-Mongolic *abu ‘marshmallow (Althaea officinalis)’ (pMo *-Ga(n) diminutive, often in plant names, e.g. WMo. čibaɣa(n) ‘jujube’, qusiga ‘walnut, nut’, etc.), WMo. abuɣa, Khal. avga ‘marshmallow (Althaea officinalis)’

【民】Avipattam (= pink-tinged white ★sticky-mallow (TLS)) あほひッタム
c. 【英】mallow =
①《植物》ゼニアオイ◆アオイ科(Malvaceae)ゼニアオイ属(Malva)の一・二・多年草の総称。葉は掌状で、白かピンクの腋生の花と、円柱状の分離果を付ける。
②〔ハイビスカスのような〕ゼニアオイに似た植物

(4) Proto-Japano-Koreanic *pami ‘edible true nut, i.e. dry fruit with only one seed such as acorn, hazelnut and chestnut’ ↑〒SI_5

Proto-Japonic *pami ‘edible true nut such as hazelnut or acorn’
J hami, OJ pami1 ‘Phlomis umbrosa, herb with three-sided nutlets used against inflammation’, J hasibami, pJ *pasibami1 ‘filbert, hazel’, OJ turupami1 ‘acorn’, OJ katabami1 ‘wood sorrel, oxalis’. There are no Ryukyuan cognates for this word. On the islands the plant is known as Hirara natʃɨkɨ, Nagahama na:dʒɨtʃɨ, Ishigaki ma:sufusa (lit. ‘salt grass’) and Yonaguni nidʒɨtʃi.


Proto-Korean *pami ‘edible true nut such as chestnut or hazelnut
MK ¨pam ‘chestnut’, MK kay(y)am, kayyem, kaywom, kayom ‘hazelnut’ (< *kay pam), K pa:m, KB paam, KN paym ~ pam, JJ pam, JN pam, JB paym, pam, KW cham-pam, CN pam, CB pam, KG pam, KS ppam ‘chestnut; nut’
The rising tone in Middle Korean suggests a disyllabic origin for this word, while the palatal glide in KN paym and JB paym indicates diphtongization from an original stem-final *-i.

【趣763., 】wood - [ ĝištu-lu-bu-um: plane tree or wood (Akkadian dulbum, 'Oriental plane tree').] 橡(つるばみ)[= クヌギ、またはその実のどんぐりの古名。]
【民】tEnavarai (= red mullet, ★chestnut, attaining 5 in. in length, upeneoides bensasi) どんぐり (v-g)、つるばみ (n-l, r-m)
【賛】majjAsAra (= n. `" having marrow as its chief ingredient "' , a ★nutmeg L.) なぢし
【賛】nADikela (= or %{nADIkela} m. = %{nArikela} , the ★cocoa-nut palm L.) なちき
【民】kaTavumaram (= 1. turnstile; 2. raft, float, as a means of crossing water; 3. whirling ★nut, m. tr., gyrocarpus jacquini ;) かたばみノ

2.4 Reconstructions for domesticated animals ↑〒SI_5
Only two potentially domesticated animals can be unambiguously reconstructed: ‘dog’ (etymology (1)) and ‘pig’ (etymologies (2) and (3)), whereby the words for ‘pig’ do not go back any deeper in time than Proto-Altaic, estimated between 9000 and 7 000 BP (SI 4; SI 24). Our Altaic reconstructions for ‘pig’ are likely to refer to the domesticated variant because the preserved terms reflect distinct terms for ‘pig’ depending on age, sex, etc. Although some hunter societies such as the Mongolian Khamnigans may have a sophisticated system of classification of wild pigs, which are the object of hunting, the use of such detailed sex and age distinctions in Altaic, may point to pig raising and domestication. Our linguistic reconstructions are therefore in line with our archaeological findings (SI 7) that the earliest domesticated pigs in our data are from Xinglongwa in the West Liao basin (c. 8400-7200 BP).
Pig domestication is is more typical for agricultural than pastoral societies. Parallel to the semantic development observed in Section 2.2., whereby vegetal fermentation techniques are recycled as dairying processes in the Transeurasian daughter branches on the eastern steppe in the Bronze Age, we observe a semantic shift in etymology (2) in Turkic, repurposing the original meaning ‘pig’ as animal names related to Bronze Age pastoralism, such as 'cattle,’ ‘camel’ or ‘horse'.

(1) Proto-Transeurasian *inu ~ *ina ‘dog’ ↑〒SI_5

Proto-Japonic *inu ~ *ina 'dog'
J inu (2.3), OJ inu 'dog'; J enu, OJ wenu ‘puppy dog’ (< *wo ‘small’ + inu ‘dog’), Yamatohama (Amami) ɁiN, Asama (Amami) ɁiN,Yoron (Amami) inu, Yonamine ɁiNnukɁwaa (Okinawa), Shuri (Okinawa) ɁiN, Old Shuri ɁiN, Hirara (Miyako) , Nagahama (Miyako) , Ikema (Miyako) , Ōgami (Miyako) , Tarama (Miyako) ina, Ishigaki (Yaeyama) , Hatoma (Yaeyama) , Hateruma (Yaeyama) inu, Kohama (Yaeyama) , Taketomi (Yaeyama) , Yonaguni , PR *inu ~ *ina ‘dog’

Proto-Tungusic *ina ~ *inu ‘dog’
pTg *ina-kun ~ *ina-ki: 'dog', *in(a)-da '(going) with a dog' (pTg *-kun suffix common in animal names, e.g. pTg *ju-kun 'otter', pTg *gia:-kun 'sparrow hawk'; Benzing 1955: 1015; pTg *-ki: animal suffix, e.g. pTg sula-ki: 'fox', *xölü-ki: 'squirrel', etc., pTg *-na:- (~ -da:- after n): Even. ina ~ nina ~ ŋina, inakin ~ ŋinakin '1 dog', Evk. ŋin '1' (ŋinal PL), ŋinakin ~ ginakin, ŋinda- 'to go out with the dogs, hunt with the help of dogs', Solon inaxĩ ~ ninaxĩ ~ ninakin '1', Neg. ina ~ nina, ninakin, enakin ~ enaxĩ '1', Oroch inaki ~ inaxki '1', Ud. in'an '1', Olcha iŋda '1', Orok nina ~ ŋina '1', Olcha inda '1', Na. inda, inakĩ '1', Ma. indaxun ~ indaju '1', Sibe jonǝhuŋ, inǝhuŋ '1'
The phonological development assumed to have taken place in Tunguisic is *ina-kun ~ *ina-ki: (contamination) > *ina-kin > *ginakin (assimilation) > *ŋinakin > *ninakin. I assume that the Evenki denominal verb ŋinda- 'to go out with the dogs, hunt with the help of dogs' contains a dissimilated form of the suffix pTg *-na:- 'to go out (with)'. Since this suffix is also reflected in the collective suffix pTg *-nan 'together with' (Benzing 1955: 1021, e.g. aki:-nan 'together with the older brother'), I assume that the southern Tungusic forms inda reflect such a collective derivation.

pTg *inu:-ke 'dog, wolf'
Evk. ńēkē ‘sable’, Even ŋȫke ‘male (of dog, wolf, fox)’, Sibe juxǝ ‘wolf’, Ma. ńoxe ‘wolf’, nuxere 'puppy', Oroch ŋöksjö 'wolf' (Cincius 1975: 587, 651, 665, 606)

cf. 教育漢字 犬 ケン、いぬ dog   f17_1#n.250

(2) Proto-Altaic *toru 'young male pig' ↑〒SI_5
Proto-Tungusic *toro 'male pig' + *-ki: animal suffix, e.g., pTg sula-ki: 'fox', *xölü-ki: 'squirrel', *ina-ki: 'dog', etc.
Evk. toroki: 'boar', Neg. toroki: 'boar, wild boar (upper dial.)'

Proto-Mongolic *toru 'young male pig' + PMo *-i animal suffix, e.g., *gaka-i ‘pig’, *noka-i, *moga-i ‘snake’
WMo. torui 'suckling pig', toruɣu 'one-year-old wild boar', Khal. toroy 'piglet; young of a domestic yak', toru: 'two-years-old piglet', Bur. toroy 'piglet', Kalm. torä: 'piglet', Ordos torö: 'young donkey'

Proto-Turkic *to:ru 'young cattle/camel/horse'
OT (Karakhanide) torum 'young camel, camel colt', torpï 'calf which still follows its mother' Tk. deve torunu 'two-years-old camel' (deve ‘camel’), Tkm. to:rum 'camel colt (between 6 months and one year)', Tat. dial. to:rbaḳ, turbaḳ 'heifer', Kirgh. toropoy 'piglet', torpoḳ 'calf between 6 months and 1 year old; dial. calf; bear-cub (less than 1 year old); silly (of a person)', Uigh. topaq-torum 'young cattle (coll.)', topak 'one-year-old calf', Tuva dorum 'camel colt (in the second year)', Salar torï 'foal', Bash. tana-torpo, dial. tana-turpaḳ 'heifers and bull-calves (coll.)' (tana 'heifer'), Alt. torboḳ 'bull-calf in the second year', Khak. torbaχ 'one-year-old calf; calf in the second year', torbaχ puɣa 'bull-calf in the second year' (puɣa 'bull'), torbaχ-turbaχ '(bull-)calves in the second year (coll.)', MChul. torβaḳ 'calf in the second year', Shor torbaḳ 'heifer in the third year', Tuv. dorum 'camel colt (in the second year)', Yak. torbos, torbuyaχ 'calf'
Note that Kumyk toray 'child', KKalp. toray 'piglet', Nogh. toray 'piglet', Kaz. toray 'piglet' and Tof. toray 'bear-cub' are borrowings from Mongolian
cf. アルタイ諸語 語彙対応比較表    f17_1#al.50 pig (猪)

(3) Proto-Mongolo-Tungusic *uli ‘pig’ ↑〒SI_5
Proto-Tungusic *uli-gan ‘pig’
Negidal olgịn, Sibe vǝlǝǵan, Manchu ulǵan, Jurchen *ulhian, *uliyan, *u(l)gia, Ulcha orgị(n), Orok orgị(n), Nanai olgịã, Udighe wagê, Solon ulgē̃
The Proto-Tungusic form was borrowed into the ancestor of the Nivkh language as *ulgVn > > Nivkh olghong [o:loŋ] ‘swine’

Khitan *uil(e) 'pig' (Kane 2009: 111)


2.5. Reconstructions for textile production ↑〒SI_5
The etymologies (1) to (3) show that the ancestral speakers of Transeurasian were familiar with making rope and sewing, but these activities are not necessarily associated with agriculture (Nelson et al. 2020). However, the reconstructions in (4) and (5) for weaving cloth and spinning refer to more sophisticated processes of textile production that are usually not performed by hunter-gatherers. Our archaeological database and analysis (SI 7) indicate that spindle whorls are one of the most diagnostic archaeological traits of Neolithic expansions in Northeast Asia.
The reconstruction of a verb for cutting cloth in (6) can be associated with the stone knives used to cut hemp and other products during the Neolithic in Northeast Asia, in absence of scissors (An 1955).
Proto-Transeurasian textile vocabulary tends to get lost in Turkic and Mongolic languages, which acquired a more pastoral vocabulary in the Bronze Age, but it is well preserved in Japonic and Koreanic languages, as shown in the etymologies (7) to (11). This seems to indicate that Transeurasian-speaking populations moving eastwards with agriculture retained more ‘traditional’ technologies such as textile production whereas those moving westwards were more exposed to west Eurasian technologies and replaced their vocabulary accordingly.
The separation between borrowings and inherited forms among words for textile fibres in Japonic and Koreanic languages mirrors the provenance and timing of the introduction of these fibres. In line with the introduction of splicing technologies for ramie and hemp from Korea into Japan at the beginning of the Yayoi (3000 -1550 BP) period, words for bast fibres such as hemp and ramie in (10) and (11) reconstruct back to the ancestral Japano-Koreanic language. By contrast, the word for ‘silk’ (Section 3.2 (2)) was borrowed from Chinese at a later time in the Middle Yayoi period, when sericulture was introduced from China.

(1) proto-Transeurasian *nap- ‘to make rope’ ↑〒SI_5
Proto-Japonic *nap- ‘to make rope’ + *-a deverbal nominalizer
J nau (B), OJ nap- ‘twist, plait, weave (into rope)’, J nawa (2.3) ‘cord’, OJ napa 'rope', Yamatohama (Amami) noo ‘fishing line’, Yoron (Amami) noo ‘fishing line’, Yonamine naa ‘cord’ (Okinawa), Shuri (Okinawa) naa ‘cord’, Old Shuri na:, Hirara (Miyako) na:, Nagahama (Miyako) na:, Tarama (Miyako) na:, Ishigaki (Yaeyama) na:, Yonaguni Nna, PR *nawa ‘cord’

Proto-Koreanic *nap- ‘twist, spin’
K nah- ‘spin, weave, make yarn’, K kkunapwul ‘ a string of cord’ < kkun ‘cord, string’ + *nap- ‘twist, twine, spin’ + -wul deverbal nominalizer, Kyeylim Yusa phonogram EMK na(h) ‘string’, KN napi- ‘to quilt, sew’, HB ney-, yey-‘to quilt, sew’, JJ napi ‘quilting; quilted work’, CN napi ‘quilting; quilted work’

Proto-Tungusic *nap- ‘to make rope’ + *-ki resultative nominalizer (Robbeets 2015: 407)
Ulcha lāxị, Orok lāpụ, Na. lāpị, Oroch lappi ‘tiers, straps (for skis)’
Proto-Tungusic lacks initial liquids, except *l- going back to original nasal *n- assimilation before labial consonants (Poppe 1960: 74, Robbeets 2005: 69).

Twining can produce cloth, string or rope. Cords for making traps and nets have been found in a number of upper Paleolithic sites across the world (Tedlock 2009: 66, Soffer et al. 2000: 512-514). Therefore, making rope is generally older than weaving textiles.

nirru(m), niru (= l.j/NB (a ★rope or braided string)? 2. MB, Nuzi (an identifying mark on ear, back of animals)) なわ
【賛】nAtha (= n. refuge 逃亡 , help AV. ; m. a protector 保護者 , patron パトロン , possessor 所有者 , owner , lord 領主 (often ifc. , esp. in names of gods and men e.g. %{goviGda-} , %{jagan-} &c. ; but also mf[%{A}]n. possessed of occupied by , furnished with cf. %{sa-}) ; a husband 夫 (esp. in voc.) MBh. ; a ★rope passed through the nose of a draft ox 牛 L. ; N. of sev. authors Cat.) 縄(なわ)
c. 縄張り、の縄。ex. 所有地の境を示す為。ex. 〆縄を張る。
【民】nAr (= 1. fibre, as from the bark of a leafstalk; 2. string, cord, ★rope, as made of fibre; 3. bowstring; 4. web about the foot of a coconut or palmyra leaf; 5. love, affection, as a bond; 6. asbestos) なう
【出雲弁】なわないき(農具)  (= 縄綯機 縄綯機(山口町郷土館)、 ※ なわ→縄、くちなわ→蛇)
【民】nAr (= 1. fibre, as from the bark of a leafstalk; 2. string, cord, ★rope, as made of fibre; 3. bowstring; 4. web about the foot of a coconut or palmyra leaf; 5. love, affection, as a bond; 6. asbestos) 縄(なわ)
【民】muRukku-tal (= 01 1. to twist よじる, as a ★rope 縄を綯う(なう); 2. to twirl; 3. to break; 4. to spin, as a potter his wheel; 5. to chew betel; 6. to chafe, as the hands and legs; 1. to be proud, haughty, arrogant; 2. to disagree; 3. to be angry) なうッキ
【十津川弁】(= こちゃぼ)  (= 小さい縫針)
【民】kuttuvAn2 (= ★needle 針, the word being used only at nights from a superstitions fear 迷信の恐怖から、夜にだけ使われる言葉) こちゃぼの
c. 十津川村にこんな迷信ありますか?「こちゃぼ、という言葉は、昼間は使用してはいけない」。
c. インドの辞書にも載っている、迷信。コンナ偶然って、滅多にナイ。


(2) Proto-Transeurasian *nup- ‘to sew' ↑〒SI_5
Proto-Japonic *nup- ‘to sew, stitch’
J nuu B, OJ nup- ‘to sew, stitch, embroider’, Yoron (Amami) nuujuɴ 'to sew', Shuri (Okinawa) noojuɴ, Hirara (Miyako) nuu 'to sew', Igarashi (Yaeyama) nooŋ 'to sew', Yonaguni nuŋ 'to sew', pR *noCu- 'to sew'

Proto-Koreanic *nupi- ‘to sew, quilt’
K nwupi ‘quilting, quilted work’, nwupi- ‘to quilt; to knit one’s brow, to frown’, MK nwu(·)pi- ‘to quilt, sew (tr.)’, MK nwu·pi ‘quilting, quilted clothes; needlework or products of needlework, realized by inserting a filling between two layers of cloth and sewing them together’, KW nwupi-, KS nwupi-, nipi-, JL nwupi-, JJ nwupi-, CB nwupi-, nipi-, JN nwimay-, nwipi-, nipi-, JJ nopi, nipi ‘quilting’, nopi- ~ noi- ~ nipi- ‘to quilt’, KB nwupey/nwupi/nwupwu/nwipey/nwipi/nwiin ‘quilting’, noi- ~ nuypi- ‘to quilt’, KN nipi/nwuipi/nii ‘quilting’, nipi- ~ nwui- ~ nwipi- ‘to sew, quilt’, JN nwipi/nipi ‘quilting’, nwiki-/nwimay-/nipi- ‘to quilt’, JB nwipi ‘quilting’, nwipi- ‘to quilt’, KW nwipi ‘quilting’, nwipi- ‘to quilt’, CN nwupin ‘quilting’, nwupi- ‘to quilt’ CB nwupi/nwupwu/nwipi ‘quilting’, nwipi-/nipi- ‘to quilt’ KG nwipi-ipwul/nipi ‘quilting’, nwipi-/nipi- ‘to quilt’

Proto-Tungusic *nup- ‘to prick, pierce’
Evk. lupa- ‘to prick’, lupu:- ‘to go through, pierce’, Even nụbas an- ‘to prick’, Neg. lepu- ‘to pierce’, Na. loqpa- ‘to prick (intr.)’, Olch. loqpa- ‘to prick oneself’, loqpụ(n) ‘a splinter’, Orok lụkka- ~ lụqpa- ~ lupqa- ‘to prick oneself, to impale oneself upon smth; to prick smth’

The Tungusic verb stem is probably a compound of pTg *nup- ‘to prick, pierce’ with a suffix *-kA-, perhaps the alternant of the inchoative suffix pTg *-xA- in voiceless clusters (see Robbeets 2015: 259.) Poppe (1960: 74) finds that the initial l- in the Tungusic languages is a secondary development from an original *n-: “Das anlautende l im Mandschu-Tungusischen ist sekundärer Herkunft und geht gewöhnlich auf ein anlautendes *n (meistens vor einem folgenden *m) zurück.” This view is consistent with the general absence of initial liquid phonemes across the Transeurasian languages. The environment in which this development takes place needs further study, but it should probably be extended to the position before *-PK- clusters, e.g. pTg *nabga:n- ‘to glue, stick’ in Evk. labgan-, Even nabgan-, Neg. labga:n-, Orok lamba-, Ud. lagbamu-; pTg *nobgi ‘squirrel nest’: Evk. lopi (dial. loki:); Neg. lo:bị, Ulcha logbụ, Na. lo:bị, Ud. loi; pTg *napki ‘tiers, straps (for skis)’: Ulcha: la:xị, Orok la:pụ, Na. la:pị, Oroch lappi; pTg *napku- ‘to insert, hang: Evk. lapku-, Even napkü-. Note that Even consistently retains the initial nasal here.

Sewing enters the archaeological record with leather clothing, and is generally older than weaving textiles.

【民】ney-tal (= 01 1. to ★weave, as clothes; 2. to string; to link together) 縫う、縫い
【琉球】■ノーユン  縫う
【宮古口】ぬー /nuu/ 多與 新鏡 動詞 皆ぬー、ぬい、なーん 〈皆、與、多、新、鏡〉縫う

(3) proto-Transeurasian *sili- 'to sew’ ↑〒SI_5
Proto-Koreanic *sili 'thread' < ? pK *sil(i)- 'to sew, tie together'? + *-i deverbal noun; (Robbeets 2015: 459)
K sil ‘thread; a thin fine thing; a long narrow thing’, MK ̈ sil ‘thread; thin strip made out of cocoon, fur or hemp, used for weaving or needlework’, JN silkkwuli ‘thread’, KB ssil ‘thread’, JJ sil , KN sil, JN sil, JB silta, KW sil, CN sil, CB sil, KG sil ‘thread’
Given the rising tone, MK ̈ sil ‘thread’ can be derived from an original polysyllabic form, whereby the contraction was likely to be due to the equality of the vowel in both syllables, thus pK *sili 'thread'. Given the reconstruction of a deverbal noun noun suffix pK *-i ~ ø, attested in e.g., MK hal- 'to slander' → MK hali 'slandering' and MK nwu·pi- 'to quilt' → nwu·pi 'quilting', it is possible that the Korean form originally derived from a verb pK *sil(i)- 'to sew, tie together'. Note that the deverbal derivation from 'to sew, tie together' as 'thread' is also attested in the Tungusic languages, e.g. Na. sera- ‘to sew together (cords, threads)' → sera-ča ‘cord, thread'.

Proto-Tungusic *sira- 'to sew together, tie together'
Evk. sira- ~ hira- ‘to piece down, to lengthen, to add (cloth, belt)’, Even hịraq- ‘to piece down, to lengthen, to add (a belt, a rope), to connect, to add’, hịraqan ‘phalanx of a finger’, Neg. seya- ~ siya- ‘to lengthen, continue a belt, a rope; connect two parts’; siya:n ~ siyə:n ‘thread; way (figurative)’; siyəktə ‘thread’; Orok sịra- ‘to lengthen, to piece down; to add a belt, a rope etc.; to connect together ends of a rope, a thread etc.’; Ma. sira- ‘to continue, follow; to connect, tie together; to inherit’, sirame ‘next (in sequence); step- (e.g. sirame ama ‘stepfather’; siran ‘continuation, succession, sequence, order’; Sibe sira- ‘to inherit; connect; to join; to continue’; Jur. sir(a)-ru 'inherit'; Olcha sịra- ‘to connect’, sịra-ǯụ- ‘to add; to marry a widow of the elder’s brother; to inherit’, sịra-čụ-ǯụ- ‘to tie together’; Na. sera- ‘to sew together cords, threads; to continue telling a fairy-tale which was interrupted’, sera-go- ‘marry a widow of one’s elder brother; keep on fire of one’s clan; to tie together two cords’, sera-kta- ‘to tie together several cords, threads’, sera-ča ‘knot (to lengthen a cord, a thread); a cord, a thread (for lengthening)’; Oroch siya- 'to sew together, piece down'; Ud. sǣ-, sǣ-si- ‘to piece down, to lengthen (cloths), to sew together (climbing skins); to add (a rope, a belt)’; sǣ ‘cross joint of climbing skins (in piecing down)’

Proto-Mongolic *siri- 'to sew, stitch, quilt'
WMo. siri- '1 to quilt, stitch (tr.)', Khal. šire- 'to make firm by sewing, to quilt', Bur. šere- 'to stitch (usually the sole of a shoe)', Kalm. šir- '1', Ordos šire-, širi- '1', Dgx. šïri- '1', Dag. širi-, šire- '1', Eastern Yugur širǝ- '1', Mgr. śiri-, śirǝ- 'to cover a bed with a counterpane'

Proto-Turkic *sïrï- 'to sew, stitch, quilt'
Karakhanid sïrï- 'to sew, to stitch, to quilt or smock a garment', Tk. sïrï- 'to sew tightly, quilt', Az. sïrï- 'to quilt; to foist, impose', Tkm. sïra- 'to sew, to stitch, to quilt', Tat. sïr- 'to quilt', Kaz. sïr- 'to stitch', Nog. sïrï- 'to quilt', Bash. hïr- 'to quilt', KKalp. sïrï- 'to sew across; to quilt', Kum. sïrï- 'to sew; to quilt; to fasten, attach', KBalk. sïrï- ‘to quilt’, Uig. širi- 'to quilt', Khak. sïrï- 'to sew; to quilt', Tuva sïrï- 'to sew; to quilt'

(4) proto-Transeurasian *pɔrɔ- ‘to weave (cloth)’
Proto-Japonic *orə- ‘to weave’
 ↑〒SI_5
J oru A ‘weave’, OJ oro2s- ‘deign to weave’, Asama (Amami) Ɂujuɴ 'to weave', Shuri (Okinawa) Ɂujuɴ 'to weave', Irabu (Miyako) 'to weave', Ishigaki (Yaeyama) uruɴ 'to weave', Yonaguni úrun 'to weave'
The expected reflex of pTEA *p- is *p- in proto-Japonic and proto-Koreanic However, an initial labial stop sporadically drops before a (long?) rounded pJK *o(:), as it probably also did in the reflexes of pTEA *bɔ:l- ‘to sit down, become, be’ in Japanese (pJ *wo- ‘to sit, be’ in OJ wi- ‘to sit, be’, OJ wor- ‘to be, exist’) and Korean (pK *o- ‘to be’ in MK -.wu/o- modulator). Old Japanese makes no distinction between o1 (< *o) and o2 (< *ə ) in initial position, but I have opted for *o in pJ *orə- ‘to weave’ because it entails a regular external correspondence. The root-final vowel of pJ *orə- is an irregular fit, which may be due to vowel reduction in root-final position.

Proto-Koreanic *olʌ ‘unit of woven fibers, component of woven fabric’
K o:l ‘strand of rope, ply, warp’, MK ¨wol ‘ply; classifier for plies; a strand of thread or a string’, KB sil-olayki, sil-olayi, olakci, oli, hol, hool, JN sil-olaki, sil-ol, olaki, olakci, ollakci, olakcci, olayki, KN ool, olay, olakcci, KS olayki, CN olayki, CB oskatak ‘ply, string’, JJ ol , JN ol, JB olki, CN ol, CB ol, KG ol ‘strand of rope’, K olk- ‘to tie up, bind, weave’ (< pK *olʌ ‘woven fabric’ + ·kʌ- inchoative; Robbeets 2015: 258)

Proto-Tungusic *poro- ‘to spin (nettle and hemp threads); to rotate, turn’
Evk. horol- ‘to spin, whirl, go around’, horoli: ‘around’, Neg. xoyil- ~ xoyol- ‘to spin; to circle; to eddy (about water)’, xoyil ~ xoyol, xoxsin ‘eddy’, Ud. xoli- ‘to circle (about birds); to circle, to whirl’, Sibe foro- ‘to spin; to turn’, Ma. foro- ‘to spin; to turn, to turn around, to face, to turn toward’, forko ‘spinning wheel’, foron ‘swirl, curl, whirl; rotation (of an arrow between the fingers)’, foro-no- ‘to turn (in that direction)’, forontu ‘curly, having curly hair’, Olcha pori- ‘to weave (nets)’, porpu(n) ‘a spindle; a device for weaving nets’; Oroch porpụ ‘a spindle for spinning nettle and hemp threads’
The regular reflexes of pTg *p- are Nanai/ Olcha/ Orok p-, Manchu f-, Evenki/ Even h-, Negidal/Oroch/ Udehe x- and Solon Ø (Benzing 1955: 981). Except for Oroch po:rpu, po:rfu ‘spindle’, which is probably a borrowing from Olcha, the cognates are thus corresponding regularly and suggesting the reconstruction of an initial pTg *p-.

Proto-Mongolic *poro- ‘to tie around, entwine; rotate, turn’ in *poro-go- ‘to wrap’ (*-gA- causative) and *poro-ti- ‘roll, rotate’ (*-ti- intensive)
WMo. oriya- ‘1 to tie around, entwine, wrap, bandage, wind, roll (tr.)’, oruɣa- ‘1’, orči- ‘2 to turn around, roll, rotate’ (intr.)’, MMo. hura- ‘1’, xorči-, horči-, orči- ‘2’, orčul- ‘2’, Khalkha orō- ‘1’, orči- ‘2’, Buriat oŕo:- ‘1’, oršo- ‘2’, Kalmuck ora:- ‘1’, orčǝ- ‘2’, Ordos: oro:- ‘1’, orčin ‘around’, Dgx. xoro- ‘1’, Baoan horǝ-, Dagur oŕe:-, Eastern Yughur horo:-, Mgr furo:-, xuro:- ‘1’
The initial labial stop pMo *p- is regularly preserved in the peripheral Mongolic languages, notably as f- in Monguor furō-, as h- in Shira-Yughur horō- or Baoan horǝ- and as x- in Dongxiang xoro-, but it disappeared in the central Mongolic languages.

Proto-Turkic *pö:r- ‘to plait, weave’
OT (Karakh.) ör- ‘to plait (hair or other fibers)’, MTk ör- ‘1 to weave, plait, twist things together’, örmek ‘cloth woven from camel hair’, Kirg. ör- ‘1’, Kaz. ör- ‘1’, örĭm 'woven part of sth (e.g. of a whip); bundle', Nog. ör- ‘1’, Bash. ür- ‘1’, Karaim ör- ‘1; to spin’, Kkp. ör- ‘1’, Tat. ör- ‘to plait, to knit, to darn, to interlace, to interweave, to build (a wall), to lay bricks or stones in a building’, Tk. ör- ‘1’, Az. hör- ‘1; to knit’, Tkm. ö:r- ‘1’, Gag. yör- ‘1; to knit’, Uz. ọr- ‘1’, Uig. ö(r)- ‘1’, Yak. ör- ‘1’, örǖ ‘plaiting’, Dolg. ör- ‘to plait, bind together, wind’, örǖ ‘plaiting’, Khalaj hiri-, hör- ‘to plait’, Chu. var ‘best part; sort of fiber; flax', vĕren ‘cord, rope’
For Turkic, it is commonly assumed that word initial pTk *p- developed over a bilabial fricative into h-, leaving only a trace in Khalaj h- and finally disappeared in most of the contemporary Turkic languages. Given the attestation of Khalaj hör- ‘plait’ it is legitimate to reconstruct pTk *pö:r- ‘to plait, weave’.

Weaving is labor-intensive and technologically complex, requiring a loom system. Only a society with food-surplus can invest in the technology and labor required (Barber 1995). Therefore, weaving is generally linked to agriculture.

【民】allu-tal (= to knit, build, ★weave to interlace closely) 織る
【琉球】■ウユン  (= 織る)
【賛】Ave (= 1 P. %{-vayati} , to ★weave on to ; to interweave , string ; to sew loosely AV. ) ウユ
【賛】Uy (= cl. 1. A1. %{Uyate} , %{UyAm-Asa} , %{UyitA} , %{UyiSyate} , %{UyiSTa} , to ★weave , sew = %{ve} ) ウユ
【琉球】■フチュン    (動詞)  〈1〉打つ。たたく。ぶつ。〈2〉討つ。〈3〉撃つ。〈4〉(田を)耕す。〈5〉(むしろを)編む。織る。〈6〉投げうつ。〈7〉(型を)つける。〈8〉(まりなどを)つく。
【民】pOTu-tal (= ; 10. to strike 打つ、叩く; to stamp; to ★beat, as a drum; ) フチュ、ぶつ
【民】veTiccuTu-tal (= 1. to fire a ★gun 拳銃砲火; 2. to cause an explosion 爆発) フチュ
【民】payiriTu-tal (= 01 to ★cultivate 耕す) フチュ
【賛】veda (= 3 m. (perhaps connected with 1. %{ve} , to ★weave織る or bind 結う together) a tuft or bunch 束 of strong grass (Kus3a or Mun5ja) made into a broom 箒 (and used for sweeping , making up the sacrificial fire &c. , in rites) AV.) フチュ
【賛】vorapaTTi (= f. a sort of ★mat マット、むしろ、ゴザ or mattress マットレス for sleeping on (perhaps made of the straw 藁(わら) of the Vora) L.) フチュ
【民】pOTu-tal (= 01 1. to cast down, ★throw a short distance 近くへ投げる、放る; to cast away; 2. to put, set in a position, apply, lay; 3. to fasten, as a bolt; 4. to put on, as ornaments; ) フチュ
【賛】piz, pizati, -te (= , pp. {pizita3} 1 & {piSTa3} (q.v.) cut up, carve [[-,]] (esp. meat), arrange, prepare, adorn, shape, ★form; M. also refl. adorn one's self, be brilliant or beautiful. -- {abhi} & {A} adorn 飾る, embellish. --Cf. {pepiza3t, pe3pizAna}.) フチュ
【賛】piz (= ; to ★form , fashion , mould 鋳型、型にはめる RV. :) フチュ
【民】pAyccu (= 03 spring, ★leap 飛び跳ねる) フチュ
【宮古口】皆友與ぶイ /buɿ/多う乚 /uɭ/新鏡うイ /uɿ/ 多與 友新 鏡 動詞 皆ぶイ、ぶり、ぶらん 多う乚、うりー、うらん 〈全〉織る
【民】vala-ttal (= 01 1. to encircle, surround; 2. to spin, as a spider its thread; to plait; to ★weave; 3. to string in a series; 4. to tie, bind; 5. to bend) ぶイ/う乚/うイ
【賛】Uy (= cl. 1. A1. %{Uyate} , %{UyAm-Asa} , %{UyitA} , %{UyiSyate} , %{UyiSTa} , to ★weave , sew = %{ve} q.v. Dha1tup.) うイ
【賛】vA, vayati, -te (= , pp. {uta3} 2 or {Uta} ★weave, interweave, plait, fig. [[-,]] = compose (hymns etc.). -- {A} ★weave or lay in, interweave; also = {samA} M. string upon (loc.). {ud} bind up, suspend. {pari} interweave; tie round, fetter, ensnare. {pra} weave or tie to (loc.). {vi} plait, twist, weave. {sam} weave together, interweave, inlay or adorn with (instr.). -- Cf. {o3ta, prota, vyu3ta, vyUta, samuta3}.) ぶイ

(5) proto-Transeurasian *tɔmʊ- 'to spin’
Proto-Japonic *tumu 'spindle'
 ↑〒SI_5
J tumu (2.4), OJ tumu 'spindle', J tumug- (B), OJ tumug- ‘to spin, make into yarn’, Yamatohama (Amami) Ɂumuri-, Yoron (Amami) umjuN-, Yonamine (Okinawa), Shuri (Okinawa) ciNzjuN-, Old Shuri ɕiNzuN-, Hirara (Miyako) m:-, Nagahama (Miyako) tsïmal-,Tarama (Miyako) mmi:-, Ishigaki (Yaeyama) umu- ~ bu:un-, Kohama (Yaeyama) ɸuŋ-, Taketomi (Yaeyama) m:muŋ-, Yonaguni umuŋ-, PR *tumu- ‘to spin (thread) (tr.)’

Proto-Tungusic *tom(u)- > tumu- 'to spin' + *-ku ~ *-ko deverbal instrumental noun suffix, e.g. Na. xado- 'to mow' → xadoko 'scythe'
Even tum- '1 to spin, wind, coil, spool, wrap', tumenŋe 'thread wind around a bobbin', tomqo- ‘to spin strings for threads; to spin threads’, tomqon ‘spinning of strings; yarn’; Evk. tum- ' 1', tomko ‘a thread’; tomko- ‘to spin threads; to tie with a thread’; Neg. tum- '1', tumu 'string of thread, parcel, roll', tomko ‘thread’, tomko- ‘to spin threads’; Solon tum- 'to bind, knit, string together, tie', toŋxo- ‘to spin threads’; Oroch tumu- '1', tompo ‘a sinew or nettle thread’, tompo- ‘to spin threads; to weave a net’; Olcha tumu- '1', toŋpo ‘short threads of nettle or hemp’, toŋpo- ‘to spin threads’; Orok tumu- '1', toqpo- ~ topqo- ‘to spin threads, rope, cord’; toqpo ~ topqo ‘thread; rope’; Na. tumu- '1', tompo- ‘to spin threads of fishskin’, tompo ‘threads made of fishskin’; Ud. tompo- ‘to spin threads, ropes’
The Tungusic reconstruction displays a vowel alternation between *tom(u)- and *tumu- 'to spin'. Given the preservation of *tom(u)- in derived nouns with the instrumental suffix and re-verbalizations thereof, I assume that *tom(u)- assimilated to *tumu-.

Proto-Mongolic *tomu- ~ *tamu- 'to spin'
WMo. tomu-, tamu- '1 to twist or spin thread or rope', MMo. tamu- ~ toma- ~ tomu- ~ doma- '1', Khal. tam- ~ tom- '1', Bur. tomo- '1', Ordos tamu- '1', Kalm. tom- ~ töm- 'to twist, twine; to string together (rope), make rope (by turning horse hair between the hands)', Eastern Yugur tomu- ~ tɔmɔ- ~ tomə- '1', Dgx. tomu- '1', Bao. tomǝl- '1', Mgr. tomu- ~ tamu- '1'
In Mongolic we find a vowel alternation between *tomu- ~ *tamu- 'to spin', reminiscent of the alternation between pMo *dolaan 'seven' and *dalan 'seventy' (Nugteren 2011: 512).

c. 紡ぐ(つむぐ)、績(つむぐ)
cf. 教育漢字 績 セキ、つむぐ、うむ、いさお spin thread or yarn   f17#n.505
tawum, tamu, temu (= "to spin, plait" Bab. G (i/i) [NU.NU] textiles, threads; > tamu, tamutu?; timu, timitu; tumanu; tamitu, tamutu ) つむ
【賛】tantukriyA (= f. ★spinning work Ha1r. on A1pGr2.) つんつぐ、つむぐ
【民】taLampu-tal (= 01 1. to wabble よろめく, flap, fluctuate, as water in a moving vessel; 2. to be unstedy, as a floating pot; to sway 支配・動揺・スウィングする, as a ★spinning top こま; to totter, stagger with the weight of a load; to shake, as the top of a car when drawn; to move, as drops of water on a leaf; to be shaky, as a load; 3. to fluctuate, waver, hesitate, vacillate; 4. to get accustomed; 5. to be in straits for a livelihood) たらむぷタル → たむふタル → つぐむ
【琉球】■チムジュン  紡ぐ
【賛】tan, tanoti, tanute (= , pp. {tata3} 1 (q.v.) extend, stretch, spread [[,]] (intr. & tr.); last, continue; protract, prolong, lengthen; ★spin out, ★weave (l. & f.);) チムジュ、つむ
【琉球】■ハラークン    (動詞)  糸を巻く。巻き繰る。巻きつける。
【賛】pUrNacAttra (= n. a ★spindle wound round with yarn 紡績糸で巻かれたスピンドル Gobh.) はーなくったら、ハラークン (N 無音, tt 無音, r-n)   △
【民】vala-ttal (= 01 1. to encircle 巻く, surround; 2. to ★spin, as a spider its thread; to plait; to weave; 3. to string in a series; 4. to tie, bind; 5. to bend) ハラー
【賛】kR (= ; {kArayati, -te} cause to act or do (2 acc. or acc. of th. & instr. of pers.), have something put in (loc.), also = S. D. {ci3kIrSati, -te} wish to act or do. I. {karikrati} (3 pl.) do ★repeatedly 反復する、繰り返す. ;) クル、クン (R-n)
【宮古口】ンー /mm/ 多與 新鏡 動詞 皆ンー、ンみ、ンまん 〈全〉績む
cf. 績む、ってなあに?
「績む(うむ)」=比較的長い繊維を撚り合わせて繋ぎ、長い糸を作っていくことです。(苧麻、大麻、藤、しな、などの植物繊維で用いられる。)
「紡ぐ(つむぐ)」=比較的短い繊維のかたまりから繊維を引き出し、撚りをかけて糸を作ることです。(毛、真綿、木綿、亜麻、黄麻=ジュートなどに用いられる。)
【民】nUl-tal(nURRal) (= 01 1. to ★spin; 2. to compose, as a poem; to make a plot) ンー (l 無音)

(6) proto-Transeurasian *giri- 'to cut (cloth)' ↑〒SI_5
Proto-Japonic *kira- ‘to cut (e.g. cloth)’
J kir- B, OJ ki1r- ‘to cut, shear, chop’, OJ ki1ras- B ‘to run/ sell out of’, J kireru B, OJ ki1re- ‘to be sharp, get cut, run out’, J kiri 'texture', J kiri, OJ ki1ri 'awl, pointed tool for piercing small holes (as in cloth or leather)', Yamatohama (Amami) kiruri-, Asama (Amami) kɁijuN-, Yoron (Amami) kjuN-, Yonamine (Okinawa) ciN-, Shuri (Okinawa) cijuN-, Old Shuri ciyuN-, Hirara (Miyako) kïsï-, Nagahama (Miyako) tsï:-, Ikema (Miyako) sï:tsï-, Ōgami (Miyako) kiʃi-, Tarama (Miyako) kï:-, Ishigaki (Yaeyama) kïsuŋ-, Hatoma (Yaeyama) ʃisuŋ-, Hateruma (Yaeyama) ssuŋ-, Kohama (Yaeyama) kïsï-, Taketomi (Yaeyama) ʃiʃuŋ-, Yonaguni ccuŋ-, PR *kir- ‘to cut’

Proto-Tungusic *giri- ‘to cut out (e.g. cloth, paper, pelt)’
Evk. gir- ~ ger- ~ kir- ‘to cut out (with scissors)’, giri-ptun ‘cloth piece’, Even gịr- ‘to cut out’, Neg. gey- ~ giy- ‘to cut out’, Ma. giri- ‘to trim with a knife or scissors, to cut evenly, to cut a strip’; giri-n ‘strip; section, area’; gir-dan ‘cloth or strips of pelts cut with scissors; evenly cut slices of meat; pennant; border trim on a banner’; giriku: ‘a small knife for trimming skin, paper, and cloth’, Olcha gịrị- ‘to cut out’, gịrsụ ‘woman’s knife for cutting things out’, Orok gịrị- ‘to cut out’, gịrị-ptụla ‘cloth pieces, remnants’, Na. gere- ‘to cut out with a knife’, gerego- ‘to recut out, to cut out anew’, gerekta- ‘to cut out many objects’, gerekto ‘cut out’, geremsa, gereptola ‘cloth rags’, gereče- ~ gerenase- ‘to cut out many times’, gerso: ‘woman’s knife for cutting objects out’, Oroch gi:- ~ giyi- ‘to cut out with a knife’, Ud. gi:- ~ gi:na- ‘to cut out with scissors’

Proto-Turkic *kïr- ‘to cut, scrape’: OT (Karakh.) kïr- ‘to scrape, strip (hair), pluck out (hair), to cut off’, Tk. kïr- 'to break, split (wood); to rough-grind, crush (grain); to hurt, injure', Az. ġïr- 'to break; cut', Tkm. ġïr-'to scrape', Gag. ḳïr- 'to break, crack', Tat. ḳïr- 'to break; to scrape; to shave; to grate; to whet; chafe', Khak. xïr- ‘to cut; to scrape; to shave; to chafe', Kirg. kïr- 'to scrape; to shave', Kaz. kïr- 'to scrape; to shave; to chafe', Nog. kïr- 'to scrape; to shave', Bash. kïr-''to scrape; to shave; to grate; to chafe; to whet', Karaim kïr- 'to scrape; to shave', Kkalp. kïr- 'to scrape; to shave', Uz. kir- 'to scrape; to shave; to break', Uig. ki(r)- 'to scrape; to shave; to break', Yak. kïrïy- ‘to cut’, kïra 'small', Dolgan kïrïy-, kïrpala:- 'to cut', Tuva kïr- ‘to break; to exterminate all without exception', Khalaj kïr- ‘to break’, Chu. xïr- 'to scrape'
The Chuvash verb xïr- 'to scrape' has an irregular vowel correspondence and may thus be due to borrowing. The Mongolic forms WMo. kira-, kiru-, Khal. x´ar- and Kalm. kur- that support the reconstruction of pMo *kira- ‘to cut into small pieces, mince’ have been omitted since they can be assumed to have been copied from Turkic. If they were cognates, we would expect an initial voiced velar (*g-) in Mongolic.

The Senchū Wamyō Ruijūshō (AD 930), an Early Middle Japanese lexicon, among others covering vocabulary for textile, employs the verb MJ kir- 'to cut' as the standard verb for cutting in the production process of textile (Omura & Kizawa 2017: 455). The semantic context of cloth production is further supported by deverbal nouns meaning 'texture' or 'awl'. Simularly, given the deverbal nouns meaning 'strip of cloth or pelt', the Tungusic verb is specialized for the cutting of cloth, paper or pelt, while the Turkic verb is often used with 'hair' or 'pelt' as an object. Therefore, the common semantic denominator seems to be the cutting of strips of cloth and the verb may have its origin within a context of textile production.

cf. 教育漢字 切 き(る) 切る cut   f17#2.21
【趣】guru5, gur5, kur12 (= : n., fangs.
  v., to separate, divide; to ★cut, pull (weeds) (gú, 'neck; nape' + ra, 'to strike'; cf., kud, kur5 ; and gú- gur5...dug4/du11/e).) きる
kasatu(m) (= "to ★cut off Bab, NA G (Hi) "chop down" tree, vine; "★cut off caravan, descendants; "★cut down" oil issue) きった
【賛】khur (= (= %{kSur} , %{chur}) cl. 6. P. %{-rati} , to ★cut , ★cut up , break in pieces Dha1tup. ; to scratch ib.) 切る
【賛】klRp (= ~; to trim , ★cut VarBr2S. ; ~) 切る
【民】kIRu (= 02 1. streak, mark, stroke line, scratch; 2. notch, furrow, indentation, gash, ★cut, slit, incision; 3. slice, piece; 4. scrawl, writing; 5. half of a coconut leaf or an esculent palmyra root) 切る
【出雲弁】ばやす(牛蒡をはやす)  (= 包丁で切る(牛蒡を袈裟懸けに切る))
【民】paryavado (= P. %{-dyati} , to ★cut off or slice all round TS.) ばやす
【民】viTuvAycey-tal (= to ★cut up, slice up, mince, as vegetables 野菜などを) ばやす
c. 牛蒡(ゴボウ)
【琉球】■チーン  (= 切る)
【賛】chinna (= a. ★cut off or in, carved, incoherent; included by (---), broken, destroyed, vanished.) チーン
【民】cEr-tal (= to ★cut (TLS)) チーン (r-n)、きる (c-k)

(7) Proto-Japano-Koreanic *parʌ- ‘to sew’ ↑〒SI_5
Proto-Japonic *paru-i ‘needle’ < *paru- ‘to sew’ + *-i deverbal noun suffix (Robbeets 2015)
J hari (2.4), Iwate haru, OJ pari, EOJ paru 'needle', Shuri haai (B) 'needle'

Proto-Koreanic *palʌ-l < *palʌ- ‘to sew’ + *-l deverbal noun suffix (Robbeets 2015)
K panul, MK pa·nol, LMK palol ‘needle’, CB kwulkunpanul, topppanul, KB panol, toppanul, tosppanul, papal, JB panel, tokpanul, CN panwul, tokpanul, KS panwul, panel, pal, tokppanel, tospanul, KW panwul, panel, topppanul, tospanul, CC tospanul, KN ttoppanel, ttospanel, ttospal, ttosppanel, JJ panong, JL panwul ‘needle’
In Middle Korean, lVl sequences are occasionally confused with nVl sequences, e.g. anil soy 'not being' is assimilated to alil soy ‘not being’. However, the change proposed here takes an opposite direction, assuming dissimilation from MK palol to panol, even if the attestation of MK pa·nol is older.
This etymology suggests that the nouns for ‘needle’ are independently derived in Japonic and Koreanic by way of separate deverbal noun suffixes, but that the underlying verb ‘to sew’ is cognate and goes back to a common form in proto-Japano-Koreanic.

pulukku(m) (= "★needle; stake 〔地面に打ち込む〕杭、支柱; boundary" Bab. [BULUG] 1. "(metal)★ needle, pin"; st. abs. (not) "even a pin"; jB(Ass.) "mountain pinnacle" 2. "boundary stake", "boundary"; p. same u erseti "limits of heaven and earth"; < Sum.; > pulukkis; → pulungu) はりく
【賛】vezI (= f. `" entering , piercing (?) "' , a pin , ★needle RV. ) はり (z-r)

(8) Proto-Japano-Koreanic *paca- 'to weave (cloth) with a loom’
Proto-Japonic *pata ‘loom, woven cloth’ < *pata- ‘to weave’
J hata, OJ pata (2.2a) 'loom, woven cloth', Yamatohama (Amami) hathamuN, Asama (Amami) hatoN,Yoron (Amami) patamunu, Yonamine (Okinawa) nunuubatɁaa / patɁaa, Shuri (Okinawa) nunubata, Old Shuri nunubata, Hirara (Miyako) patamunu, Nagahama (Miyako) patamono, Ikema (Miyako) hatamono, Ōgami (Miyako) nunubata, Tarama (Miyako) pata, Ishigaki (Yaeyama) pato:munu, Hatoma (Yaeyama) patumunu,Taketomi (Yaeyama) hataunu, Yonaguni hata, PR *pata ‘loom’, pata- ‘to weave (with a loom)’
The frequent compounding of pata- with mono ‘thing’ as a ‘thing for weaving’ in the Ryukyuan languages, may indicate a verbal origin of the Proto-Ryukyuan form *pata- ‘to weave’. The polysemy between 'loom' and 'woven cloth' in the Japanese member of this etymology further supports the derivation of these nouns as instrumental and object nominalizations of an original verb 'to weave'. Note that the suffix -a is reconstructed as a deverbal noun suffix in proto-Japonic (Robbeets 2015: 156) .

Proto-Koreanic *pʌcʌ- > *pcʌ- 'to weave' (pK *-i deverbal nominalizer / adverbializer; *-k deverbal nominalizer, e.g. K ilwu- 'to achieve' → ilwuk 'achievement')
MK ·pca- 'to weave, knit, tie up', K cca- ‘to weave’, JJ cas-, cha-, cho-, chwuk cha-, KB cca-, KN cca-, KW cca-, CN cca- ‘to weave’

In Manchu we find fatan 'the sole of a foot or a shoe; comb-like tool used for working silk on a loom, weaver's reed', but the technical term is probably a semantic extension of pTg *pata 'sole, bottom, fundament'. A similar polysemy exists for Korean patak 'cloth, weave, texture' and patak 'bottom, sole'. MK potoy 'healds of a loom, series of wires attached to the loom frame' may be related here as well.

赤 アッカド語hadilu, haddilu (= "★knotter" jB desig. of spider; h. appi desig. of fisherman; < hadalu I ) 機織り(はたおり) 【賛】paTa (= m. (n. L. ; ifc. f. %{A}) woven ★cloth , cloth , a blanket , garment , veil , screen MBh. (cf. %{marut-} , %{vAta-}) ; a painted piece of cloth , a picture Ya1jn5. ; monastic habit Ka1ran2d2. ; a kind of bird Lalit. ; Buchanania Latifolia L. ; = %{puras-kRta} L. ; (%{I}) f. a narrow piece of cloth , the hem or edge of a garment Ba1lar. Hcar. ; the curtain of a stage L. (cf. %{apaTI}) ; n. a thatch or roof (= %{paTala}) L.) 服(はた)
【賛】paTTa (= m. plate, tablet; ★cloth, bandage, ligature, frontlet, turban (cf. {paTa}).)
【賛】paTTadola (= m. (or %{-lA} f. ?) a swing made of ★cloth Mr2icch.) 機織り(はたおり)、服部(はっとり)
【賛】veda (= 3 m. (perhaps connected with 1. %{ve} , to ★weave or bind together) a tuft or bunch of strong grass (Kus3a or Mun5ja) made into a broom (and used for sweeping , making up the sacrificial fire &c. , in rites) AV. ) 機、秦(はた)

(9) Proto-Japano-Koreanic *pu- 'to spin, twist (thread)’ ↑〒SI_5
Proto-Japonic *pu 'twisted thread, weaving'
J hu, OJ pu '(woven) stitch, mesh, weave, knit, knot', J ya-hu (eight-weave) 'many stitches in a woven fence'
In Japanese, we also find J hi, OJ pi1 'shuttle', but the quality of the front vowel contradicts derivation from *pu-i (twist-NMLZ) because that would lead to a vowel of the quality i2 in Old Japanese.

Proto-Koreanic *pu- 'to twist (thread)' (pK *-i deverbal nominalizer / adverbializer; *-k deverbal nominalizer, e.g. K ilwu- 'to achieve' → ilwuk 'achievement')
Ki pi-, MK puy- 'twisted (bound adverb), e.g. in K pi:-thul-, MK puy-thul- 'to twist, contort', pi:-kko:- 'to twist (thread), twist up', pikki- 'be bent, lie at an angle', pi-kkule-may- 'to tie, bind'; K pwuk, MK pwuk ‘shuttle (loom instrument)’ (< *pu-k twist-NMLZ), JJ pi 'shuttle' (< *pu-i twist-NMLZ)

【賛】veya (= mfn. to be ★woven &c.) 布(ふ)、ひ
【民】puri (= 03 1. making, doing; 2. cord, twine, rope; 3. strand, ★twist, as of straw; 4. curl, as of hair; ringlet; 5. spiral, screw; 6. conch; 7. desire; 8. string, as of a lute; 9. garland, as of pearls; 10. tie, fastening) ふ、ふい

(10) Proto-Japano-Koreanic *ʌsa ‘hemp’ ↑〒SI_5
Proto-Japonic *asa 'hemp'
J asa (2.3) ‘flax (plant), hemp (plant), ramie, jute, linen’, OJ asa ‘hemp’, Kagoshima/Koshiki/ Miyazaki /Kumamoto/Ōita/Fukuoka/Saga/Fukue/Nagasaki asa ‘hemp’, Shuri Ɂasa ‘hemp’, Yonamine Ɂasaa ‘hemp’, Kohama (Yaeyama) basa (< *bu: asa),

Proto-Koreanic *ʌsa-ma
K sam, MK ·sam ‘hemp; a cannabaceous perennial plant. Its stems are thin and long, its compound leaves are palmate, and its individual leaves are lanceolate with fine saw teeth and thick, fine hair. It blooms from July to August dioeciously. Its fruit is similar to that of a dandelion but round-shaped. It is sowed and cultivated from March to May. Its seeds are edible and also used as medicinal oil, feed, or manure. The shell of the seeds is used as ingredients for textile, hemp cloth, net, or hawser’, JJ maphey, KB sam, KN sampey, JN sam, JB sam, KW sam, CN kam ~ peyccachi, CB sam, KG sam po ‘hemp’

The words for ‘hemp (Cannabis sativa Linne)’ in different Japonic and Koreanic languages seem to be compounds of three elements, all meaning ‘hemp’: *(a)sa, *po and *ma. The latter element corresponds to the Sino-Korean loan morpheme ma (麻) 'hemp', e.g. in the Sino-Korean synonym taema (大麻)'hemp' (Francis-Ratte 2016). In Korean, we find it in the final -m of sam ‘hemp’, but also as the initial morpheme in Cheju maphey ‘hemp’. Some Ryukyuan forms such as Yoron (Amami) mahuu ‘hemp’ and Sesoko maːwuː include the element *ma as well.
The Cheju and Yoron forms also include a reflex of the second element Proto-Japano-Koreanic *po ‘hemp’. This element is also reflected in J o, OJ wo ‘hemp, flax’ as well as in Kyushu dialects, i.e. Miyazaki wo, Kumamoto/Ōita o and Ryukyuan languages, i.e. Hirara (Miyako) bu:, Nagahama (Miyako) bu:, Ikema (Miyako), Ōgami (Miyako) pu:, Tarama (Miyako) bu: nunu, Ishigaki (Yaeyama) bu:, Hateruma (Yaeyama) bu: Taketomi (Yaeyama) bu:, Yonaguni bu: (< PR *wo: and PJ *wo ‘hemp’). In Proto-Koreanic the element *po ‘hemp’ is reflected in KG sam po ‘hemp’, KN sampey, JJ maphey and CN peyccachi.
The third element Proto-Japano-Koreanic *ʌsa has a limited distribution in Japonic, restricted to Mainland Japanese and Kyushu dialects in addition to the Northern Ryukyan languages Shuri and Yonamine and the Southern Ryukyan language Kohama. OJ so1 ‘hemp, cloth’ is probably not related with OJ asa ‘hemp’, but a possible cognate may be MK swom ‘cotton’ (Francis-Ratte 2016).
Whitman (1985: 232), Vovin (2010: 173) and Francis-Ratte (2016) suggest that the high tone of MK ·sam ‘hemp' indicates the loss of an initial vowel in pK *ʌsam. Francis-Ratte proposes that the final -m in the Korean form originates from a compound with the Sino-Korean loan morpheme ma (麻) 'hemp', e.g. in the Sino-Korean synonym taema (大麻)'hemp'. This analysis is supported by the Cheju word maphey ‘hemp’, which seems to incorporate ma ‘hemp’.
Along with the poor distribution of the word in Ryukyuan, the existence of an older Scythian form *sana ‘hemp’ (cf. Old Indo-Aryan śaṇ ‘hemp’, Mayrhofer 1992–2001/2: 605; Gamkrelidze–Ivanov 1995: 570) may provide an alternative explanation for the Korean form as a Wanderwort, but the proposed common ancestorship is probably more sensible given the long history of the use of hemp in East Asia.

【賛】ajaya (= m. non-victory , defeat ; (mfn.) , unconquered , unsurpassed , invincible ; m. N. of Vishnu ; of a lexicographer ; of a river ; (%{A}) f. ★hemp ; N. of a friend of Durga1 ; Ma1ya1 or Illusion.) あじゃ → あさ
【賛】atasa (= m. ( %{at}) , wind , air L. ; the soul L. ; a (missile) weapon L. ; a garment made of the fibre of (%{atasI}) ★flax 【植物】亜麻・亜麻布 L. ; (%{a4m}) n. shrubs RV. ; (%{I}) f. common ★flax , Linum Usitatissimum ; S3an2a , Bengal sun used as hemp , Crotolaria Juncea.) あさ
【十津川弁】まお  (= (植物)麻)
【賛】mUrvA (= f. a kind of ★hemp 《植物》(インド)大麻◆【同】Indian ★hemp。〔インド大麻の〕大麻繊維。〔一般に〕麻繊維。〔薬物の〕大麻, {-maya} a. made of it.) まお
【賛】maurva (= , f. {I} Mu1rva1 (a kind of ★hemp); f. {I} (scil. {mekhalA}) such a girdle.) まお
c. 「カラムシ」のこと。 真麻(まお)、苧麻(まお)。なので、麻、大麻 hemp で攻める。
【土佐弁】 やま (= (麻緒、麻糸))
【賛】vamana (= m. ★hemp 《植物》(インド)大麻 L. ;) やま、ま
c. インド弁では、 【英】hemp 麻 のことを「やま」というのです。
c. また、英語では、麻糸のことを hemp yarm と言うですが、 yarm /やま/ は、糸の意味です。 この 英語の yarm も、多分インド弁の「やま」由来でしょう。
【宮古口】ぶー /buu/ 多皆 友新 鏡来 名詞 〈全〉苧麻
c. 苧麻(ちょま、ラミー、からむし、マオ) = カラムシの別名。また、その茎の皮から取った繊維。精製したもので織った布は上布。ラミー。
【賛】bhAGga (= a. ★hempen.) ぶーが → ぶー  △
--
【民】caTampu (- ★sun-hemp) ちょま
【民】majnci (= 01 1. ★sunnhemp; 2. ★hemp fibre) なつ
【賛】mAdin (= mfn. intoxicating , stupefying (see %{gandha-mAdinI}) ; (%{inI}) f. ★hemp Bhpr.) なつノ
【賛】umA (= f. ★flax; ) 亜麻(あま)
【賛】zANa (= 3 mf(%{I})n. (fr. %{zaNa}) made of hemp or Bengal flax , ★hempen , flaxen S3Br. ; m. or n. a hempen garment Gaut. ; (%{I}) f. see below.) 大麻(たいま)

(11) Proto-Japano-Koreanic *mosi ‘ramie (cloth)’ ↑〒SI_5

Proto-Japonic *mosi ‘ramie (cloth)’
OJ karamusi ‘ramie (Boehmeria silvestrii), Chinese ramie; ramie fabric, grass cloth’, OJ musi ‘ramie (Boehmeria silvestrii),’ e.g. in musi-tareginu ‘a ramie veil on the back of a woman’s hat’, OJ musiro2 ‘ramie (Boehmeria silvestrii); straw mat’, J musiro ‘straw mat’, Yamatohama (Amami) musiro, Asama (Amami) mussju,Yoron (Amami) mussjuu, Yonamine musu (Okinawa), Shuri (Okinawa) musiru, Old Shuri musiru, Hirara (Miyako) mussu, Nagahama (Miyako) mussu, Ikema (Miyako) mussu, Tarama (Miyako) mussu, Ishigaki (Yaeyama) musu, Hatoma (Yaeyama) musu Hateruma (Yaeyama) mussu, Taketomi (Yaeyama) mussu, Yonaguni musu, PR *mosi-su ‘straw mat’

Proto-Koreanic *mosi ‘ramie cloth’
MK mwosi ‘ramie cloth; fabric weaved out of the fiber of the cover of ramie. It is smoother than hemp cloth and commonly used as summer cloth.’, K mosi ‘ramie fabric, ramie cloth’, JJ mosay ~ mosi ‘ramie cloth’, KB mosi, KN mosi, JN mosul ~ mosi, JB mosey, KW mosi, CN mosi, CB mosi, KG mosi ‘ramie cloth’

It has been proposed that the Old Japanese element musi ‘ramie’ in OJ karamusi ‘Chinese ramie’ is a borrowing from MK mwosi ‘ramie cloth’ because the Old Japanese word is a compound with kara ‘(Han) China, Korea, foreign’, indicating a foreign provenance and because it has a narrowed meaning and limited distribution in comparison with OJ asa ‘hemp’ and OJ wo ‘hemp’ discussed above (Frellesvig & Whitman 2008: 38; Unger 2009: 119; Francis-Ratte & Unger 2020: 708). However, against this viewpoint, it can be observed that ramie is native to Japan, that the word does not represent a merely narrowed meaning from ‘hemp’ and that, considering its derivation OJ musiro2 ‘Boehmeria silvestrii; straw mat’, it is well distributed across the Ryukyuan languages.
First, ‘ramie’ is not a mere narrowed meaning derived from ‘hemp’. Both terms refer to bast fibers used for textile production in ancient Japan and Korea that are part of the local vegetation, but they designate two different plants: ramie is a perennial, flowering plant in the nettle family of the Boehmeria genus, while hemp is an annual and dioecious (having distinct male and female organisms) plant in the Cannabaceae family of the Cannabis genus. Unlike ramie, which grows in designated fields, hemp is seeded in rice fields or vegetable fields and harvested in late June or July when the rice or vegetable seedlings are transplanted. There is only one hemp plant being cultivated in Korea and Japan, but there are two kinds of ramie plant, aboriginal ramie and “China Grass” or “white ramie”, which has thicker and longer stalks and thus produces thicker yarns than the aboriginal kind (Hwang 2010). As such OJ musi probably refers to the native variant, while karamusi ‘Chinese ramie’ refers to the thicker variant imported from China.
The Jomon people already produced items made with bast fibres such as ramie and hemp, but these fibres were originally used without joining them into longer threads. Splicing of threads is likely to date back to the beginning of the Yayoi (3000 – 1750 BP) period, when innovative textile technologies were brought from Korea to Japan, leading to the development of weaving. Production of bast fibres for weaving dates further back than silk production, which is thought to have been introduced from China with sericulture in the Middle Yayoi period (Barnes 1993: 173; Omura and Kizawa 2017; see SI 7).
Given the introduction of spliced ramie for weaving at the beginning of the Yayoi period, OJ musi ‘ramie’ may be cognate with MK mwosi ‘ramie cloth’. Although the simplex word for ‘ramie’ is not well distributed across the Ryukyuan languages, the derived form for ‘straw mat’ is. The word can be derived with a collective suffix going back to proto-Japonic *-ra ~ -rǝ, used among others in the derivation of plant names and products thereof (Labrune 1998, Antonov 2007), e.g. OJ asi ‘reed’ → J aziro ‘wickerwork, a mat of split bamboo, a reed mat’, OJ kinu ‘silk’, wata ‘cotton’ → OJ kinu-wata-ra ‘clothing’, OJ sasa ‘dwarf bamboo, bamboo grass’ → J sasara ‘bambou percussion instrument’, OJ tane2 ‘tissue’ → OJ tane2-ro2 ‘tissue, cloth’, etc. The Ryukyuan forms reflect a stem *mosi-su ‘straw mat’, in which the suffix may be assimilated to the sibilant in the stem.

【趣】me-te (= : fitting thing; suitability; unique; ornament; proper ★dress ('function' + 'to meet').) なつ
nuhhutu NB (= 1. "cut off, struck off of silver
2. mng. unkn. of ★linen; < nahdtu D) なつ
nehsu II (= (a ★garment) OB (N.Mes.)) なつ
【民】kuRuntoTTi (= 1. rose-coloured sticky mallow; 2. small climbing ★nettle) からんとち、からむし
【民】neTTOlai (= ★mat of plaited palmyra-leaf (TLS)) むしろ
c. 「からむし」 hemp, hempen
【民】kOn2ippUTu (= sunn ★hemp 《植物》サンヘンプ (TLS)) からむし (n-r)
【民】majnci (= 01 1. ★sunnhemp; 2. hemp fibre) なつ
【賛】mAdin (= mfn. intoxicating , stupefying (see %{gandha-mAdinI}) ; (%{inI}) f. ★hemp Bhpr.) なつノ
【民】pagki (= 05 bhang, a variety of Indian ★hemp) ひき

3. Language contact in the Bronze Age

3.1 Ancient borrowings from a Proto-Turkic model ↑〒SI_5

Ancient linguistic borrowings from Turkic are associated with agropastoral economies on the eastern steppes in the Bronze Age. They include terms for agricultural crops imported from the west such as ‘barley’ and ‘wheat’, livestock such as ‘cattle’ and ‘sheep’, exploitation of horses such as ‘stallion’ and dairying products such as ‘fermented butter milk’. Some of these words are the outcome of language-internal coining in Proto-Turkic, such as the proto-Turkic words for ‘wheat’, ‘stallion’ and 'fermented buttermilk', which are derived from verbs ‘to stir porridge’ and 'to separate'. Others such as ‘barley’ can be identified as borrowings from Eastern Iranian spoken in an area from the Aral Sea to the Altai in the first millennium BC.
These borrowings are transmitted from Proto-Turkic to Proto-Mongolic in the third millennium BP, before 2200 BP. Although words for ‘stallion’, ‘sheep’ and ‘lamb’ are borrowed into Proto-Tungusic by the turn of our era, dairying vocabulary such as ‘cattle’ and ‘fermented buttermilk’ and terms for crops such as ‘barley’ do not reach the Primorye until the last millennium BP.
The earliest evidence for herding of sheep and cattle and dairying being introduced from the western to the eastern steppes can be traced to ca. 5000 BP but the origins of horse-based pastoral economy on the eastern steppe goes only as far back as the late Bronze Age (ca. 3500-2700 BP). While horses first played a comparatively limited role in Early and Middle Bronze Age pastoral economies across both Mongolia and Central Asia, around 3200 BP horses started to take an important role due to the innovation of mounted horseback riding. The relatively late adoption of horse-based nomadic culture on the eastern steppe is consistent with the dating of the borrowings to the late Bronze Age. Sheep and horses do not appear in the Primorye until the late Iron Age, while cattle and dairying appear much later. This observation is in line with the timing of the borrowings below.


(1) BARLEY ↑〒SI_5

Proto- Indo-European *h2elbh- ‘white’ -> *h2elbhi-t- ‘barley; barley flour’ ? > Eastern Iranian *arbasya: ~ arpasya: >> Proto-Turkic *arba ~ *arpa ‘barley’ >> Proto-Mongolic arbai ‘barley’ >> Manchu arfa ‘barley, oats’

Eastern Iranian *arbasya: ~ arpasya (Blazek 2019)
Pashto orbǝša, Wanetsi arbasa ‘barley’, Khwar. rsy barleycorn’, Khot. rrusā-, obl. Ruśe ‘barley’, Sangleči urwəs / vərvəs, Yidgha yεršio, Wakhi arbəsi, Pashto orbəša, pl. ōrbašē, dial. Afridi warbaše, Wanetsi urbūsa /arbasa pl. arbaši/ arbusi / arbəsē, Waziri rebəše

Proto-Turkic *arpa ~ *arba ‘barley’
OT (Old Uighur) arpa ‘barley’, MTk. arpa ‘barley’, Az. arpa ‘barley; a kind of women's jewelry resembling barley’, Bashk. arpa ‘barley; stye (on the eye)’, Crim Tat. arpa ‘barley’, Gag. arpa ‘barley’, Kar. arpa ‘barley’, Kaz. arpa ‘barley’, KBalk. arpa ‘barley’, Khak. arba 'barley; roasted barley', Kirgh. arpa ‘barley’, KKalp. arpa ‘barley’, Kumyk arpa ‘barley’, , Noghai arpa ‘barley’, Oir. arba ‘barley’, Sal. arepa ‘barley; a kind of wheat (with small ears)’, Tat. arpa ‘barley; stye (on the eye)’, Tkm. arpa ‘barley’, Tur. arpa ‘barley’, Uzb. arpa ‘barley’, Uigh. arpa ‘barley’, Khalaj arpa ‘barley, Hordeum vulgare, Hordeum distinctum’, Chuv. urba ‘barley; stye (on the eye)’ (Bulgharic or Early Kipchak *arpa >> Hungarian árpa ‘barley, Hordeum’). Sal. arfa ‘barley’ is borrowed from Manchu and Tuv. arbay ‘barley’ from Mongolian.

Proto-Mongolic arbai ‘barley’
MMo. arbǝi, arbăi, a:rbăi ‘barley’, WMo. arbai, Khal. arvay, Bur. Arbay, Ordos arwǟ, Kalm. arwǟ, arwā, Dongxian apa, Mogol arfɛi, arfā, Mgr. šbǝ̄ ‘spelt’

Manchu arfa ‘barley, oats’

Proto-Japonic *apa ‘Foxtail millet (Setaria italica)’
J awa ‘Foxtail millet (Setaria italica)’, OJ apa ‘millet’, Yamatohama (Amami) Ɂoo, Asama (Amami) Ɂoo,Yoron (Amami) oo, Yonamine (Okinawa) ʔawaa, Shuri (Okinawa) Ɂawa, Old Shuri Ɂawa, Hirara (Miyako) a:, Nagahama (Miyako) a:, Ikema (Miyako) a:, Ōgami (Miyako) a:, Tarama (Miyako) a:, Ishigaki (Yaeyama) a:, Hatoma (Yaeyama) a:, Hateruma (Yaeyama) a:, Kohama (Yaeyama) a:, Taketomi (Yaeyama) a:, Yonaguni a:, PR awa ‘Foxtail millet (Setaria italica)’

cf. 〒i.181
【趣】【Pen.辞 ペシルバニア大辞書】arzig (= [MILLET] wr. ar-zig "a ★millet" Akk. arsikku) あるつぃぐ → あわ △
【民】aruvi (= 02 stubble of italian ★millet イタリアのキビの無精ひげ) 粟(あわ)
【賛】vAyya (= 2 m. parched ★barley.) 稗(ひえ)、穂ヤ

Barley was domesticated in the Fertile Crescent about 10 000 BP. Via the Near East and South Asia, it ultimately reached central and eastern China by the third millennium BP (Boivin et al. 2012: 457; Liu et al. 2018). In our database (SI 6, SI 7) barley is not found in the West Liao or Primorye regions in the Bronze Age. Barley was part of the farming package consisting of millet, rice, wheat and other crops, which expanded very quickly across Bronze Age Korea and Japan.
There are indications that the term for ‘barley’ was borrowed across the Transeurasian languages following an eastward trajectory. Its ultimate source probably lies in the Eastern Iranian branch of Indo-European, spoken over most of Central and Western Asia in the first millennium BC and expanding as far east as the Upper Yenisei in the Altai mountains, where Proto-Turkic speech communities were situated.
Ultimately, it may be possible to trace this word back to Indo-European *h2elbhi-(t-) ‘barley; barley flour’, which is an early derivation form pIE *h2elbh- ‘white’. This form may be reflected in Greek alfi ‘barley flour or groats’, Albanian elp, elpbi ‘barley’ and Eastern Iranian *arbasya: ~ arpasya ‘barley’, reflected in various eastern languages. Hyllested (2020) has recently argued against inheritance from ancestral Indo-European, pointing instead to a Central Asian substrate word. If this is indeed the case, the Central Asian substrate word or the underived base of the Eastern Iranian words probably served as a model for Proto-Turkic *arpa ~ *arba ‘barley’. The Turkic forms lead to the reconstruction of pTk *arpa ‘barley’, but variation with *arba cannot be excluded on the basis of the alternation in Old Turkic and Chuvash and the Siberian Turkic reflexes.
From Eastern Iranian the term was borrowed into proto-Turkic, which in its term served as a model for Proto-Mongolic. The voiced alternant pTk *arba was borrowed into proto-Mongolic, where it was suffixed with an element –i, perhaps in analogy with WMo. buɣudai ‘wheat’. This borrowing probably took place before the break-up of Proto-Turkic around 2200 BP. The Siberian Turkic form Tuvan arbay is a later reborrowing from Mongolian.
As the word is not attested in Jurchen or other Tungusic languages, the borrowing from the Mongolian word into the Manchuric branch of Tungusic may be rather recent, dating back to the second millennium AD. This is consistent with the absence of the crop in the Primorye regions in the Bronze Age. The absence of a glide and the presence of a fricative in Ma. arfa indicate that it may be borrowed after the thirteenth century from Western Mongolic, i.e. the ancestor of Kalmuck and Oirat. In the thirteenth century, the Oirat moved from the south of Lake Baikal to the Altai region, from where they dispersed over various regions, including Western Mongolia, Manchuria and the Xinjiang, Gansu and Qinghai provinces in China. The Kalmuck were forced to emigrate from their original homeland in northern Xingjiang to the Volga region in the seventeenth century. The Salar Turkic form arfa is probably a reborrowing from Manchu.
Although Proto-Japonic apa ‘millet’ is a look-alike, the similarity with Proto-Turkic *arpa is probably purely coincidental. As cognates of this word are well distributed in the Ryukyuan languages, the adoption of the word and its meaning shift must have happened before Proto-Japonic separated, i.e. before 300 BC. Given the similarity with Turkic, the word should have been borrowed directly from Proto-Turkic, when both languages were situated on the continent. The relatively late adoption of barley in Est Asia taken together with the problematic semantic shift from ‘barley’ to ‘foxtail millet’ in Japonic makes this scenario rather unlikely.


(2) WHEAT ↑〒SI_5
Proto-Turkic *bod- ~ *bud- ‘to soak (cereals), stir (porridge)’ + -xA ~ -kA deverbal resultative noun (Robbeets 2015: 411) > *budgay ~ *bugday ‘wheat’ >> Proto-Mongolic *bugudaï ‘wheat’

Proto-Turkic *bodgay ~*budgay ~ *bugday ‘wheat’
Old Turkic buɣday, budɣay 'wheat', OT (Karakhanid) buɣday 'wheat', Chag. buɣday 'wheat', MKypch. boɣday, buɣday, boday, buday, buyday 'wheat', Azer. buɣda 'wheat, wheat grain', Gag. bo:day, buuday 'wheat', Tk. buɣday, dial. buɣda, boɣda 'wheat', Tkm. buɣday 'wheat', Crim Tat. boɣday 'wheat', Salar boɣde, boɣdï, poɣde 'wheat', Khalaj buɣda, boɣda (<< Az.) 'wheat, Triticum vulgare, Tr. Sativum’, Tat. boday 'wheat', Bash. boyðay 'wheat', Karaim buday ~ bogday ~ boɣday 'wheat', KBalk. buday 'wheat', KKalp. biyday 'wheat', Kumuk buday 'wheat', Kaz. biday 'wheat', MChul. pu:day 'wheat', Nogh. biyday 'wheat'; ḳara biyday 'rye' (ḳara 'black'), Oir. buuday 'wheat', Shor puɣday 'wheat', Uigh. buɣday 'wheat', Uzb. buɣdɔy 'wheat', Chuv. pəwri 'emmer wheat'

Proto-Mongolic *bugudai ‘wheat’.
MMo. bu’udai ~ buɣdai ‘wheat’, WMo. buɣudai, buudai ‘wheat’, Khal. buuday ‘wheat’, Ordos bu:dä: ‘wheat’, buidä: ‘wheat’, Kalm buudya ‘grain’, Eatern Yughur bogdüi ‘wheat’, Huzu Mgr. bu:də ‘wheat’, Minhe Mgr. bidi, Bao baoġdəi, bɵġdi, boġdi, Kgj. bəġdi ~ baġdi, Dgx baudəi, baodəi ‘wheat’, Mog buɣdäi, bʉydäi, bi:da: ‘wheat’


Our archaeological database shows that wheat (Triticum aestivum) was introduced earlier to Central and East China than barley: by around 4600 BP it was present in Shandong (SI 6, SI 7). Like ‘barley’, the borrowing of the word for ‘wheat’ also reflects an eastward direction, from Proto-Turkic into Proto-Mongolic.
Given the attestation of Old Turkic budɣay 'wheat', Turkic words reflecting the shape *bugday may go back to an early process of metathesis in Proto-Turkic. The ultimate source of Proto-Turkic *bodgay ~*budgay may be a deverbal resultative noun in -xA-i ~ -kA-i of the Proto-Turkic verb * bod- ~ *bud- 'to stir (porridge)', reflected in Yakut butuj- 'to stir (porridge)'. The direction of the borrowing is supported by the fact that Proto-Mongolic only borrowed the Proto-Turkic metathesized alternant *bugday and by the lack of morphological segmentability in Mongolic.


(3) STALLION ↑〒SI_5
Proto-Turkic *adïr- ‘to separate’ + *-g deverbal object noun / + -xA ~ -kA deverbal resultative noun -> pTk *adrï-g ~ *adgïr / *adïr-ga ‘non-castrated male’ >> proto-Mongolic *adirga 'male animal, stallion' >> proto-Tungusic *ajirga 'stallion'

Proto-Turkic *adgïr ‘non-castrated male animal’
OT (Türkü) adɣïr, (Uygh) adɣïr ‘stallion’, MTurk. (Chag) ayɣïr ‘stallion’, (Kypch) ayɣïr ‘stallion’, Az. ayɣïr ‘stallion, stud-horse’, Bash. ayɣïr ‘stallion’, ayɣïr ügeð ‘non-castrated bull’ (ügeð ‘bull’), Crim Tat. ayɣïr ‘stallion, lustful, lascivious’, Dolgan atï:r ‘Reindeer-breeding stallion, bull’, atï:r at, at atï:ra ‘breeding stallion’ (at ‘horse’), atï:r börö ‘male wolf (börö ‘wolf’), Gagauz χayɣïr ‘stallion; lustful, lascivious’, KBalk. ayɣïr ‘evil, angry; irrepressible, fiery; stallion, a hero’s horse’, Karaim ayɣïr ‘stallion’, Kaz. ayɣïr ‘stallion’, ayɣïr žuwa ‘wild leek’ (žuwa ‘leek, onion’), Khak. asχïr ‘stallion’, Kirg. ayɣïr ‘stallion’, ayɣïr at ‘gelded horse’ (at ‘horse’), KKalp. ayɣïr ‘stallion’, Kum. ayɣïr ‘stallion’, MChul. asqər, asχər ‘stallion’, äygir ‘black riding horse’, Nog. ayɣïr ‘stallion; bellicose, dashing, brave (of a woman)’, Oir. ayɣïr ‘stallion’, Shor asqïr ‘stallion’, asqïr aŋ ’male sable’ (aŋ ‘sable’)
SYugh. azɣïr ‘stallion’, Tat. ayɣïr ‘stallion’, Tof. asqïr ‘stallion; male of Siberian musk deer’
Tkm. ayɣïr ‘male donkey or horse; ardent, fervent’, dial. ‘five-year stallion; donkey’
Tur. aygïr ‘stud-horse; bumpkin, tough man’, Tuv. asqïr ‘stallion’, asqïr ït ‘male dog’ (ït ‘dog’), asqïr qas ‘male goose, gander’ (qas ‘goose’), Uygh. ayɣir ‘stallion’, Uz. ayɣir ‘stallion’, Yak. atï:r ‘stallion; (non-castrated) male (pig, wolf, bull); big, strong, powerful’, Chuv. ə̑yə̑r(ə̑), ïyə̑r(ə̑), ïŕə̑ ‘stallion’

Proto-Mongolic *adirga ~ *ajirga 'male animal, stallion'
MMo SH ajirqa, aǰirɣa, WMo. aǰirɣa(n) ‘stallion, before the names of other animals, it means the male animal’ Khalkha ajirga, azraga(n) 'stallion', Bur azarga ‘stallion’, Kalm aǰrɣ, Dag. adirag, adyrəɣ, aǰrəɣ, adrəɣ, ad́irga, Eastern Yughur ajirɣa, Minhe Monguor aǰirga, Mog. aǰərɣa-du ira- ‘to mate (said of female animals)’.

Proto-Tungusic *ajirga 'stallion'
Evk. ajirga, Ma. ajirgan, Jurchen ajir, Na. ajirga ‘stallion’

Although pastoralism was practiced on the Eastern Steppe from ca. 5000 BP onward, there is no evidence for dietary exploitation of horses on the Eastern Steppe prior to the late Bronze Age, ca. 3200 BP – at which point horses come to dominate ritual assemblages, play a key role in pastoral diets, and influence pastoral mobility (Taylor et al. 2020). In our database (see SI 6, SI 7), horses were reported from 9 sites, with finds from the West Liao, Ordos and Heilongjiang regions in the late Bronze Age. The horses from Neolithic Haminmangha and Houtaomuga may be wild or due to contamination. Horses are not known in the Primorye until the Iron Age. Horses only reach Japan from the end of the fourth century AD. This relatively late adoption of horse-based nomadic culture on the Eastern Steppe, the West Liao region and the Primorye are corroborated by the evidence of borrowing horse terminology in from west to east in the late Bronze Age, such as the word for ‘stallion’ discussed here.
Judging from the semantics in the contemporary Turkic languages, the original Turkic meaning is ‘non-castrated male animal’ rather than being restricted to ‘non-castrated male horse’, as witnessed by Yakut, Dolgan, Tuvan, Tofalar, Shor, Bashkir, etc. This supports the derivation as the 'separated one', as non-castrated animals need to be kept separate from the herd. Therefore, Proto-Turkic *adgïr ‘non-castrated male animal’ can be analyzed as deverbal noun from Proto-Turkic *adïr- ‘to separate’. The observation that this morphological segmentability is lacking in Mongolic supports the direction of the borrowing from Turkic into Mongolic. Besides, the restriction of ‘non-castrated male’ to secondary semantics in Mongolic ‘male animal, male horse’ and Tungusic ‘male horse’ is also indicative of the direction of the borrowing.

(4) BOVINE ↑〒SI_5
Proto-Turkic *pökü ‘ox, bull, cattle’ + *-r2 collective suffix >> Proto-Mongolic *püker ‘ox, cow’ >> Proto-Northern Tungusic *pukur ‘ox, cow’

Proto-Turkic *pökü-r2 ‘ox, bull, cattle’
OT (Türkü, OUygh.) öküz ‘ox’, (Xak.) öküz ‘bull, the constellation Taurus’, MTk. (Kypch.) öküz ‘a castrated bull’, Az. öküz 'bull', 'ox', Bashk. ügeδ 'bull, ox', Crim Tat. ögüz 'ox', Gag. Öküz, yöküz 'ox', Kaz. ögiz ‘bull, ox’, KBalk. ögüz 'ox', Kirgh. ögüz ‘ox, gelded bull’, KKalp. ögiz ‘bull, ox’, Kar. ögüz, egiz ‘cattle’, Kum. ögüz ‘ox’, Nogh. ögiz ‘ox, bull’, SUig. qus ‘cow, ox, bull’, Tat ügez ‘bull’, Tur. öküz ‘bull, ox’, Tkm. öküz ‘bull, ox’, Uigh. Öküz, höküz ‘ox’, Uz. họkiz ‘ox’, Yak. oɣus ‘bull’, Chu. vъwgъwr 'bull'

Proto-Mongolic *püker ~ *pöker ‘ox, bovine’
MMo. huker, hüger, hüker, üker, WMo üker ‘bovine animal, ox, cow; large, big; the second of the twelve animals of the zodiac’, Khal. üxer, Ordos üker, Bur. üxer, Kalm. ükr ‘cow’, Dag xukur, hukure, Eastern Yughur hgor, Huzu Mgr. fugor, xgor, Minhe Mgr. xugor, χukur, Bao fgor, gor, xgur, Kgj. gɵr, Dgx fugie, fuġə, fuġər, fugər, Mog ʉkȧr, ükär [ʊkʌr] ‘ox, bovine’
The Eastern Yughur, Monguor, Baoan and Dongxian forms support the reconstruction *pöker rather than *püker.

Proto-Northern Tungusic *pukur ‘ox, cow’
Evenki hukur, Even höken, hökön, Solon uxur 'ox'

Domesticated cattle (Bos taurus) were introduced from West Asia by the third millennium BC. This corroborates the eastward direction of borrowing of the word for ‘bovine’, first from Proto-Turkic into Proto-Mongolic in the Bronze Age. Only five sites in our archaeological sample have reported cattle remains (SI 6, SI 7). In the Primorye, cattle appear only after the Iron Age, which is consistent with the relatively late borrowing of the word in Northern Tungusic.
In addition to the problematic vowel correspondence in Tungusic, the borrowing of the word for ‘ox’ is supported by the morphological complexity of the Turkic form, probably containing a petrified plural or collective suffix, used to indicate the collectivity of the species. The plural or collective -z was no longer productive in Old Turkic, but it is attested in a number of petrified forms including the plural pronouns biz ‘we’ and siz ‘you’, paired body parts such as OT kö-z 'eyes', ti-z 'knees', agï-z 'lips' and kökü-z 'breasts' and ethnonyms such as OT ogu-z and kïrgï-z.
Given that the morphological segmentability is restricted to Turkic, the word for ‘ox’ must have been borrowed from Proto-Turkic into Proto-Mongolic. The transmission probably took place before the break-up of Turkic ca. 2200 BP because Mongolic has copied the original Proto-Turkic initial *p- and the coda liquid * -r2 as such, whereas these sounds developed into a zero initial and a coda -z in all Common Turkic languages. It is unlikely that the form was borrowed from Proto-Bulgharic into Proto-Mongolic because the Proto-Bulgharic form was borrowed into Hungarian as ökör and we can thus assume that the initial *p- had already lenited in Proto-Bulgharic.
The word for ‘ox’ was further transmitted to Tungusic, where it has a limited distribution in the Northern Tungusic languages. This observation suggests that the borrowing took place before the break-up of these languages around ca. 750 BP but after the separation between Southern and Northern Tungusic languages ca. 950 BP.


(5) SHEEP ↑〒SI_5
Proto-Turkic *koni ‘ram, sheep’ >> Proto-Mongolic *koni ‘sheep’ + *-n stem-final singular suffix >> Proto-Tungusic *konin ‘sheep’

Proto-Turkic *koni ‘ram, sheep’
OT (Türkü) qoń ‘sheep’, (Xak.) qoy ‘sheep’, MTk. (Chag., Xwar.) qoy ‘sheep’, Az. Goyun 'sheep, ram', Bash. quy ‘fat-tailed sheep’, Crim Tat. qoy, qoyun 'sheep', Karaim qoy, koy ‘sheep’, Kaz. qoy ‘ram’, KBalk. qoy 'sheep, ram', Khak. xoy ‘sheep (generic term)’, Khalaj qo:n ‘sheep’, Kirgh. qoy ‘sheep (generic term), year of the sheep’, KKalp. qoy ‘sheep, ram’, Kum. qoy ‘sheep’, Nogh. qoy ‘sheep, ram’, Oyr. koy ‘sheep (generic term)’, S.-Yugh.  qoy ‘sheep’, Tat. quy ‘fat-tailed sheep’, dial. ‘sheep’, Tofa hoy ‘sheep, ram’, Tur. koyun ‘ram, sheep’, Tkm. Goyun ‘sheep, ram’, Tuv.  xoy ‘sheep’, Uigh. qoy ‘sheep, ram’, Uzb. qọj ‘ram, sheep’

Proto-Mongolic *koni-n ‘sheep’
MMo. qoni(n), qonin, ɣonin, WMo. qoni(n) ‘sheep; the eighth year in the 12-year cycle; period from 1 to 3 PM’, Khal. xon’ (xonin), Ordos χoni, Bur. xoni(n), Kalm. xön (gen. xöönä), Dag. xɔny, EasternYughur χɔ:nə, χo:nə, Huzu Mgr. xonə, Minhe Mgr. qoni, Bao. ġonə, xonə, ġɵni, Kgj. χɔni ~ χuni, Dgx. ġoni, Mog qonin, qɔnin ‘sheep’

Proto-Tungusic *konin ‘sheep’
Evenki konin, Kamnigan Evenki konin, Solon xonin, Amur/Birare Solon konin, Manchu xonin, Jurchen xoni, Kili xonin, Nanai xonin, Olcha xonin, Orok xonin ‘sheep’, Udehe xuani ‘mutton’ (borrowed from Manchu).

Domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) are reported from northern China as early as the fifth millennium BC. Although the vowel and consonant correspondences between the three protoforms are regular, it is generally agreed that the word for ‘sheep’ was borrowed from Turkic into Mongolic into Tungusic (Doerfer 1985, Starostin et al. 2003, Janhunen 2012). The first borrowing of the word for ‘sheep’ postdates 6800 BP, the time that Proto-Turkic separated from Proto-Mongolo-Tungusic. If the word for ‘sheep’ is adopted around the same time as the term for ‘lamb’ below, the borrowing probably predates the primary split of the Turkic languages around 2200 BP. This dating corroborates the timing in our archaeological database (SI 6, SI 7), where sheep were reported at 4 Neolithic and 8 Bronze Age sites.
The observation that the primary meaning of the Turkic word is specialized for gender ‘male sheep, ram’, while the Mongolic meaning is restricted to the generic term for ‘sheep’, supports the borrowing scenario. It is clear that the direction of the borrowing was from Mongolic into Tungusic rather than the other way around because the proto-Tungusic form *konin ‘sheep’is morphologically unsegmentable, while the proto-Mongolic form is a derived form with the stem-final singular suffix *-n. This borrowing has taken place before the primary break-up of the Tungusic languages, i.e. before ca. 2000 BP, a dating, which is in line with the late Iron Age appearance of sheep in the Primorye (SI 6). The Udehe word for ‘mutton’ is borrowed after 350 BP from Manchu within a culinary context.

(6) LAMB ↑〒SI_5
Proto-Turkic *kor2ï ‘lamb’ >> Proto-Mongolic *kuri-gan ‘lamb’

Proto-Turkic *kor2ï ‘lamb’
OT (OUygh.) quiz ‘lamb’, (Xak.) quzï ‘lamb’, Az. Guzu 'lamb', Crim Tat. qozu 'lamb', Gag. quzu 'lamb', Kaz. qozï ‘lamb’, KBalk. qozu 'lamb (younger than 6 months old)', Khal. quzï ‘lamb’, Kirgh. qozu ‘lamb (domestic or wild)’, KKalp. qozï ‘lamb’, Karaim kozu ‘lamb’, Kum. qozu ‘lamb’, MTk. (Chag., Xwar.) quzï ‘lamb’, Nogh. qozï ‘lamb’, Sal. ko(:)zï, ku:zï, qu:zï ‘lamb’, SUig. qozï ‘lamb’, Tat. quzï, quzïy ‘lamb’, Tur. kuzu ‘lamb’, Tkm.  Guzï ‘lamb’, Uig. qoza, qozi ‘lamb’, Uzb. qụzi ‘lamb’

Proto-Mongolic *kuri ‘lamb’ + *-gAn diminutive suffix
MMo. quriqa(n), qurixan, qəriɣan, WMo. quriɣan, quraɣa(n), qurɣa(n); Khal. xurga(n), Ordos χurġa, Bur. xuŕga(n); Kalm. xurɣn, Mog. qɔrɣan, qurɣana, qurğʌn, Dgx. quɣan, ġuğaŋ; Bao. Ġurġaŋ, Kgj ğurğun, Eastern Yughur χurğan, Huzu Mgr. xurġan, Minhe Mgr. qurġur, kurga ‘lamb’

The irregular vowel correspondence between Turkic *o and Mongolic *u indicates that the word for ‘lamb’ is a borrowing. The Middle Mongolian forms in the old documents suggest an original trisyllabic *kurigan. The suffix *-GAn is a petrified diminutive suffix, e.g., MMo. keü -> keüken ‘child’, MMo. sain ‘good’ -> saiqan ‘beautiful, good-looking’, MMo. unaɣan ‘foal, colt’, etc. Since the Turkic word lacks the diminutive suffix, it is clear that the direction of the borrowing is from Turkic into Mongolic. As the Mongolic forms have a liquid -r-, where the attested Turkic forms have a fricative -z-, the borrowing has probably taken place before the primary split of Proto-Turkic, i.e., before 2200 BP. Proto-Turkic *-r2- developed into -z- in the Common Turkic branch, whereas the Bulgharic branch with Chuvash as the only surviving representative preserved *-r-.


(7) FERMENTED BUTTERMILK ↑〒SI_5
Proto-Turkic *adïr- ‘to separate’ + *-(X)n deverbal noun ➝ *adrïn > *adran > Proto-Bulgharic *ayran >> Proto-Oghuric *ayran 'separated matter such as whey or fermented buttermilk’
Proto-Turkic *adïr- ‘to separate’ + *-(X)k deverbal noun ➝ *adrï-k 'separated matter such as peat' > Proto-Bulgharic *ayrïk >> Proto-Mongolic *ayirag ‘fermented buttermilk’

Proto-Oghuric *ayran ‘whey; fermented drink made from buttermaking by-products from milk of cows, sheep and goats’
OTurk. (Xak.) ayran ‘buttermilk’, ayran yaɣ-ï ‘fresh and melted butter’ (yaɣ ‘butter’), MTk. (Kypch.) ayran ‘butter-milk, sour milk’, Az. ayran ‘buttermilk, ayran, skimmed milk’, Bash. ayran ‘ayran, buttermilk’, Crim Tat. ayran ‘ayran, whey; buttermilk’, Gagauz ayran ‘ayran’, Karaim ayran ‘ayran, whey’, Kaz. ayran ‘ayran, varenets, kefir, curdled milk’, KBalk. ayran ‘ayran’, Khak. ayran ‘ayran’ Kirg. ayran ‘ayran, buttermilk’, KKalp. ayran ‘ayran’, Kum. ayran ‘ayran’, Nog. ayran ‘ayran, buttermilk’, Oir. ayran ‘ayran’, Tat. äyrän ‘ayran, buttermilk’, Tkm. ayran ‘ayran’, Tk. ayran ‘ayran, buttermilk’, Uygh. ayran ‘ayran’, Uz. ayrɔn ‘ayran’, Chuv. uyran ‘buttermilk’

Proto-Mongolic *ayirag ‘fermented buttermilk of mares or donkeys’
MMo. ayirax, WMo. ayiraɣ ‘kumys, fermented buttermilk of mares or donkeys’, Khal. ayrag, Bur. ayrag, Kalm. ä:rǝg, Ordos ä:raq, Dag. airag

Kamnigan Evenki aörak ‘sour milk, buttermilk’
Ma. ayara ‘sour milk, buttermilk’
Olcha ayara- ‘to take off fat (while melting)’, ayaraqụ ‘spoon for taking fat off’
Na. ayaraχo ‘spoon for taking fat off’

Recent research has provided direct molecular evidence suggesting that dairy pastoralism was transferred from the Western to the Eastern Eurasian steppe in the Late Bronze Age through cultural transmission rather than through population replacement (Jeong et al. 2018, Wilkin et al. 2020). There is evidence for dairying in Central Mongolia by around 3000 BC; see SI 6. This location is to the west of the Altaic homeland and the dating postdates the separation of Turkic from Mongolo-Tungusic. It is, therefore, in line with our finding that the Altaic languages did not inherit dairying vocabulary from a common ancestor (Section 2.2.), but acquired it independently through a chain of borrowings. Similar to the transmission of domesticated ruminants, there is evidence for a West to East direction of cultural diffuson of dayiring products in the first millennium BC: from Eastern Iranian people, descendants of Andronovo who lived as far as the Altai mountains, words for dairying products were transferred to Turkic-speaking populations in present-day Mongolia and from there to Mongolic speakers in present-day Northeast China. Dairying reached the Primorye only after the Iron Age. This is illustrated by the borrowing of the word for ayran.
A common view (e.g., Sevortjan 1974: 111) is that Proto-Turkic *ayran ‘whey; fermented buttermilk’ derives from a basic verb ‘to separate’. Semantically this derivation is plausible because ‘whey’ is the watery part of milk that is separated from the coagulable part or curd in the process of making butter or cheese and ‘ayran’ is the watery part of milk separated from the coagulable part in the process of making butter, mixed with water and salt and fermented.
Morphologically, the derivation can be explained through the deverbal noun suffixes *-(X)k and *-(X)n, such as in the derivation of, e.g., sa- ‘to count’ -> san ‘number, set of things counted’, tüg- ‘to bind a knot’ -> tügün ‘knot’, käl- to come’ -> kälin ‘bride’ and, e.g., al- ‘to take’ -> alïk ‘habits’, kat- ‘to mix, to add on’ -> katïk ‘a condiment such as vinegar or churned milk, something mixed in anything’, sogï- ‘be cold’ -> sogïk ‘coldness; cold’. Note that the derivation of Proto-Turkic *adr-ïk 'separated matter; peat' is reflected in OT aδrïk, ayrïk ‘peat’.
However, the derivation of ayran is phonologically problematic because the reflex of Proto-Turkic *d is *d in Proto-Oghuric in the East and *y in Proto-Bulgharic in the West of the Turkic speech community. Whereas some reflexes of the Proto-Turkic verb *adïr- ‘to separate’ preserve an Oghuric reflex of the original *d, e.g. OT adɨr-, Karakhanid aδɨr-, Tuva/ Tofalar adɨr-, Yakut atɨr-, Khalaj hadru-, hadur-, none of the Turkic forms for ayran reflects this *d. Therefore, we assume that Proto-Oghuric borrowed the forms for ayran with *y from Proto-Bulgharic at an early stage. This puts the time of the borrowing in the late Bronze Age, after the primary break-up of Proto-Turkic around 2200 BP and before the break-up of Proto-Oghuric around 1700 BP.
As the Turkic form is originally morphologically segmentable, whereas the Mongolic word for fermented buttermilk’ is not, the direction of the borrowing is clearly form Turkic, probably Proto-Bulgharic into Proto-Mongolic around the same time. Kumis is fermented buttermilk, but unlike ayran, which is made from the milk of cows, sheep and goats, it uses the milk of mares or donkeys as it base.
Given the phonologically irregular correspondences between the Tungusic forms, they do not reconstruct back to a single common Proto-Tungusic form, but rather represent later borrowings from individual Mongolic languages, probably over the last millennium.

Ancient borrowings from a Proto-Mongolic model ↑〒SI_5
In the third millennium BP, we observe two borrowing chains crossing Eurasia from west to east. In addition to a northern borrowing chain from Eastern Iranian (between the Aral Sea and the Altai) to Proto-Turkic (in present-day Mongolia) to Mongolic (West Liao and present-day northeastern Mongolia) to Tungusic (Khanka-Ussuri), discussed in the previous section, there is a southern borrowing chain from Tocharian (Tarim Basin) to Tibeto-Burman (Tibet) to Sinitic (Yellow River) to Proto Mongolic to Turkic and/or Tungusic. Whereas the northern borrowing chain involves the transmission of words for western crops such as barley and wheat, ruminants such as bovines and sheep and dairy products, the southern chain transfers words relating to horse breeding, such as ‘horse’ and ‘mare’ to the Transeurasian languages. In contrast to the northern borrowing chain, in which Turkic serves as the hub for Transeurasian, these words are spread from a Mongolic model into Turkic and Tungusic. Whereas the spread into Turkic dates to the third millennium BP, the spread of these terms to Tungusic is more recent, taking place after the beginning of our era or even in the Middle Ages.

(1) HORSE ↑〒SI_5

Proto-Indo-European *mark(o) ‘horse’ ? > Tocharian ? >> Proto-Tibeto-Burman *mraŋ ‘horse’ >> Old Chinese馬 *mˤraʔ ‘horse’ >> Proto-Khitan-Mongolic *mori ‘horse’ + *-n stem-final singular suffix >> Proto-Tungusic *murin ‘horse’

Proto-Tibeto-Burman *s/m-raŋ ‘horse’ (Matisoff n.d.)
Tujia ma53‘horse’, Gazhuo m31‘horse’, Yidu (Deng) ma55 ɹoŋ53‘horse’, Darang mɑ³¹ɹoŋ⁵ ‘horse’, Kaman pɑ³¹xoŋ³⁵ ‘horse’, Lai (Hakha) ràŋ ‘horse’, Wancho man ‘horse’, Jingpho ma³¹ lau³³ ‘fodder, feed (horse)’, Sak məráŋ ‘horse’, Pattani mà gri mane (of horse, lion)
Guiqiong mbu35‘horse’, Zhaba (Daofu County) mbʐo¹³ ‘horse’, rGyalrong mbra rme mane (of horse, lion), mbro ‘horse’, Nung mɛn³¹ horse, Achang (Lianghe) m̥jɑŋ³¹ horse’, Bola (Luxi) mjɔ̃³¹ horse’, Burmese (Rangoon) mjĩ55 ‘horse’, Burmese (Written) mrâi  /mrâñ ass, Lipo mu21 ‘horse’, Nesu mo33 ‘horse’, Nusu (Central) mɹə⁵⁵ ‘horse’, Nusu (Bijiang) mɹɯ³⁵ ‘horse’
Yi (Weishan) a⁵⁵ m̩²¹ ‘horse’, Yi (Wuding) mv̩³³ ‘horse, year of the horse’, Ahi mo21 ‘horse’
Sani mu21 ‘horse’, Yi (Sani) m̩⁵⁵ ‘horse, year of the horse’

Old Chinese馬 *mˤraʔ ‘horse’ (Baxter & Sagart 2014)

Proto-Khitan-Mongolic *mori ‘horse’ + *-n stem-final singular suffix
MMo mori, morin, murin, WMo mori(n), Dag. moryi, mory, Khal. mory, Bur. mori(n)
Ordos mori(n), Kalm. mörn, Oirat mörn, Moghol morin, muren, Shira-Yughur mōrǝ
Mgr. mori, Dgx. Mori, Baoan more, Khitan *m(o)ri ‘horse’

Proto-Tungusic *murin ‘horse’
Jurchen murin, Sibe morin, Manchu morin, Even muran, Evk. morin, murin, Neg. moyịn
Solon morĩ, Olcha murin, Orok murin, Oroch muri(n), Udihe muyi, Nanai morĩ

Proto-Koreanic *mʌl ‘horse’
Korean mal, HB mali, moli, GN mol, JL mol, HG mol, MK mol ‘horse’,

Proto-Japonic *uma ~ muma ‘horse’
J uma, MJ (m)uma ‘horse’, Miyako nuuma, Yaeyama nnma, Hateruma qman/nman ‘horse’

【賛】vimAna (= 3 mf(%{I})n. (for 1. see p.; for 2 , under %{vi-man}) measuring out , traversing RV. AV. MBh. ; m. n. a car or chariot of the gods , any mythical self-moving aerial car ~ ; a ship , boat L. ; a ★horse L. ; ~) 馬(うま) (v-w)
【民】mA (= 02 1. animal, beast; 2. ★horse; 3. elephant; 4. male of ★horse, hog or elephant;) 馬(ま)
【民】kONam (= 04 ★horse) 駒(こま)
【賛】bAha (= m. the arm = 1. %{bAhu} L. (also %{A} f. Un2. i , 28) ; a ★horse L. (see %{vAha}) ; mfn. firm , strong L.) 馬(ば)
【賛】kiyAha (= m. a chestnut-coloured ★horse L. 栗色の馬) 栗(くり)
【賛】vollAha (= m. a chestnut-coloured ★horse (with a light mane たて髪 and tail) L.) くり (v-k)
--
●9. 「馬(むま)の耳に風」 in 上方いろはかるた
   [marAlam, marmara, maNvAri] 同音群
【民】marAlam (= 1. unguent for eyes; 2. horse; 3. goose; 4. pomegranate) むま (r-m)、うま (m 無音)
【賛】marmara (= mfn. (onomat.) rustling (as leaves or garments) , murmuring Ka1lid. ; m. a rustling sound , murmur Ragh. ; a kind of garment L. ; ; a partic. vein in the external ear Va1gbh. [Cf. Gk. Lat. {murmurare} ; Germ. {murmeln} ; Eng. {murmur} ブツブツ不平を言う、つぶやく、ささやく.]) むま、みみ
【民】maNvAri (= violent wind drifting the dust) むま (v-m)
●9'. 「馬(むま)の耳に念仏
   [marAlam, marmara, man2] 同音群
【賛】ninard (= P. %{-nardati} , to sound , prolong a note in chanting 念仏, slur or trill Shad2vBr. (cf. %{ava-nard}): Caus. %{-nardayati} GopBr.) になーど
【民】man2 (= 03 mantra 念仏、マントラ) まん
---
【賛】mantravat (= mfn. attended with sacred tntext or hymns S3rS. ; enchanted (as a weapon) Ragh. ; entitled to use the Mantras , initiated W. ; having or hearing counsel ib.) ねんぶつ
●122. 「牛を馬にする」 in 尾張いろはかるた
   [AmA, un2n2i, AmI] 同音群
【民】AmA (= 01 wild cow 牛, bos gaveus) あま
【民】un2n2i (= 03 1. horse 馬; 2. sage-leaved alangium; 3. Indian lantana, l. sh., lantana indica ;) うんま
【賛】AmI (= P. %{-minAti} (RV.) to destroy , neutralize , curtail RV. ; to put aside or away , cause to disappear or vanish , displace ; to exchange 交換する RV. ; to put or push out of place TBr.: A1. (impf. %{A74minanta}) to vanish , disappear RV. (p. %{-me4myAna}) to change , alter RV.) あーみー
---
【民】tAri (= 01 1. way, path, road; 2. right mode; 3. exchange, barter) する
【民】mARRErviTutal (= ploughing 耕作する、田畑を耕す。苦労して読み進む、取り掛かる in exchange) のりかへたった (v-k)
c. デジタル大辞泉の解説: 牛(うし)を馬に乗り換える = 歩みの遅い牛を捨てて速い馬に乗り換えるように、不利なほうをやめて好都合なほうに便乗することのたとえ。⇔馬を牛に乗り換える。
●127. 「背戸の馬も相口」 in 尾張いろはかるた
   [cantuvAcal, ceNTu, cantumantu] 同音群
【民】cantuvAcal (= postern-gate, back-door 裏口、背戸(せど)) さんつばさる
【民】ceNTu (= 01 1. a kind of bouquet; 2. ball used in games; 3. horse-whip; 4. place for training, exercising or running horses 馬, etc.; race-course;) せんつ
【民】cantumantu (= 1. alley, narrow street,; 2. confusion, disturbance; 3. inconvenience from want of adaptation or fitting 適応困難で不便, as of joints; difficulty from multiplicity of engagements) さんつまんつ
--
上代日本語 (Old Japanese) (wikipedia) サンプル。 muma 馬 上野 uma
【民】ulOmam (= 01 1. horse;) うま
【民】un2n2i (= 01 1. horse;) うま
【民】van2mA (= 1. horse) ぬーま (v-n) --- 沖縄宮古弁
【民】mA (= 02 1. animal, beast; 2. horse;) まー
【賛】maya (= 2 m. (prob. fr. 2. %{mA}) a horse VS. ;) まや、まー
【チベ】https://english-tibetan-dictionary.tumblr.com/post/59660619229/horse 皆無。うま、ま、 ナシ。こま、もナシ。
【ギャロン】mba ro (= horse #1450) ば ろう
-- 駒(こま) -- 系
【有】kalë (= horse, steed, nag, knight, equine, gee) こま (l-m)
【民】kONam (= 04 horse) こま
【賛】kilkin (= %{I} m. (= %{kindhin}) a horse L.) こま (l 無音)
-- しし、すさ -- 系
【趣】sisi (ANŠE.KUR.RA) (= : horse (reduplicated si, 'to stand upright').) しし   --- 食肉用家畜だった、って。
【蛇】סֻוּס sûs, sûs /soos, soos/ (= horse, swallow, horses, horseman, horsehoofs, horse's, crane, horseback, horses', swift) しし
【蛇】סוּסָה sûsâh /soo-saw'/ (= mare, horse) すさ   --- 『すさのう』、と関連。多分。
【琉球】■ヒチムシー    (名詞)  家畜。主として牛・馬・山羊をいう。
【賛】pazumat (= mfn. connected with or relating to ★cattle or animals 家畜、生き物関連のこと, rich in ★cattle or animal RV. ; connected with animal sacrifices Ta1n2d2Br. ; containing the word %{pazu} AitBr. ; m. an owner of herds or ★cattle MBh. ; n. possession of ★cattle RV.) ヒチムシー
【民】paTTimATu (= straying ★cattle はぐれた家畜) ヒチムシー
--
【民】kaTTukkAli (= stray ★cattle はぐれ家畜 (TLS)) かちくり
【琉球】■コーヂャーマー /koozaaaa/  (名詞) 意味: 白っぼい斑点のある馬。 参考:  全国方言辞典「こーず 黒馬でたてがみや尾に白毛の混っているもの。土産の優秀馬。青森県上北郡」
【賛】kilAsa (= mfn. leprous ハンセン病 VS. ; (%{I4}) f. a kind of ★spotted deer 斑点のある鹿 (described as the vehicle of the Maruts) RV. ; (%{am}) n. a white leprous spot AV. ; (in med.) a species of leprosy (resembling the so-called white leprosy in which the skin becomes spotted without producing ulcers) Ka1tyS3r.) コーヂャー
【宮古口】ぬーま /nuuma/ 多與 友新 鏡 名詞 〈全〉馬
cf. 教育漢字 馬 バ、メ・マ、うま、ま   file f17 #on.21 馬   in 上代日本語 (Old Japanese)
【民】van2mA (= 1. ★horse) ぬーま (v-n) --- 沖縄宮古弁
--
【民】ulOmam (= 01 1. ★horse;) うま
【民】un2n2i (= 01 1. ★horse;) うま

Horse-based nomadic culture was introduced to the eastern steppe around 3200 BP and there is evidence for horse-riding from the Qijia culture (4200-3600 BP) in the Upper Yellow River region in Gansu and eastern Qinghai (Flad et al. 2007), but it had not yet encroached upon the northern edges of East Asia by that time (Barnes 1993: 157; Taylor et al. 2020). The first evidence for horse-riding in Northeast Asia goes back to the third millennium BP; see SI 6, SI 7. By that time, two innovations are apparent in Upper Xiajiadian culture sites, namely the presence of animal-style bronzes and the addition of the horse to the faunal repertoire. Horses are not known in the Primorye until the Iron Age and do not reach Japan before the end of the fourth century AD.
The long borrowing chain for the term for ‘horse’, reaching all the way from Indo-European to Tibetan to Old Chinese to Mongolic and Tungusic and the observation that the parallels extend to numerous non-Transeurasian languages as well suggest that the horse was introduced to East Asia in a rapid wave of cultural influence.
One possible Indo-European reconstruction for the word for ‘horse’ is *mark(o). It is reflected in Proto-Germanic *márx-a- ‘horse’ (e.g. in Old Norse mar-r ‘horse’, German Mähre, Eng. mare, Dutch merrie, Danish mær, Swedish märr, etc. ‘steed, female horse’) and in Proto-Celtic *mark (e.g. in Irish / Gaelish marc, Welsh march, Breton marc’h ‘horse’, etc.). There are no Tocharian or Iranian cognates for this root preserved, but it is not impossible that the word reached the Tibeto-Burman speakers on the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau through contact with Tocharian, the speakers of which lived in the Tarim Basin in Northwest China in the third millennium BP. The linguistic ancestors of Proto-Tocharian are associated with the Qäwrighul culture, situated south of the Altai in the fourth millennium BP (Mallory & Adams 1997: 593) and with the Afanasievo culture (5000-4500 BP) in the Altai in the fifth millennium BP (Kroonen et al. 2019), but these connections remain to be demonstrated.
The term for ‘horse’ was later transferred to Sinitic. The irregular lack of the nasal ending in OC 馬*mˤraʔ signals that the term for ‘horse’ is not cognate, but has been borrowed within the Sino-Tibetan family (Sagart et al. 2019).
From Old Chinese, the word for ‘horse’ was transmitted into proto-Mongolic. Given that the Old Chinese final glottal stop was developing into a tonal structure and that proto-Mongolic lacked initial consonant clusters, the closest imitation of the Chinese root in proto-Mongolic probably was *mori. In the Mongolic languages we find an unstable stem-final nasal element, morphophonologically alternating with zero, that expresses singularity in contrast with plural forms on -d. This stem-final -n was added to the simple stem, yielding pMo *mori-n.
It is clear that the direction of the borrowing was from Mongolic into Tungusic rather than the other way around because the Proto-Tungusic form *murin ‘horse’ is morphologically unsegmentable, while the Proto-Mongolic form is a derived form. The borrowing of Proto-Tungusic *murin ‘horse’ happened around the turn of our era but the Tungusic forms of the shape morin are late Ming (1368-1644) borrowings. From Tungusic the word spread to non-Transeurasian languages such as Nivkh, e.g. the terms for ‘horse’, Sakhalin Nivkh murng and Amur Nivkh mur.
Old Chinese馬 *mˤraʔ ‘horse’ was transmitted separately into proto-Korean as *mol and into proto-Japanese as *(m)uma. Beckwith (2007) reconstructs the Old Koguryo word *meru ‘colt’. Given the phonological discrepancy, the word cannot be reconstructed back to proto-Macro-Japonic, the common ancestor of Koguryo and Japonic. The disyllabic structure and the presence of a liquid rather suggests that the word is a separate borrowing from Mongolic or Tungusic. In the final centuries BC, the Koguryo people were attested in the western part of present-day Liaoning Province, west of the Liaodong Peninsula, where they were in contact with Tungusic, Mongolic, Turkic and Chinese people.
The initial *(m)u- in Proto-Japonic *(m)uma may have been added, in an attempt to imitate the initial cluster in Old Chinese. The Middle Japanese variant (m)uma ‘horse’ as well as the Ryukyuan cognates Miyako nuuma, Yaeyama nnma and Hateruma qman/nman support this idea. In addition, the Japanese imitation of Old Chinese梅 *C.mˤə ‘plum tree’ is ume ‘plum’ and it has a similar variant (m)ume ‘plum’ in Middle Japanese. This example seems to indicate that Old Chinese glottalized labial nasal clusters were imitated by way of a prothetic *(m)u- in Proto-Japonic.
All Japanese horse breeds can be descended from Mongolian horses that migrated through the Korean Peninsula and arrived in Japan about 2,000 years ago (Tozaki et al. 2003). According to our archaeological database (SI 6, SI 7), horses do not reach Japan before the end of the fourth century AD, but the occurrence of cognates for the word for ‘horse’ in the Ryukyuan languages suggest that the horse was present before 2200 BP.
The chronicles of both the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki indeed mention that Silla and Paekche authorities presented the Japanese emperor with horses as a gift between the mid-fourth and mid-seventh centuries. However, in Japan there is archaeological evidence for early horse sacrifice before horses became a valued military possession through contacts with the Korean three Kingdoms (Barnes 1993: 231). In the Nihon Shoki it is also stated that horse sacrifice became prohibited. Given the early contacts in the first and second centuries AD between chieftains of various Wo tribes from Japan with Chinese authorities at the commandery of Lelang, established in northern Korea in 108 BC by the Han dynasty (206 BC-220 AD), the historical context leaves room for the horse being imported in Japan geographically, through the Korean Peninsula but linguistically, through contact with speakers of Old Chinese. During the period of Han economic expansion, many Chinese artifacts flowed into the surrounding area’s, particularly bronze mirrors, iron, lacquerware, silks, wine and salt (Barnes 1993: 198, 202.)

(2) MARE ↑〒SI_5
Proto-Indo-European *gʷow- 'cow' > Tokharian A ko, B keŭ `cow' >> proto-Mongolic *ge(g)ü ‘female livestock, mare’ >> pTg *gegu ‘mare’

Proto-Mongolic *geü-n (~ *gewü-n ~ *gexü-n ~ *gehu-n~ *gegü-n) ‘female livestock, mare’
MMo. ge'un, guun-du, keun, ge’ün, gü’ün, WMo gegü(n), gegüü, geü ‘mare’, Khalkha gü:(n) 'mare', Kalmuck gü:n 'mare', Ordos gǖ, Dagur geu 'mare', Eastern Yoghur gǖn, Monguor gu: 'female of an animal kept for use, such as horse, mule, donkey or dog’ (Mostaert 1933: 138).

Proto-Tungusic *gegu ‘mare’
Jurchen ge, Manchu geo, geo murin, Sibe geu, geo, Evenki ge:Ɣ, Solon ge:Ɣ ‘mare’

There is some disagreement in Mongolic linguistic literature about the origin of the intervocalic velar in WMo. gegü(n). Whereas Poppe (1966: 190), derives it from an original intervocalic velar *g, Janhunen (1999) proposes a laryngeal origin *x, Svantesson et al. (2005) propose *h, Starostin et al. (2003) propose a labial glide *w and Nugteren (2011: 342) reconstructs a -Ø- here. An ancestral form *geü-n or *gewü-n seems to be the most parsimoneous fit for the borrowing chain, proposing Tokharian B keŭ `cow' as a model. If the Monguor meaning ‘female of an animal kept for use such as horse, mule, donkey or dog’ (e.g., gu: mori ‘mare’, gu: noxue: ‘bitch’; Mostaert 1933: 138, Li 1988) indeed represents a preservation of the original semantics, the intermediate meaning ‘female livestock/ cattle’ explains the borrowing of ‘cow’ as ‘mare’. This observation is supported by the Manchu borrowing geo murin, which is a combinational copy with morin ‘horse’, suggesting that the meaning of the word in isolation in the model language was ‘female animal’ rather than ‘mare’.
The Tungusic form is a borrowing from Mongolic as it imitates the presumably secondary *g, which developed shortly after the Middle Mongolian stage. The relative late borrowing into Proto-Tungusic is supported by the distribution and shape of the Tungusic forms. Although the regular reflex of Proto-Tungusic *-g- is *-g- in Manchu and Jurchen, it is missing here. This observation suggests that the ancestral Manchuric form *geu has been borrowed from Proto-Mongolic *geü at an earlier time than Mongolic *gegü was transferred into the Northern Tungusic languages. Therefore, the borrowing of the word for ‘mare’ into the Manchuric branch must have taken place after 1950 BP.
Rona-Tas (1988: 393-394) refers to contemporary Chinese kè 騍 ‘female horse/mule, mother horse/mule’ as a potential member of this borrowing chain. As our word goes back to Middle Chinese MC kwa ‘female horse, mule’ and is attested on bamboo slips, around 475-221BC, we tentatively reconstruct Old Chinese *[k]ˤo[j]-s ‘female horse, mule’. Reminiscent of the word for ‘horse’ in the previous etymology, this word may have been borrowed from Proto-Tibeto-Burman *kre[j] ‘mule’, reflected in Tibetan dre(l) ‘mule’ and Dapka kreʔ ‘mule’. However, these ancestral forms are difficult to reconcile with the proposed borrowing chain.

(3) ASS ↑〒SI_5
Proto-Mongolic *kula- ‘to have the ears laid back’ > *kulan ‘ass’ >> Proto-Turkic *kulun ‘foal’

Proto-Turkic *kulun ‘foal’
OT qulun ‘foal’, MTk. (Kypchak) qulun ‘foal’, Az. Gulun 'foal (between 3 and 4 months old)', Bashk. qolon 'foal', Chu. xъwm 'foetus (foal)', Crim Tat. qulun, quluntay 'foal', Kaz. qulїn ‘foal’, Khak. xulun ‘suckling foal’, Kirgh. qulun ‘suckling foal’, KKalp. qulїn ‘suckling foal’, Nogh. qulїn ‘foal’, Oyr. qulun ‘suckling foal’, SUig. qulum, qulun ‘foal’, Tat. qolïn ‘foal (younger than one-year old)’, Tk. kulun ‘suckling foal’, Tkm. Gulun ‘(suckling) foal’,
Tuv. qulun ‘suckling foal’, Uig. qulun ‘suckling foal’, Uzb. qulun ‘foal (younger than one-year old)’, Yak. kulun ‘foal’

Proto-Mongolic *kulan ‘ass’
MMo. qulan (SH), qulan (MA); WMo. qulan, kulen ‘wild ass of the Asiatic steppe, kulan, Equus hemionus’, Khal. xulan, Bur. xulan, Kalm. xulŋ, xulṇ, Ord. xulan.

The Mongolic term for ‘ass’ can be internally derived as a deverbal noun in *-n of a base verb *kula- ‘to have the ears laid back’. The suffix derives other nouns from verbs such as MMo. ayu- ‘be afraid’ -> ayun ‘fear’ and hice- ‘be ashamed’ -> hicen ‘shame’ (Robbeets 2015: 392). The verb *kula- underlies in several deverbal derivations such as Written Mongolian qulayi- ‘to have cropped ears (intr.)’, qulmayi- ‘to have the ears laid back, to be crop-eared’ and quluƔur ‘laid or pressed back of ears, crop-eared’. Since the Mongolic word is morphologically complex, while the Turkic word does not reflect this segmentation, the direction of the borrowing can be identified as going from Mongolic into Turkic. As the word is also attested in Chuvash, the borrowing must have taken place before the break-up of Proto-Turkic around 2200 BP. More recently, the Mongolic word has been independently borrowed into Manchu ku:lan (Rozycki 1994: 148), but it is not attested in other Tungusic languages.

Ancient borrowings from a Proto-Tungusic model ↑〒SI_5
In contrast to the Eurasian borrowing chains discussed above, spreading from a Turkic or Mongolic model into other Transeurasian languages during the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age, the borrowings from a Tungusic model into surrounding Transeurasian branches such as Mongolic, Koreanic and Japanic seem to be of a more recent age. They have taken place in a period from the Late Iron Age to the Middle Ages and may have had a subbranch of Tungusic as their starting point rather than Proto-Tungusic per se. They include words for agricultural imports such as ‘barley’ and ‘wheat’, farming tools such as ‘plough’ and iron utensils such as ‘sabre, sword’.

(1) BARLEY, WHEAT ↑〒SI_5
Proto-Indo-European *mṛk ‘seeds of barley, products derived from barley’ ? > Tocharian? >> Proto-Tibeto-Burman *mrə(k) ‘wheat, barley’ >> Old Chinese 來*mə.rˤək > *mə.rˤə ‘wheat, barley’ >> Proto-Tungusic *mirgi ‘barley (Hordeum vulgare)’ >> Proto-Koreanic *milk ‘wheat’ ~ Proto-Tungusic *murgi ‘barley’ >> Proto-Japonic *munki ‘wheat, barley’

Proto-Tibeto-Burman *mrə(k) ‘wheat, barley’
Hani (Caiyuan) mɤ³⁵ tsɿ̄³¹ ‘wheat’, Hani (Mojiang) mɛ³¹ tsɿ̄³¹ ‘straw (wheat)’, Jinuo mə⁴² tsi³³ / mɯ³¹ tsi⁴⁴ ‘wheat, straw (wheat)’, rGyalrong (Jinchuan Guaninqiao Wobzi) mjæ̌nfə̂n ‘wheat flour’, Laze (Xiangjiao) mie˧ ‘wheat bread’, Pumi (Jiulong) m̥e⁵⁵ ‘awn of wheat’, Qiang (Mawo) ʁlə ‘wheat’, Qiang (Taoping) ʁuə²⁴¹ ‘wheat’, Xumi mɛ̃⁵⁵ ‘wheat’, Limbu ma:si ‘wheat’, Bai (Jianchuan) mə̱³³ ‘wheat’. The meaning ‘barley’ is also found in Qiang ʁə ‘wheat, barley, etc.’ and rGBenzhen kɐr ‘wheat, barley’.

Proto-Tungusic *murgi < *mirgi ‘barley (Hordeum vulgare)’
Solon mụrgil ‘spring crops, spring-sown field, barley’, Jurchen mirɣei ‘product of agriculture’, Manchu muji ‘barley (Hordeum vulgare)’, Sibe muji ‘barley (Hordeum vulgare)’, Olcha muji ‘barley, oats’, Nanai muji ‘oats’, Ud. muji ~ muju 'barley', Oroch muji ‘barley’, mudi ‘Russian flour’

Proto-Koreanic *milk ‘wheat’
MK ·milh ‘wheat’, K mil ‘wheat’, JJ mil ~ mel, KB mil, KN mil, JN mil, JB mil, KW mil, CN mil, CB mil, KG mil

Proto- Japonic *munki ‘wheat, barley’
J mugi ‘wheat, barley’, OJ mugi1‘wheat, barley’, Kagoshima muʔ, Koshiki (Kamikoshiki) muːgi, Miyazaki mugi, Kumamoto mugi, Ōita mugi, Fukuoka mugi, Saga mugi, Fukue mugi ~ mun, Nagasaki mugi ‘wheat, barley, rye, oat’, Yamatohama (Amami) mugi, Asama (Amami) mugii, Yoron (Amami) mugi, Yonamine muzii (Okinawa), Shuri (Okinawa) muzi, Old Shuri muzi, Hirara (Miyako) mugï, Nagahama mugï (Miyako), Ikema (Miyako) mudzï, Ōgami (Miyako) mukï, Tarama (Miyako) mugï, Ishigaki (Yaeyama) muŋ, Hatoma (Yaeyama) muŋ, Hateruma (Yaeyama) muŋ, Kohama (Yaeyama) mui, Taketomi (Yaeyama) muŋ, Yonaguni muŋ, PR *mugi ‘barley’

【民】neRcEr (= strawbin or ★granary for storing paddy) 麦 (c-g)
【民】neRkaLajnciyam (= ★granary for paddy) 麦ラニャシヤム
【賛】mahAyava (= m. a kind of large ★barley L.) むギ (y-ki, v-g)

Similar to barley, wheat was domesticated in the Fertile Crescent area in the Near east around 10 000 BP. Between 7000 and 4500 BP, wheat and barley cultivation expanded into eastern Central Asia. Wheat grains reported from the Altai Mountains are dated to 3000-1500 cal. BC (Liu et al. 2019). Between 4500 BP and 3500 BP the Fertile Crescent crops were introduced to eastern China. Early wheat finds dating back to 2500-2000 cal. BC have been reported from the Shandong Peninsula but it was not until after 4000 BP that wheat and barley were grown on a significant scale (Boivin et al. 2012: 457, Liu et al. 2018). Wheat cultivation moved to China along a series of mountain corridors to the north of the Tibetan Plateau. Barley, on the other hand, may have spread into China via Tibet (Liu et al. 2018). The dispersal model for ‘barley’ fits the proposed borrowing chain: originating in Indo-European, the word may have been transferred via Tocharian to Tibeto-Burman and to Old Chinese, from where it entered Proto-Tungusic and was further borrowed into Proto-Koreanic and Proto-Japonic.
Based on reflexes such as proto-Celtic *mraki- ‘corn or seed of barley’ (e.g., in Old Irish mraich ‘malt’ or in Welsh brag ‘barley corns, malt’), Luvian marwali- ‘barley-stem’, Hittite marnuwa(nt)- ‘a kind of beer’ and Old Indic markaṭaka- ‘a kind of corn’, Blazek (2019) suggested to reconstruct Proto-Indo-European *mṛk ‘seeds of barley, products derived from barley’, but it cannot be excluded that these words are ultimately borrowed from a Central Asian substrate word rather than being inherited from Proto-Indo-European. Although the cereal terminology of Iranian is relatively well known, there is no plausible cognate available. A cognate candidate also lacks from Tocharian, but the Tocharian lexicon is not abundantly attested in the agricultural sphere (Peyrot 2018) and the word may thus have been lost.
Therefore, it cannot be excluded that a reflex of *mṛk ‘barley’ in Tocharian ultimately served as a model for Proto-Tibeto-Burman *mrə(k) ‘wheat, barley’. Similar to the borrowing chain for ‘horse’ in Section 3.2, the term for ‘wheat, barley’ may be a borrowing within the Sino-Tibetan family, from Proto-Tibeto-Burman into Sinitic. Old Chinese is the Chinese spoken from the beginning of written records around 3200 BP to 2300 BP, but the word for ‘barley, wheat’ probably arrived in Sinitic when the crop was introduced, that is between 4500 and 3500 BP. The late date of the adoption of barley and wheat in China contradicts the reconstruction of the root to Proto-Sino-Tibetan, as proposed by Schuessler (2007: 374) as well as its reconstruction to Proto-Transeurasian as proposed by Starostin (2008).
Archaeological evidence suggests that barley first arrived in the Southern Primorye through Chinese contact at the time of the Krounovska culture (2600–1800 BP), situated south of Lake Khanka (Wang & Robbeets 2020, Sergusheva & Vostretsov 2009: 214–215; Leipe et al. 2019). This observation yields a time frame for the borrowing of Old Chinese *mə.rˤə ‘barley, wheat’ into Proto-Tungusic *mirgi, the break-up of which we estimated at 1950 BP (ED Figure 1; SI 4). Only Jurchen, which was the official language of the Jin dynasty (1115-1234) of Northern China and Manchuria, reflects a form *mirgi, while the other Tungusic languages reflect *murgi. Both forms are probably related through labial attraction whereby the original high vowel i assimilated to the initial labial nasal m. The vocalism suggests that the word was transferred separately into Koreanic and Japonic.
It was Proto-Tungusic *mirgi that served as the model for Proto-Koreanic *milk ‘wheat’. Middle Korean has a final fricative in ·milh ‘wheat’ but it is known that velar lenition (*Ck > *Ch) has taken place in *Ck clusters at an early stage in Korean. Beckwith (2007) reconstructed Old Koguryo *miŋpar ‘grain’ in which the second syllable was connected with *par ‘second-growth paddy rice’. The first syllable *miŋ may mean ‘kind of grain’ and represent a borrowing of the Tungusic form.
It is safe to assume that during the Late Chulmun (4000-3300 BP) and Mumun (3300 – 2000 BP) period, contacts took place between Tungusic and Koreanic populations since in that time megalith dolmen constructions were spread from Manchuria to Korea and a bronze culture resembling that of the Lower Xiajiadian culture (4200-3600 BP) diffused from Siberia (Nelson 1993: 159-163; Barnes 1993: 153, 165).
The more recent Tungusic form pTg *murgi served as a model for pJ *munki ‘wheat, barley’. It is generally agreed that voiced stops in Japanese derive from prenasalized voiceless stops in Old Japanese and ultimately from nasal clusters (Robbeets 2005: 55-56). Clusters including voiced obstruents such as –rg- in pTg *murgi tend to be borrowed as a proto-Japanese nasal cluster *-nk-. The sound distribution of Ryukyuan cognates for the Japanese word indicates that borrowing may have occurred in proto-Japonic, that is before 2139 BP (ED Figure 1; SI 4). This indicates that Japonic and Tungusic speakers were in contact, probably at a time when Japonic was still spoken on the Korean Peninsula and had not yet spread to the Japanese Islands. Although the direction of the borrowing is opposite, the context of the borrowing reminds of the borrowing of miso ‘fermented bean paste’ explained in Section 3.4. below.


(2) IRON ↑〒SI_5
Proto-Tungusic *sele ‘iron’ ➝ *sele-me ‘made of iron’ >> Proto-Mongolic *seleme ‘sabre’

Proto-Tungusic *sele ‘iron’
Evenki sele, Even hel, Negidal sele, Solon sele, Sibe selǝ, Manchu sele, Jurchen sele, Olcha sele, Orok sele, Nanai sele, Oroch sele, Udehe sele ‘iron’

Proto-Mongolic *seleme ‘sword, sabre’
Written Mongolian seleme, selme ‘sword, sabre’, Khalkha selm, Burial helme, Kalmuck selmǝ, Ordos seleme, Dagur selmi:, selemij, Eastern Yoghur selme, Monguor silǝm

The Proto-Tungusic word *sele-me ‘made of iron’ derives from the noun *sele ‘iron’ and a denominal suffix *-mA deriving substances, which is well represented across the Tungusic languages (Benzing 1955: 1039). As the Mongolic languages lack such a denominal suffix, it is clear that the word is morphologically segmentable in Tungusic, but not in Mongolic. Therefore, the direction of the borrowing is from Tungusic into Mongolic. The borrowing has taken place before the break-up of Proto-Mongolic, dated at 939 BP (ED Figure 1; SI 4), but it may have occurred after the break-up of Proto-Tungusic in 1950 BP.


(3) PLOUGH ↑〒SI_5

Proto-Tungusic *ana- ‘to push apart’ → *anja ‘plough’ >> proto-Mongolic *anja ‘plough’
→ *anji 'adze'

Proto-Tungusic *ana- ‘to push apart’
Evenki ana- ‘to push, push apart’, Even a:n- ‘fell (trees), push, to set traps, dump wood’, an ‘trap’, Neg ana- ‘push’, Oroch ana- ‘push’, Ud. ana- ‘push’, Olcha ana- ‘push’
Orok ana- ‘push’, Na. ana- ‘push’, Ma. ana- ‘push, urge, prompt, extend (a deadline), to push wider (a battue, the beating of wood to flush game)’

Proto-Tungusic *anja 'plough', anji 'adze'
Ma. anja 'plough', anji- 'to hack, chop with an adze', anji 'adze', Olcha anja 'plough', Na. anja 'plough', Solon anjasu ‘plough’

proto-Mongolic *anja-sun ‘plough’ ~ *anji-sun ‘plough’
MMo. anjasun ‘plough’, WMo. anjisu(n) ‘plough’, Khal. anjis(an), Bur. anzaha(n), Ordos anjasu, anjus(u), andüs, Kalm. andsx, ancăsn (ancn), Dag anǰa:s, Eastern Yughur anǰagsən, Huzu Mgr. nʒ́asə, Minhe Mgr. (a)nƺasï, Baoan anʒ́isuŋ, Kgj anjasun, Dgx anjasuŋ ‘plough’

Agricultural tools such as hand ploughs were discovered at Neolithic sites in the Southern Primorye starting from the Zaisanovka culture (5300-2500 BP) (Sergusheva 2009: 210) If the Tungusic words *anja 'plough' and anji 'adze' are indeed derivations from a base verb *ana- ‘to push apart’ and an instrumental suffix *-ja (cf. Ulcha, Na. say-ja ‘sieve’), then the direction of the borrowing is from Tungusic into Mongolic. The palatal element in WMo. anjisu(n) ‘plough’ and Khal. anjis(an) may reflect the borrowing of *anji from Proto-Tungusic anji 'adze', while the other forms are borrowed from pTg *anja 'plough'. The collective suffix -sun was added in Mongolic. Mongolic forms with -d- are probably due to dissimilation with this suffix. The suffixed word was re-borrowed into Tungusic as Solon anjasu ‘plough’.
It is interesting to note that Middle Japanese has a compound adi-suki ‘a good plough’, in which the second element reflects suki ‘spade, plow, plough’. It cannot be excluded that the first element, which derives from pJ *anti may be a borrowing from the Tungusic word as well. The borrowing has taken place before the break-up of Proto-Mongolic, dated at 939 BP (ED Figure 1; SI 4) and before Middle Japanese (1200-400 BP).

cf. ■世界の鍬(くわ)、鋤(すき)、耕す   Grimm's_Law_in_J_6.html#spade
cf. アルタイ諸語 語彙対応比較表   f17_1#al.39  #39【英】 plow (犁)
【趣430. Sumer】 ★plow - tugsaga [★PLOW] (2x: Old Babylonian) wr. tug2-saga11; ĝeštug2-sig18; ĝeštug2-sa-ga; šu-saga11; ĝeštug2-sigx(|ŠE.KIN|); tugx(LAK483)-sig9 "a ★plow" 鋤(すき) (tug 無音) ◎
【趣430-2、赤 Akkadian】 spade - maršu [SPADE] wr. ĝešmar-šu "a spade" Akk. nashiptu; šaqû  鋤(すき) ◎
【趣430-3】 tug [★PLOW?] (54x: ED IIIb) wr. tugx(LAK483) "a kind of ★plow?" 鋤(すき) (t-s) ◎
【賛】TaGka (= (m. n. L.) a spade , ★hoe , hatchet , stonecutter's chisel) すき(鋤)
【民】kalappai (= 01 1. ★plough, ★ploughshare; 2. parts, as of a sacrifice) 鍬(くは) (l 無音)
【琉球】イザイ(いざい)/ 意味/ 犂(すき、鋤)/ 解説/ 牛馬に牽引させて、畑の土などを耕すための農具。今では機械化が進み、見た事がありませんが。。
【民】erutaTi-ttal (= 1. to ★plough; 2. to thresh out grain by making cattle tread over the stalks) イザイ
【民】Eruzavu (= 1. ★ploughing, tillage, agriculture; 2. extent of land that can be ploughed by two pairs of oxen in a day) イザイ
【琉球】■ユヂェイ    (名詞)  鋤(すき)。牛馬のひく鋤。ユヂャイともいう。
【民】uzavu (= 01 1. ★ploughing; 2. agriculture, husbandry) ユヂェイ、ユヂャイ
--
【賛】sIraka (= m. a ★plough MW. ; a porpoise L. ; the sun ib.) すき(鋤、犂)
【宮古口】すキ /sɿkɿ/ 多與 新鏡 動詞 皆すキ、すき、すかん 〈皆、與、多、新、鏡〉(鋤を入れて)耕す
【賛】sairIyaka (= m. `" turned up by the ★plough 鋤き(すき)。すきによって折り返された"' , Barleria Cristata Sus3r.) すキ
【宮古口】っふぁつ /ffatsɿ/ 多與 皆友 新鏡 来 名詞 〈全〉鍬
【賛】svahastikA (= f. ★hoe, hatchet.) つふぁすき → っふぁつ
-- 【賛】TaGka (= s. ★hoe, chisel, stamp.) すき(鋤)
【民】koTTuvAn2 (= ★hoe 鍬(くわ) with a long handle (TLS)) くわン (TT 無音)
【賛】kuddAla (= s. ★hoe, spade.) くわ (d 無音)、くだら、百済?(くだら)
【民】cARu-tal (= 01 1. to slip off; 2. to slip down, as from a tree; 3. to slant, incline, as a post; to deviate; 4. to flow, issue --tr. 1. to sweep the threshing-floor and gather scattered grain; 2. to ★hoe superficially 表面的に鍬を入れる, harrow 《農業》馬鍬、鋤他動。鋤で耕す) くわ (c-k)
【宮古口】かじ /kadʑi/多かでぃ乚 /kadiɭ/ 多與 新鏡 動詞 皆かじ、かどぅん 〈全〉(鍬で)耕す  〈皆、鏡〉(土を)掘る
【賛】kRS, karSati, -te (= ({kRSa3ti, -te}), pp. {kRSTa3} (q.v.) drag, draw; [[-,]] pull, tear, bend (a bow); draw furrows, ★plough (only {kR3Sati}); draw to one's self, get possession of, overpower. C. {karSayati} tug, pull, tear, extract; affict, vex (cf. {kRz} C.). I. {ca3rkRSati} ★plough.) かじ/かでぃ乚
c. 記紀万葉 古語: こじこじ、根こじ(ねこじ) = to dig
--
cf. 教育漢字 耕す cultivate, till, plow (UK: ★plough) 鋤く(すく)   f17#1.9
【賛】sukRSTa (= mfn. ★well-ploughed AitBr. ) たげーす、たがやす

Ancient borrowings from a Proto-Koreanic model ↑〒SI_5

Ancient borrowings from a Proto-Koreanic model are occasionally transmitted into Tungusic, mostly into Manchuric after the break-up of Proto-Tungusic, but more commonly the recipient language is Japonic or pre-Old Japanese. Basically, there are two types of ancient borrowings, depending on the time and space of the contact.
First, we find borrowings, such as the one for ‘bean paste’, dating back to the Bronze Age when ancestral forms of Japonic were still spoken on Peninsula. Here the early timing and location of the borrowing are supported by the distribution of cognates in the Ryukyuan languages and by the continued transmission of the borrowing from Japonic into Manchuric.
Second, there are more recent borrowings dating back to the Iron Age and Antiquity and transmitted into pre-Old Japanese when it was already spoken on the Japanese Islands. The second type includes cultural borrowings, such as the one for ‘silk’ taking place in the context of the Silkroad exchange of goods before the introduction of Buddhism around 550 AD as well as borrowings for items, such as ‘rice cake’, ‘measuring bowl’, ‘spade’ and ‘rake’ (see also Section 2.1.(9)) brought to the Nara area by Korean refugees, escaping the Silla unification (660-668) in the middle Asuka period (6th C to 710). These words can be easily identified as borrowings in pre-Old Japanese as they mostly lack Ryukyuan cognates.

(1) BEANPASTE ↑〒SI_5

Proto-Koreanic *micu ‘fermented bean paste’ >> Proto-Japonic *misə ‘fermented bean paste >> Proto-Manchuric *misu ‘fermented bean paste’

Proto-Koreanic *micu ~ mico ~ micʌ ‘fermented bean paste’
EMK micwu [mitsu] ‘fermented bean paste’, MK meycwu ~ mye·cwu ~ myeycwo ~ myecwo ~ meyco ‘soybean malt’, K meycwu ’soybean malt; malt made of soybean, salt and water’, JJ meycwi, KB meycwuk, KN mici, JB meycwu, JN micwu ~ meycwu, CB meyca, CN meycwu, KG meycwu, KW micwu

Proto-Japonic *miso ~ *misə ‘fermented bean paste’
J miso, OJ miso ‘fermented bean paste; a condiment used as a soup base and as a seasoning for various dishes. The semi-solid sediment that remains after the soy sauce is removed from the surface when fermenting malted and boiled soybean paste and placing it in in highly salted water’, Miyazaki, Kagoshima/ Koshiki/ Kumamoto/Ōita/Fukuoka /Saga/Fukue /Nagasaki miso ‘fermented bean paste’, Yamatohama (Amami) misu, Asama (Amami) misjuu,Yoron (Amami) misju, Yonamine (Okinawa) misuu, Shuri (Okinawa) Nsu / misu, Old Shuri Nsu, Hirara (Miyako) msu, Nagahama (Miyako) msu, Ikema (Miyako) ŋsu, Tarama (Miyako) mʃu, Ishigaki (Yaeyama) miʃu , Hatoma (Yaeyama) misu, Hateruma (Yaeyama) miʃu, Kohama (Yaeyama) miʃu, Yonaguni nsuo, PR *misu ‘fermented bean paste’

【賛】mASapiSTa (= n. ground 〔石・豆などを臼などで〕細かくした、挽いた、挽いて粉末にした ★beans 挽いた豆、つぶした豆 Ka1tyS3r.) 味噌(みそ)
【民】matam (= 02 1. exhilaration, exultation, joy; 2. strength 強み; 3. ★pride 自慢, arrogance 高慢ちき, presumption; 4. animal or vegetable gluten 動物や野菜のグルテン; essence エキス・本質, juice; 5. honey; 6. madness, frenzy; 7. wantonness, lasciviousness; venereal heat; 8. richness of land, fertility; 9. inebriety, intoxication; 10. musk; 11. rock alum; 12. semen; 13. abundance; 14. greatness) 味噌ノ(みそノ)
c. ここに記してあること、どこが味噌だか分る?。
--- ①味噌汁のみそ、脳みそのみそ②自慢・良い所・本質③生意気
c. つまり、脳みそ、味噌汁の味噌、手前みそ、は、同源と判明した。
【民】tan2amatam (= ★pride of wealth 富の自慢) たにゃあまたむ → 手前またむ → 手前味噌
【宮古口】ンつぅ /mtsu/多ンしゅ /mɕu/来ンそ /mso/ 多與 新鏡 来 名詞 〈全〉味噌
cf. 島の散歩 #174   んつす  味噌汁
【賛】mudgayUSa (= n. ★bean-soup L. 味噌汁) むーつゅしゃ、みそしゃウ、【宮古島キッズネット】んっす [= みそ汁]

Proto-Manchuric *misu ‘fermented bean paste’
Manchu misu, misun ‘fermented bean paste; a thick, salty, reddish vinegar made by fermenting pea- or bean-meal paste with salt, and sometimes with sharped spices such as peppers, used in flavoring foods, soya and pickles’ (Zakharov 1875), Jurchen misu, is(g)un ‘bean paste’, Sibe misun ‘fermented bean paste’

Miso, which is still popular as a condiment in East Asia has a long history in the Transeurasian region (Rozycki 2001). The borrowing chain indicates that the technique of fermenting bean paste was developed on the Korean Peninsula by Koreanic speakers who transferred it to Manchuric speakers in Manchuria through intermediary of Japonic speakers.
The original model word can be traced to Proto-Koreanic *micu. The word is first attested in the Kyerim Yusa, phonetically represented as [mitsu]. The high front vowel underwent so-called “i-breaking” in the history of Korean, whereby the /i/ assimilated properties of the vowel of the second syllable. The phoneme /c/ was still pronounced as a dental affricate [ts] in Early Middle Korean. The closest imitation within the limits of the Proto-Japonic sound inventory, which lacked a phoneme /c/, was to imitate the dental affricate with the phoneme /s/. The presence of /s/ in the Manchuric words suggests that the model was Japonic rather than Koreanic because the Manchuric sound inventory has a phoneme /c/ to imitate the Korean dental affricate.
The evidence for the Old Japanese word for ‘bean paste’, written in logographic Chinese characters (not in phonographic man’yōgana) goes back to a wooden tablet (mokkan) dug up from the old Nara capital of Heijo (Bentley, pc). This fragment preserves the following inscription: 御末醤一石二斗, i.e. HON-“bean paste” reads as miso. The Wamyoshō, a Chinese to Middle Japanese dictionary compiled in the mid Heian period has the same kanji (末醤) glossed as miso (美蘇). 
As we do not know the quality of the final vowel in Old Japanese, the word can go back to both *miso or *misə, a mid back vowel would be a plausible imitation of Proto-Koreanic *mico, while a mid-central vowel would be a more plausible imitation of the alternant Proto-Koreanic *micʌ.
The word was transferred into Japonic before its primary breakup, i.e. before 2139 BP (ED Figure 1; SI 4). Reminiscent of the Wanderwort ‘wheat, barley’ in Section 3.3. above, this implies that the borrowing from Koreanic may have taken place when the Japonic speakers were still present on the Korean Peninsula, before their spread to the Japanese Islands.
The ancestral Manchuric language borrowed proto-Japonic *miso ~ *misə as *misu(n) with a final high back vowel and an occasional word-final nasal. This is probably due to morphological analogy with a large group of food terms on final -sun in Manchuric, resulting from the borrowing of Mongolic words for food items with the collective suffix -sUn, e.g. Ma. fursun 'shoots, sprouts', Ma. alisun ‘grain that has sprouted from lost or abandoned seeds', Ma. amsun ‘offerings of wine and food to a deity’, Ma. ekšun ‘the dregs of yellow rice wine’, etc.
The borrowing of the Japonic word ‘beanpaste’ into the Manchuric branch of Tungusic must have taken place between the primary break-up of Proto-Tungusic and the break-up of Manchuric, notably between 1950 and 900 BP (ED Figure 1; SI 4). In this period, some Japonic speakers had already left to the Japanese Islands, while other pockets of Japonic speakers remained on the Korean Peninsula until the linguistic diversity of the Peninsula became completely erased through the Silla unification (660-668 AD).

(2) SILK ↑〒SI_5
Old Chinese *kʷen-s ‘a kind of silk material’ >> Pre-Middle-Korean *kyǝn ‘silk’ >> Pre-Old Japanese *kinu ‘silk’

Old Chinese *kʷen-s ‘a kind of silk material’
This term was borrowed in just a few Tibeto-Burman languages, belonging to different subgroups, such as Tangut (Qiangic) ŋwər ‘coloured silk’, Qiang (Mawo/ Qiangic) ʁuɛʴ ‘fabric (silk)’, Tibetan (Tibetic) khruɦu tse ‘fabric (silk)’ and Meithei (Kuki-Chin) kəbrəŋ ‘silk’

Pre-Middle Korean *kyǝn ‘silk’
MK kyen-pho ‘silk, linen and cotton’, K kyen ‘silk’ (Sino-Korean)

pre-Old Japanese/ Proto-Japonic *kinu ‘silk’
OJ ki1nu ‘silk; garment’, J kinu ‘silk’ , Nagahama kinu, Hirara kɨN, Tarama kɨN, Ishigaki kɨŋ

cf. 教育漢字 絹 きぬ silk   f17_1#n.158
【民】kAmpu (= 1. flower-stalk, peduncle, pedicel;, leafstalk; 2. flowering branch; 3. straight handle, shaft, haft; 4. banboo; 5. coloured broders of a cloth; 6. a kind of ★silk cloth; 7. punpkin.) きぬぷ、きぬ (p-n)
【チベ】kun dga'i gos /kun ge go/ (= - the finest satin or ★silk cloth [RY]) きぬ... △
c. 【チベ】kun の定義 は不明。http://english-tibetan-dictionary.tumblr.com/tagged/silk
【羌】koɕʨæn/ kuxɕɑn (= silk) きちゃちゃん → きぬ  △
【琉球】n■イーチュ  (= 絹)
【賛】paTTa (= ; coloured or fine cloth , woven ★silk (= %{kauzeya}) Ka1v.) イーチュ (p 無音)、はた(秦)
【民】paTTu (= 02 1. ★silk cloth, woven ★silk; 2. ★silk yarn; 3. sack cloth of Indian hemp) イーチュ (p 無音)
【民】alIcA (= 02* ★silk cloth five yards long, which has a short wavy line pattern running in the length on either side) イーチュ

Silk was a precious good, widely used for gifts, tribute, and exchange, leading to the development of Silk roads during the early Han period (206 BC-220 AD). Silk production is thought to have been introduced from China, probably through Korean intermediary, together with sericulture in the Middle Yayoi period (Barnes 1993: 173; Omura and Kizawa 2017; see SI 7). As such the use of silk for weaving postdates the use of bast fibers, which goes back to Early Yayoi.
Old Chinese *kʷen-s ‘a kind of silk material’ is the model for Sino-Korean kyen ‘silk’. It is glossed as ‘a kind of silk material’ because it is a type of silk product in contrast to the Old Chinese word 絲 *[s]ə ‘silk’, which represents the original material. The loss of k- was relatively late in the history of Chinese: It is preserved in Middle Chinese, and Early Mandarin as spoken during the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368). This observation situates the borrowing of the word into Koreanic in the first millennium or earlier. The labial glide in the reconstruction may be a mere prosodic factor, which was therefore not copied into Proto-Koreanic.
The Proto-Koreanic word was probably transferred to pre-Old Japanese before 550 AD. The relatively early dating of the borrowing is supported by a phonological phenomenon, known as Pre-Old Japanese mid vowel raising, i.e. the raising of the vowel *e to *i. As mid vowel raising was not applied to borrowings related to Buddhism such as OJ tera ‘Buddhist temple’ and OJ potoke ‘Buddha’, we can deduce that this phenomenon took place before the introduction of Buddhism into Japan in the first half of the 6th century AD (Frellesvig & Whitman 2008: 38). Since the pre-Old Japanese word for ‘silk’ was borrowed from a model yielding the closest imitation *kenu with *e, but raised its original vowel to *i, the borrowing must thus have taken place before the application of mid vowel raising, i.e. before 550 AD. The vocalism of the Nagahama word kinu suggests that it was a borrowing from Mainland Japanese. However a few other Ryukyuan languages, such as Hirara, Tarama and Ishigaki seem to preserve a cognate for this word. If this is indeed the case the word can be reconstructed